Buka menu utama

Andrew Carnegie /kɑːrˈnɡi/ kar-NAY-gee[3][4] (25 November 1835  – 11 Ogos 1919) ialah seorang usahawan, ahli perniagaan, dan dermawan Scotland-Amerika. Carnegie mengetuai pengembangan industri keluli Amerika pada abad ke-19 dan menjadi salah satu daripada orang-orang Amerika terkaya dalam sejarah.[5] Beliau menjadi dermawan terkemuka di Amerika Syarikat dan di Empayar Britain. Dalam tempoh 18 tahun yang lalu, beliau memberi kira-kira $ 350 juta (secara konservatif $ 5.15 bilion pada 2019 dolar) kepada badan amal, yayasan, dan universiti - hampir 90 peratus kekayaannya.[6] Perkara 1889 beliau yang menyatakan "Injil Kekayaan" menyeru orang kaya untuk menggunakan kekayaan mereka untuk memperbaiki masyarakat, dan merangsang gelombang kedermawanan.

Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing slightly left, 1913.jpg
Carnegie in 1913
Kelahiran(1835-11-25)25 November 1835
Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland
Meninggal dunia11 Ogos 1919(1919-08-11) (umur 83)
Lenox, Massachusetts, U.S.
DikebumikanSleepy Hollow Cemetery, Sleepy Hollow, New York, U.S.
PekerjaanIndustrialis, dermawan[1]
Nilai bersihUS$372 bilion in 2014 dollars[2]
PasanganLouise Whitfield (k. 1887)
AnakMargaret Carnegie Miller
Ibu bapaWilliam Carnegie
Margaret Morrison Carnegie
SaudaraThomas M. Carnegie (Brother) George Lauder (1st Cousin) George Lauder, Sr. (Uncle)
Tandatangan
Andrew Carnegie signature.svg

Carnegie dilahirkan di Dunfermline, Scotland, dan berhijrah ke Amerika Syarikat bersama ibu bapanya pada tahun 1848 pada usia 12 tahun. Carnegie memulakan kerja sebagai telegraf, dan pada tahun 1860-an telah melakukan pelaburan dalam kereta api, kereta api kereta api, jambatan, dan derrick minyak. Beliau mengumpul kekayaan selanjutnya sebagai jurujual bon, menaikkan wang untuk perusahaan Amerika di Eropah. Beliau membina Carnegie Steel Company, Pittsburgh, yang dijual kepada JP Morgan pada tahun 1901 dengan harga $ 303,450,000. [7] Ia menjadi U.S. Steel Corporation. Selepas menjual Carnegie Steel, beliau melepasi John D. Rockefeller sebagai orang terkaya Amerika selama beberapa tahun akan datang.

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ Andrew Carnegie. Encyclopedia.com. 
  2. ^ "The 10 Richest People of All Time". Money. 
  3. ^ But commonly pronounced /ˈkɑːrnəɡi/ KAR--ghee or /kɑːrˈnɛɡi/ kar-NEG-ee
  4. ^ MacKay, p. 29.
  5. ^ listed at 372 billion 2014 USD by Jacob Davidson, time.com The 10 Richest People of All Time "Rockefeller gets all the press, but Andrew Carnegie may be the richest American of all time. The Scottish immigrant sold his company, U.S. Steel, to J. P. Morgan for $480 million in 1901. That sum equates to slightly over 2.1 percent of U.S. GDP at the time, giving Carnegie an economic power equivalent to $372 billion in 2014."
  6. ^ Andrew Carnegie's Legacy
  7. ^ Hawke, David Freeman (1980). John D. The Founding Father of the Rockefellers. Harper & Row. m/s. 210. ISBN 978-0060118136. 

Bacaan lanjutSunting

  • Bostaph, Samuel. (2015). Andrew Carnegie: An Economic Biography. Lexington Books, Lanham, MD. ISBN 978-0739189832; 125pp online review
  • Ewing, Heather. (2014). Life of a Mansion: The Story of Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum. Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, New York. ISBN 978-0-910503-71-6
  • Goldin, Milton. "Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Baron Myth". In Myth America: A Historical Anthology, Volume II. 1997. Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas. (editors.) Brandywine Press, St. James, NY. ISBN 1-881089-97-5
  • Hendrick, Burton Jesse/ The life of Andrew Carnegie (2 vol. 1933) vol 2 online; scholarly biography
  • Josephson; Matthew. (1938). The Robber Barons: The Great American Capitalists, 1861–1901 ISBN 99918-47-99-5
  • Krass, Peter. (2002). Carnegie Wiley. ISBN 0-471-38630-8, scholarly biography
  • Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe (1992). The Politics of Knowledge: The Carnegie Corporation, Philanthropy, and Public Policy. U of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226467801. 
  • Lester, Robert M. (1941). Forty Years of Carnegie Giving: A Summary of the Benefactions of Andrew Carnegie and of the Work of the Philanthropic Trusts Which He Created. C. Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Livesay, Harold C. (1999). Andrew Carnegie and the Rise of Big Business, 2nd Edition. ISBN 0-321-43287-8 short biography by a scholar; online free
  • Lorenzen, Michael. (1999). "Deconstructing the Carnegie Libraries: The Sociological Reasons Behind Carnegie's Millions to Public Libraries". Illinois Libraries. 81 (2): 75–78. 
  • Patterson, David S. "Andrew Carnegie's quest for world peace." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 114#5 (1970): 371-383. online
  • Rees, Jonathan. (1997). "Homestead in Context: Andrew Carnegie and the Decline of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers." Pennsylvania History 64(4): 509–533. ISSN 0031-4528
  • VanSlyck, Abigail A. "'The Utmost Amount of Effective Accommodation': Andrew Carnegie and the Reform of the American Library." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 1991 50(4): 359–383. ISSN 0037-9808 (Fulltext: in Jstor)
  • Wall, Joseph Frazier. Andrew Carnegie (1989). ISBN 0-8229-5904-6 (Along with Nasaw the most detailed scholarly biography) online free

Pautan luarSunting