Perbezaan antara semakan "Caucasus"

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{{Terjemah|en|Caucasus}}
[[Fail:Caucasus countries.png|thumb|200px|Negara-negara Caucasus]]
[[Fail:Caucasus region 1994.jpg|thumb|200px|Peta 1994 kawasan Caucasus, menunjukkan lokasi sumber berharga]]
== Etimologi ==
Kata Caucasus berasal dari Caucas, nenek moyang Kaukasia Utara. <ref>G.Qoranashvili (1995), ''Questions of Ethnic Identity According to Leonti Mroveli's Historical Chronicles'', Studies, Vol. 1, Tbilisi.</ref> Beliau adalah putera [[Togarmah]], cucu anak lelaki ketiga dari Nabi Nuh iaitu Yafet. Menurut Leonti Mroveli selepas runtuhnya [[Menara Babel]] dan pembahagian umat manusia ke dalam pelbagai bahasa, Togarmah tinggal dengan anak-anaknya: [[Kartlos]], [[Haik]] ([[bahasa Georgia|Georgia]]:''ჰაოს'', ''Haos''), [[Movakos]], [[Lekos]] ([[orang Lak]]), [[Heros]] ([[Hereti|Kerajaan Hereti]], [[Kavkas]], dan [[Egros]] ([[Egrisi|Kerajaan Egrisi]]) di antara dua gunung yang tidak dapat dilalui, kemungkinan [[Gunung Ararat]] dan [[Gunung Elbrus]].
 
== Geografi ==
The [[Caucasus Mountains]] are generally perceived to be a dividing line between Asia and Europe, and territories in Caucasia are alternately considered to be in one or both [[continent]]s. The highest peak in the Caucasus is [[Mount Elbrus]] (5,642 m) which, in the western Ciscaucasus in Russia, is generally considered the highest point in Europe.
 
The Caucasus is one of the most [[Caucasian languages|linguistically]] and [[culture|culturally]] diverse regions on Earth. The nation-states that comprise the Caucasus today are the [[post-Soviet states]] [[Georgia (country)|Georgia]], [[Armenia]], and [[Azerbaijan]]. The Russian divisions include [[Krasnodar Krai]], [[Stavropol Krai]], and the autonomous republics of [[Adygea]], [[Karachay-Cherkessia]], [[Kabardino-Balkaria]], [[North Ossetia]], [[Ingushetia]], [[Chechnya]], and [[Dagestan]]. Three territories in the region claim independence but are not acknowledged as nation-states by the international community: [[Abkhazia]], [[Nagorno-Karabakh]] and [[South Ossetia]].
 
The Caucasus is an area of great ecological importance. It harbors some 6,400 species of higher plants, 1,600 of which are [[endemism|endemic]] to the region.<ref>[http://www.endemic-species-caucasus.info/ Endemic Species of the Caucasus<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Its native animals include [[leopard]]s, [[brown bear]]s, [[wolf|wolves]], [[European bison]]s, [[East European red deer|marals]] and [[golden eagle]]s. Among [[invertebrates]], some 1,000 [[spider]] species are recorded in the Caucasus<ref>[http://caucasus-spiders.info/introduction/checklists/ Caucasian Spiders » CHECKLISTS & MAPS<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>. The natural landscape is one of [[Caucasus mixed forests|mixed forest]], with substantial areas of rocky ground above the treeline.
The Caucasus Mountains are also famous for a [[dog breed]], the [[Caucasian Shepherd Dog]] (Ovcharka).
 
The [[North Caucasus|northern portion of the Caucasus]] is known as the ''[[Ciscaucasus]]'' and the [[South Caucasus|southern portion]] as the ''[[Transcaucasus]]''.
 
The ''Ciscaucasus'' contains the larger majority of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range, also known as the Major Caucasus mountains. It includes Southwestern Russia and northern parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan.
 
The ''Transcaucasus'' is bordered on the north by [[Russia]], on the west by the [[Black Sea]] and [[Turkey]], on the east by the [[Caspian Sea]], and on the south by [[Iran]]. It includes the [[Caucasus Mountains]] and surrounding lowlands. All of Armenia, Azerbaijan (excluding the northern parts) and Georgia (excluding the northern parts) are in South Caucasus.
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== Sejarah ==
{{see|Sejarah Caucasus}}
 
Located on the peripheries of [[Turkey]] and [[Russia]], the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries. Throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the [[Greater Iran|Iranian world]]. At the beginning of the 19th century, the [[Russian Empire]] conquered the territory from the [[Qajars]].<ref>[http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v5f1/v5f1a032.html Thorez, Pierre. "Caucasus." ''Encyclopaedia Iranica'' - 2 June 2007]</ref>
 
Ancient kingdoms of the region included [[Armenia]], [[Caucasian Albania|Albania]], Colchis and [[Caucasian Iberia|Iberia]], among others. These kingdoms were later incorporated into various empires, including [[Medes|Media]], [[Achaemenid Empire]], [[Parthian Empire]], and [[Sassanid Empire]]. By this time, [[Zoroastrianism]] had become the dominant religion of the region; however, the region would go through two other religious transformations. Owing to the rivalry between Persia and [[Roman Empire|Rome]], and later [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantium]], the latter would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region. However, because Armenia and Georgia had become a Christian entity, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism. With the [[Islamic conquest of Persia]], the region came under the rule of the [[Arabs]]. Armenia and the majority of Georgia maintained Christianity and drove the Muslims out. The region would later be conquered by the [[Seljuks]], [[Ottomans]], [[Mongols]], local kingdoms and khanates, as well as, once again, Persia, until its conquest by Russia.
 
The region was unified as a single political entity twice – during the [[Russian Civil War]] ([[Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic]]) from [[9 April]] [[1918]] to [[26 May]] [[1918]], and under the [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] rule ([[Transcaucasian SFSR]]) from [[12 March]] [[1922]] to [[5 December]] [[1936]].
 
The Northern Caucasus has been under [[Scythia]]n influence in antiquity, while the Southern Caucasus ([[Caucasian Albania]], [[Colchis]]) was absorbed into the [[Persian Empire]].
 
In modern times, the Caucasus became a region of war among the [[Ottoman Empire]], [[Iran]] and [[Russia]], and was eventually conquered by the latter (see [[Caucasian Wars]]).
 
In the 1940s, the [[Chechens]] and [[Ingush]] (480,000 altogether), along with the [[Balkars]], [[Karachays]], [[Meskhetian Turks]] (120,000), [[Kurds]] and [[Caucasus Germans]] (almost 200,000) were [[Population transfer in the Soviet Union|deported en masse]] to Central Asia and Siberia.
 
Following the [[end of the Soviet Union]], [[Georgia (country)|Georgia]], [[Azerbaijan]] and [[Armenia]] became independent in 1991.
The Caucasus region is subject to various territorial disputes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, leading to the [[Nagorno-Karabakh War]] (1988–1994), the [[Ossetian-Ingush conflict]] (1989-1991), the [[War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)]], the [[First Chechen War]] (1994–1996), the [[Second Chechen War]] (1999–present), and the [[2008 South Ossetia War]].
 
== Demografi ==
{{see|Bahasa di Caucasus}}
 
Setiap wilayah di Caucasus mempunyai perbezaan dalam pertuturan dan bahasanya serta ia juga mempunyai pelbagai keluarga bahasa. Terdapat juga lebih daripada 50 kumpulan etnik yang hidup di setiap wilayah di Caucasus.<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9021862/Caucasian-peoples Caucasian peoples], ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]''</ref> NoTidak lesskurang thandari threetiga languagekeluarga familiesbahasa areadalah uniqueunik forbagi thekawasan areaini, buttetapi alsojuga Indobahasa-Europeanbahasa languagesIndia-Eropah suchseperti [[Armenianbahasa languageArmenia|ArmenianArmenia]] anddan [[Osseticbahasa languageOssetic|Ossetic]], anddan thebahasa Altaic language [[Azerbaijanibahasa languageAzerbaijan|AzerbeijaniAzerbeijan]] aremerupakan localbahasa tosetempat thedi areasini.
 
The most numerous peoples of the Caucasian-language family are [[Georgians]] (4,600,000); [[Chechens]] (800,000); and [[Caucasian Avars|Avars]] (500,000). Georgians are the only Caucasian language-speaking people who have their own independent state - [[Georgia (country)|Georgia]]. Others of those peoples possess their republics within the [[Russia|Russian Federation]]: [[Adyghe people|Adyghe]] ([[Adygea]]), [[Cherkes]] ([[Karachay-Cherkessia]]), [[Kabardins]] ([[Kabardino-Balkaria]]), [[Ingush people|Ingush]] ([[Ingushetia]]), Chechens ([[Chechnya]]), while Northeast Caucasian peoples mostly live in [[Dagestan]]. [[Abkhazians]] live in [[Abkhazia]], which is ''de facto'' independent, but ''de jure'' is an autonomous republic within Georgia.
 
Today the peoples of the Northern and Southern Caucasus tend to be either [[Orthodox Christians]] or [[Sunni Muslims]]. [[Shia Islam]] has had many adherents historically in Azerbaijan, located in the eastern part of the region.
 
== Dalam mitologi ==
In Greek mythology the Caucasus, or Kaukasos, was one of the pillars supporting the world. After presenting man with the gift of fire, [[Prometheus]] was chained there by [[Zeus]], to have his liver eaten daily by an eagle.
 
== Sumber-sumber asli ==
The Roman poet [[Ovid]] placed Caucasus in [[Scythia]] and depicted it as a cold and stony mountain which was the abode of personified hunger. The Greek hero Jason sailed to the west coast of the Caucasus in pursuit of the [[Golden Fleece]], and there met the famed [[Medea]].
Caucasus mempunyai kepentingan ekonomi terhadap [[mineral]] dan sumber [[tenaga]], seperti: [[alunite]], [[emas]], [[chromiumkromium]], [[kuprumtembaga]], [[timah]], [[besi]], [[raksa (elemen)|raksa]], [[mangan]], [[molybdenum]], [[plumbum]], [[tungsten]], [[uranium]], [[zink]], [[petroleum]], [[gas asli]], and [[arang batu]] (kedua-dua [[arang batu keras|keras]] dan [[arang batu perang|perang]]).
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== Sumber asli (tenaga dan mineral) ==
Caucasus mempunyai kepentingan ekonomi terhadap [[mineral]] dan sumber [[tenaga]], seperti: [[alunite]], [[emas]], [[chromium]], [[kuprum]], [[timah besi]], [[raksa (elemen)|raksa]], [[mangan]], [[molybdenum]], [[plumbum]], [[tungsten]], [[uranium]], [[zink]], [[petroleum]], [[gas asli]], and [[arang batu]] (kedua-dua [[arang batu keras|keras]] dan [[arang batu perang|perang]]).
 
== Lihat juga ==
*[[Caucasus Selatan]]/[[Caucasus Utara|Utara]]
*[[Bahasa di Caucasus]]
*[[Islam di RussiaRusia]]
*[[Kebudayaan Georgia]]
*[[Kebudayaan Armenia]]
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