Kematian Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler telah membunuh diri dengan tembakan di kepala pada 30 April 1945 di dalam Führerbunker di Berlin.[a][b][c] Isterinya Eva Hitler (née Braun) membunuh diri bersamanya dengan menelan racun sianida.[d] Petang itu, mengikut arahan Hitler terlebih dahulu, mayat mereka telah dibawa menaiki tangga melalui pintu kecemasan bunker, disimbah petrol dan dibakar di taman Reich Chancellery di luar bunker.[1] Rekod dalam arkib Soviet menunjukkan bahawa mayat mereka yang rentung telah ditemui dan dikebumikan di lokasi rahsia yang berturutan[e] sehingga tahun 1970, apabila kubur mereka sekali lagi digali semula, dibakar, dan abunya dibuang.[f]

Muka surat depan suratkhabar Angkatan Tentera A.S., Stars and Stripes, 2 Mei 1945

Terdapat laporan yang berbeza tentang sebab kematian; salah satu menyatakan bahawa Hitler meninggal dunia disebabkan racun sahaja[g] dan satu lagi beliau meninggal dunia akibat terkena tembakan sendiri yang disengajakan sambil menggigit kapsul sianida.[h] Para sejarawan kontemporari telah menolak akuan-akuan ini samada sebagai propaganda Soviet[i][j] atau cubaan kompromi untuk meleraikan kesimpulan yang berbeza.[h][k] Seorang saksi yang direkodkan bahawa mayat itu menunjukkan tanda-tanda telah ditembak melalui mulut, tetapi ini terbukti tidak benar.[l][m] Terdapat juga kontroversi mengenai kesahihan serpihan tengkorak dan rahang yang ditemui.[n][o] Pada tahun 2009, penyelidik berbangsa Amerika melakukan ujian DNA ke atas tengkorak yang mana pegawai-pegawai Soviet telah lama percaya ini adalah Hitler. Ujian dan pemeriksaan mendedahkan bahawa tengkorak itu sebenarnya seorang perempuan yang berumur kurang daripada 40 tahun. Serpihan rahang yang telah ditemui tidak diuji.[2][3][p]

Lihat jugaSunting

NotaSunting

  1. ^ "... Günsche stated he entered the study to inspect the bodies, and observed Hitler ... sat ... sunken over, with blood dripping out of his right temple. He had shot himself with his own pistol, a PPK 7.65." (Fischer 2008, p. 47).
  2. ^ "... Blood dripped from a bullet hole in his right temple ..."(Kershaw 2008, p. 955).
  3. ^ "...30 April ... During the afternoon Hitler shot himself..." (MI5 staff 2011).
  4. ^ "... her lips puckered from the poison." (Beevor 2002, p. 359).
  5. ^ "... [the bodies] were deposited initially in an unmarked grave in a forest far to the west of Berlin, reburied in 1946 in a plot of land in Magdeberg." (Kershaw 2008, p. 958).
  6. ^ "In 1970 the Kremlin finally disposed of the body in absolute secrecy ... body ... was exhumed and burned." (Beevor 2002, p. 431).
  7. ^ "... both committing suicide by biting their cyanide ampoules." (Erickson 1983, p. 606).
  8. ^ a b "... we have a fair answer ... to the version of ... Russian author Lev Bezymenski ... Hitler did shoot himself and did bite into the cyanide capsule, just as Professor Haase had clearly and repeatedly instructed ... " (O'Donnell 2001, pp. 322–323)
  9. ^ "... New versions of Hitler's fate were presented by the Soviet Union according to the political needs of the moment ..." (Eberle & Uhl 2005, p. 288).
  10. ^ "The intentionally misleading account of Hitler's death by cyanide poisoning put about by Soviet historians ... can be dismissed."(Kershaw 2001, p. 1037).
  11. ^ "... most Soviet accounts have held that Hitler also [Hitler and Eva Braun] ended his life by poison ... there are contradictions in the Soviet story ... these contradictions tend to indicate that the Soviet version of Hitler's suicide has a political colouration."(Fest 1974, p. 749).
  12. ^ "Axmann elaborated on his testimony when questioned about his "assumption" that Hitler had shot himself through the mouth."(Joachimsthaler 1999, p. 157).
  13. ^ "... the version involving a 'shot in the mouth' with secondary injuries to the temples must be rejected ... the majority of witnesses saw an entry wound in the temple.. according to all witnesses there was no injury to the back of the head." (Joachimsthaler 1999, p. 166).
  14. ^ "... the only thing to remain of Hitler was a gold bridge with porcelain facets from his upper jaw and the lower jawbone with some teeth and two bridges." (Joachimsthaler 1999, p. 225).
  15. ^ "Hitler's jaws ... had been retained by SMERSH, while the NKVD kept the cranium." (Beevor 2002, p. 431)
  16. ^ "Deep in the Lubyanka, headquarters of Russia's secret police, a fragment of Hitler's jaw is preserved as a trophy of the Red Army's victory over Nazi Germany. A fragment of skull with a bullet hole lies in the State Archive". (Halpin & Boyes 2009).

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PetikanSunting

  1. ^ Kershaw 2008, m/s. 956.
  2. ^ CNN staff 2009.
  3. ^ Goñi 2009.

RujukanSunting

  • Bellamy, Chris (2007). Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War. New York: Alfred F. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-41086-4.
  • Beevor, Antony (2002). Berlin – The Downfall 1945. New York: Viking-Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-03041-5.
  • CNN staff (11 December 2009). "Russians insist skull fragment is Hitler's". CNN. Dicapai pada 1 October 2013.
  • Dolezal, Robert (2004). Truth about History: How New Evidence Is Transforming the Story of the Past. Pleasantville, NY: Readers Digest. halaman 185–6. ISBN 0-7621-0523-2.
  • Eberle, Henrik; Uhl, Matthias, para penyunting (2005). The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler's Personal Aides. New York: Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-366-1.
  • Erickson, John (1983). The Road to Berlin: Stalin's War with Germany: Volume 2. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-77238-5.
  • Fest, Joachim C. (1974). Hitler. New York: Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-15-141650-9.
  • Fischer, Thomas (2008). Soldiers of the Leibstandarte. Winnipeg: J.J. Fedorowicz. ISBN 978-0-921991-91-5.
  • Goñi, Uki (27 September 2009). "Tests on skull fragment cast doubt on Adolf Hitler suicide story". The Guardian. London. Dicapai pada 1 October 2013.
  • Halpin, Tony; Boyes, Roger (9 December 2009). "Battle of Hitler's skull prompts Russia to reveal all". The Times. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 29 June 2011. Dicapai pada 1 October 2013.
  • Horrabin, J.F. (1946). Vol. X: May 1944 – August 1945. An Atlas-History of the Second Great War. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson & Sons. OCLC 464378076.
  • Isachenkov, Vladimir (20 February 1993). "Russians say they have bones from Hitler's skull". Gadsen Times. Associated Press. Dicapai pada 11 January 2015.
  • Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999) [1995]. The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, The Evidence, The Truth. London: Brockhampton Press. ISBN 978-1-86019-902-8.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2001) [2000]. Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis. 2. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-027239-0.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.
  • Linge, Heinz (2009). With Hitler to the End. Frontline Books–Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60239-804-7.
  • MI5 staff (2011). "Hitler's last days". Her Majesty's Security Service website. Dicapai pada 1 October 2013.
  • O'Donnell, James P. (2001) [1978]. The Bunker. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80958-3.
  • Petrova, Ada; Watson, Peter (1995). The Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-03914-6.
  • Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.
  • Rosenberg, Steven (3 September 2009). "I was in Hitler's suicide bunker". BBC News. Dicapai pada 1 October 2013.
  • Vinogradov, V. K.; Pogonyi, J.F.; Teptzov, N.V. (2005). Hitler's Death: Russia's Last Great Secret from the Files of the KGB. London: Chaucer Press. ISBN 978-1-904449-13-3.

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