Kaldera Yellowstone ialah kaldera gunung berapi dan supervolkano di Taman Negara Yellowstone di Barat Amerika Syarikat, kadang-kadang disebut sebagai Supervolkano Yellowstone. Kaldera dan kebanyakan taman terletak di sudut barat laut Wyoming. Ciri-ciri utama ukuran kaldera kira-kira 34 dengan 45 batu (55 oleh 72 km).[4]

Kaldera Yellowstone
Yellowstone River in Hayden Valley.jpg
Bahagian timur laut Kaldera Yellowstone, dengan Sungai Yellowstone mengalir melalui Lembah Hayden dan pinggir kaldera di kejauhan
Titik tertinggi
Ketinggian9,203[1] ka (2,805 m)
Koordinat44°24′N 110°42′W / 44.400°N 110.700°W / 44.400; -110.700 (Yellowstone Caldera)Koordinat: 44°24′N 110°42′W / 44.400°N 110.700°W / 44.400; -110.700 (Yellowstone Caldera)
Geografi
LokasiTaman Negara Yellowstone, Wyoming, Amerika Syarikat
Induk banjaranPergunungan Rocky
Peta topoTaman Negara Yellowstone USGS
Geologi
Usia batuan2,100,000–70,000 years[3]
Jenis gunungKaldera[2] dan supervolkano
Pendakian
Laluan paling mudahJalan, bas, auto

Kaldera terbentuk pada tiga penghujung terakhir sejak 2.1 juta tahun lalu: letusan Rabung Huckleberry 2.1 juta tahun yang lalu (yang menjadikan Island Park Caldera dan Huckleberry Ridge Tuff); letusan Air Terjun Mesa 1.3 juta tahun yang lalu (yang menciptakan Henry's Fork Caldera dan Mesa Falls Tuff; dan Letusan Lava Creek kira-kira 630,000 tahun yang lalu (yang menciptakan Yellowstone Caldera dan Lava Creek Tuff).[5]

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ USGS. "Yellowstone Volcano Observatory". United States Geological Survey. 
  2. ^ "Yellowstone". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1205-01-. Diperolehi December 31, 2008.
  3. ^ Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Smith, Robert B.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Heasler, Henry (May 10, 2005). "Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions—What's in Yellowstone's Future? – U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005–3024". United States Geological Survey. 
  4. ^ as determined by geological field work conducted by Bob Christiansen of the United States Geological Survey in the 1960s and 1970s.
  5. ^ Naomi E Matthews et al., 2015, "Age of the Lava Creek supereruption and magma chamber assembly at Yellowstone based on 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating of sanidine and zircon crystals" DOI: 10.1002/2015GC005881

Bacaan lanjutSunting

  • Breining, Greg (2007). Super Volcano: The Ticking Time Bomb beneath Yellowstone National Park. St. Paul, MN: Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-2925-2. A popularized scientific look at the Yellowstone area's geological past and potential future 
  • Vazquez, J.A.; Reid, M.R. (2002). "Time scales of magma storage and differentiation of voluminous rhyolites at Yellowstone caldera". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. Wyoming. 144 (3): 274–285. Bibcode:2002CoMP..144..274V. doi:10.1007/s00410-002-0400-7. 
  • Sutherland, Wayne; Sutherland, Judy (2003). Yellowstone Farewell. Spur Ridge. A novel looking at an eruption in the Yellowstone Caldera written by a practicing Wyoming geologist. Contains a wealth of technical details on the geology of western Wyoming 

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