Perbezaan antara semakan "Robert Boyle"

213 bait dibuang ,  11 tahun lalu
Boyle's great merit as a scientific investigator is that he carried out the principles which [[Francis Bacon (philosopher)|Francis Bacon]] preached in the ''[[Novum Organum]]''. Yet he would not avow himself a follower of Bacon, or indeed of any other teacher. On several occasions he mentions that in order to keep his judgment as unprepossessed as might be with any of the modern theories of philosophy, until he was "provided of experiments" to help him judge of them, he refrained from any study of the [[atomism|Atomical]] and the [[René Descartes|Cartesian]] systems, and even of the Novum Organum itself, though he admits to "transiently consulting" them about a few particulars. Nothing was more alien to his mental temperament than the spinning of hypotheses. He regarded the acquisition of knowledge as an end in itself, and in consequence he gained a wider outlook on the aims of scientific inquiry than had been enjoyed by his predecessors for many centuries. This, however, did not mean that he paid no attention to the practical application of science nor that he despised knowledge which tended to use.
 
Boyle was an [[alchemy|alchemist]]; and believing the [[wikt:Transmutation|transmutation]] of metals to be a possibility, he carried out experiments in the hope of effecting it; and he was instrumental in obtaining the repeal, in 1689, of the statute of [[Henry IV of England|Henry IV]] against [[Mines Royal Act 1689|multiplying]] [[gold]] and [[silver]]. With all the important work he accomplished in [[physics]] – the enunciation of [[Boyle's law]], the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation of [[sound]], and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water, on [[specific gravity|specific gravities]] and [[refraction|refractive]] powers, on [[crystal]]s, on [[electricity]], on [[colour]], on [[hydrostatics]], etc. – [[chemistry]] was his peculiar and favourite study. His first book on the subject was ''The Sceptical Chymist'', published in 1661, in which he criticized the "experiments whereby vulgar [[Spagyric|Spagyrists]] are wont to endeavour to evince their [[Salt]], [[Sulphur]] and [[Mercury (element)|Mercury]] to be the true Principles of Things.". For him chemistry was the science of the composition of substances, not merely an adjunct to the arts of the alchemist or the physician. He advanced towards the modern view of elements as the undecomposable constituents of material bodies; and understanding the distinction between [[mixture |mixture]]s and [[compound (chemistry)|compound]]s, he made considerable progress in the technique of detecting their ingredients, a process which he designated by the term "analysis". He further supposed that the elements were ultimately composed of [[Subatomic particle|particle]]s of various sorts and sizes, into which, however, they were not to be resolved in any known way. Applied chemistry had to thank him for improved methods and for an extended knowledge of individual substances. He also studied the chemistry of [[combustion]] and of [[Respiration (physiology)|respiration]], and conducted experiments in [[physiology]], where, however, he was hampered by the "tenderness of his nature" which kept him from anatomical [[dissection]]s, especially of living animals, though he knew them to be "most instructing".
 
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Boyle merupakan pengamal alkhemi; dan percaya kemungkinan tranmutasi logam, dia melakukan ujikaji dengan harapan melaksanakannya; dan dia merupakan orang bagi membatalkan statut [[Henry IV of England|Henry IV]] bagi [[Mines Royal Act 1689|multiplying]] [[gold]] and [[silver]] pada tahun 1689. Dengan semua kerja penting yang dicapainya dalam [[fizik]] – the enunciation of [[hukum Boyle]], jumpaan bagi peranan udara dalam penghasilan bunyi, dan penyiasatan berkenaan kuasa melampai air membeku, berkenaan graviti khusus ("specific gravity") dan kuasa biasan, pada kristal, berkenaan eletrik, berkenaan warna, berkenaan [[hidrostatik]], dll. – [[kimia]] merupakan kajian utama dan kegemarannya. Buku pertamanya berkenaan tajuk itu merupakan ''The Sceptical Chymist'', diterbitkan pada tahun 1661, dalam mana dia mengkritik "ujikaji di mana Spagyric kasar cenderung berusaha untuk membuktikan bahawa [[garam]], [[belerang]] dan [[raksa]] mereka merupakan "Principles of Things" sebenar". Bagi dirinya kimia merupakan sains komposisi sebatian, bukan semata-mata sampingan kepada seni kimia atau fizik. Dia memajukan pandangan moden bagi unsur sebagai bahan tidak boleh diurai bagi benda; dan pemahaman antar perbezaan antara campuran dan sebatian, dia membuat kemajuan besar dalam teknik mengesan bahan dalamnya, proses yang dikenalinya sebagai "analisa". Lebih lanjut lagi dia mencadangkan bahawa unsur akhirnya terdiri daripada zarah subatomik pelbagai saiz dan jenis, dalam mana, bagaimanapun, ia tidak dapat diselesaikan dalam sebarang cara. Applied chemistry had to thank him for improved methods and for an extended knowledge of individual substances. He also studied the chemistry of [[combustion]] and of [[Respiration (physiology)|respiration]], and conducted experiments in [[physiology]], where, however, he was hampered by the "tenderness of his nature" which kept him from anatomical [[dissection]]s, especially of living animals, though he knew them to be "most instructing".
Selain sibuk menjadi falsafah semulajadi, Boyle menghabiskan banyak masa kepada [[theologi]], menunjukkan kecenderungan ke arah pratikal dan tidak menghiraukan polemik kontrovesi. Semasa pemulihan Inggeris dia diterima baik di istana, dan pada tahun 1665 memungkinkan dia menerima kedudukan sebagai provostship bagi Kolej Eton, jika dia menyertai paderi; tetapi dia menolak berasaskan bahawa penulisannya berkenaan keagamaan lebih berkesan sekiranya ia ditulis oleh orang awam dan bukannya dari paderi berbayar Gereja. Sebagai direktor [[British East India Company|Syarikat India Timur]] dia menghabiskan sejumlah besar wang bagi pengembangan agama Kristian di Timur, menyumbang dengan mudah kepada masyarakat mubaligh, dan membiayai penterjemahan [[Bible]] atau sebahagian darinya kedalam pelbagai bahasa. Dia mengasaskan [[Syarahan Boyle]], bertujuan mempertahankan agama Kristian dari orang yang dianggapnya sebagi kafir ganas "notorious infidels, terutamanya [[atheist]], [[Deism]], [[Pagan]], [[Yahudi]] dan [[Muslim]]", dengan syarat bahawa pertikaian sesama Kristian tidak disebutkan. Pada tahun 2004, Syarahan Boyle dibangkitkan kembali di London.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.stmarylebow.co.uk/?Boyle_Lecture | title = The Boyle Lecture | work = St. Marylebow Church}}</ref>
 
Selain sibuk menjadisebagai ahli falsafah semulajadi, Boyle menghabiskan banyak masa kepada [[theologi]], menunjukkan kecenderungan ke arah pratikal dan tidak menghiraukan polemik kontrovesi. Semasa pemulihan Inggeris dia diterima baik di istana, dan pada tahun 1665 memungkinkan dia menerima kedudukan sebagai provostship bagi Kolej Eton, jika dia menyertai paderi; tetapi dia menolak berasaskan bahawa penulisannya berkenaan keagamaan lebih berkesan sekiranya ia ditulis oleh orang awam dan bukannya dari paderi berbayar Gereja. Sebagai direktor [[British East India Company|Syarikat India Timur]] dia menghabiskan sejumlah besar wang bagi pengembangan agama Kristian di Timur, menyumbang dengan mudah kepada masyarakat mubaligh, dan membiayai penterjemahan [[Bible]] atau sebahagian darinya kedalam pelbagai bahasa. Dia mengasaskan [[Syarahan Boyle]], bertujuan mempertahankan agama Kristian dari orang yang dianggapnya sebagi kafir ganas "notorious infidels, terutamanya [[atheist]], [[Deism]], [[Pagan]], [[Yahudi]] dan [[Muslim]]", dengan syarat bahawa pertikaian sesama Kristian tidak disebutkan. Pada tahun 2004, Syarahan Boyle dibangkitkan kembali di London.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.stmarylebow.co.uk/?Boyle_Lecture | title = The Boyle Lecture | work = St. Marylebow Church}}</ref>
 
== Personaliti ==
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