Perbezaan antara semakan "SpaceShipOne"

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[[Imej:SpaceShipOne-09G.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Penerbangan tanpa kuasa 09G membawa SpaceShipOne merentasi [[Gurun Mojave]] untuk ujian aerodynamik.]]
 
'''SpaceShipOne''' is a privately funded experimental [[spaceplane]] developed by [[Burt Rutan]]'s company, [[Scaled Composites]], in their [[Tier One]] program, as their entry in the [[Ansari X Prize]] competition. On [[June 21]] [[2004]] it made the first privately-funded [[human spaceflight]].
 
'''SpaceShipOne''' ujian yang dibiayai secara persendirian dimajukan oleh syarikat [[Burt Rutan]], [[Scaled Composites]], dalam rancangan [[Tier One]], sebagai kemasukan mereka dalam pertandingan [[Ansari X Prize]]. Pada [[21 Jun]] [[2004]] ia melakukan [[penerbangan angkasa berpemandu]] yang pertama.
==Features==
SpaceShipOne is designed as a [[suborbital]] spacecraft, meaning it will achieve sufficient [[altitude]] to reach space but not sufficient [[speed]] to sustain [[orbit]]. It is designed to exceed [[1 E5 m|100 km]] altitude, which is the international definition of the [[boundary to space]] and the threshold required to win the X Prize. SpaceShipOne shares some features from earlier [[list of rocket planes|rocket planes]].
 
==Ciri-ciri==
It uses a [[hybrid rocket]] motor developed by [[SPACEDEV Inc.]], using [[hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene]] ([[rubber]]) solid fuel with liquid [[nitrous oxide]] as an oxidiser.
SpaceShipOne isdireka designedsebagai aspesawat aangkasa [[suborbital]] spacecraft, meaning itbererti willia achieveakan sufficientmencapai [[altitude]] tomencukupi reachuntuk spacesampai butke notangkasa sufficienttetapi [[speed]]tidak tomempunyai kelajuan yang sustainmencukupi untuk mengekalkan [[orbit]]. ItIa isdireka designeduntuk tomelepasi exceedaltitude [[1 E5 m|100 km]] altitude, whichyang ismerupakan thetakrif internationalantarabangsa definition of thesebagai [[boundary tosempadan spaceangkasa]] anddan the threshold required to win the X Prize. SpaceShipOne shares some features from earlier [[listdaftar ofkapal rocketterbang planesroket|rocket planes]].
 
Ia menggunakan motor [[roket hybrid]] yang dimajukan oleh[[SPACEDEV Inc.]], menggunakan [[hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene]] (bahanapi pepejal [[bergetah]]) dengan bahan api pepejal dengan cecair [[nitrous oksida]] sebagai bahan pengoksida.
Two primary flight elements, working in concert, achieve a manned suborbital flight, and taken together they constitute a two-stage horizontally-launched space transportation system that takes off from a runway, and lands on one. The first stage is the [[Scaled Composites White Knight|White Knight]] carrier jet, which takes the second-stage, a suborbital rocketplane designated '''SpaceShipOne''', to a high altitude, where it is drop-released and air-launched.
 
Dua asas penerbangan utama, bekerjasama, mencapai penerbangan suborbital berpemandu, dan diambil serentak ia membentuk dua peringkat sistem pelancaran pengangkutan angkasa mendatar yang berlepas dan mendarat dari landasan. Peringkat pertama adalah jet induk [[Skala Komposit White Knight|White Knight]], yang membawa tahap-kedua, pesawat roket suborbital dirujuk sebagai'''SpaceShipOne''', kepada altitude tinggi, dimana ia dijatuh bebas dan dilancar di udara.
For reentry the wings can be swivelled from horizontal to nearly vertical to provide a stable high-drag configuration. This is referred to as "wing feathering", and Scaled Composites describe the result as "care-free reentry".
 
Untuk kemasukan semula sayapnya boleh dipusing dari mendatar kepada hampir menegak untuk memberikan tatarajah rintangan tinggi yang stabil. Tatarajah ini dirujuk sebagai "wing feathering", dan Scaled Composites digambarkan sebagai "kemasukan semula ambil mudah - care-free reentry".
The [[cockpit]] has space for three people, the [[pilot (spaceflight)|pilot]] and two passengers. It maintains a sea-level pressurized breathable atmosphere, so the occupants do not need to wear [[spacesuit]]s. The cockpit is also identical to White Knight, right down the equipment installed, to allow greater testing of the design.
 
[[Kokpit]] mempunyai ruang untuk tiga orang,[[pilot (spaceflight)|pilot]] dan dua penumpang. Ia mengekalkan atmosphere pernafasan pada tekanan aras laut, dengan itu penghuninya tidak perlu mengenakan[[pakaian angkasa]]. Kokpit juga sama dengan White Knight, termasuk kepada peralatan yang dipasang, untuk memudahkan ujian rekabentuk
 
==Mod penerbangan==
SpaceShipOne terbang dalammempunyai tiga mod penerbangan utama: bergabung dengan White Knight, meluncur, dan tujahan roket.
 
LikeSama theseperti SpaceOrbital Pesawat Ulang-alik ( ‘’Space Shuttle OrbiterOrbiter’’ ), SpaceShipOne istidak incapablemampu ofberlepas independentbersendirian takeoffdari from the groundtanah, anddan isjuga alsotidak incapablemampu ofmencecah independentlyaltitude achievingyang thediperlukan altitudeuntuk requiredmelengkapkan topenerbangan executeangkasa ayang successfulberjaya spaceflight.secara bersendirian ForUntuk takeoffberlepas itia isdi carriedbawa underdi bawah[[Scaled Composites White Knight|White Knight]]. The combination ofGabungan SpaceShipOne anddan White Knight canmampu take offberlepas, landterbang, anddan flymendarat underdengan kuasa jet power to highpada altitude tinggi.
 
SpaceShipOne merupakan glider apabila berpisah dengan White Knight di udara, dan dengan enjin rokenyat tidak beroperasi. SpaceShipOnedidaftarkan dengan[[FAA]] sebagai glider, membayangkan fakta bahawa kebanyakan penerbangan kendirinya berlaku dalam mod ini.
When separated from White Knight in the air, and with its rocket engine not operating, SpaceShipOne is a glider. It is registered with the [[FAA]] as a glider, reflecting the fact that most of its independent flight occurs in this mode.
 
SpaceShipOne'sTujahan soletunggal meansSpaceShipOne ofadalah propulsionenjin isroket its singlehybridnya [[hybrid rocket]] engine. Enjin Thisini enginemenghasilkan producestujahan theyang enormouskuat thrustyang necessarydiperlukan tountuk propelmenolak thepesawat craftkeluar out of thedari atmosphere. Scaled Composites hastidak notmenerbitkan publishedstatistik engineprestasi performanceenjin statisticsini.
 
==FlightProfile profilepenerbangan==
White Knight akan berlepas dengan SpaceShipOne tergantung dibawahnya. Gabungan kedua pesawat ini akan terbang pada altitude sekitar 14 km, yang memakan masa selama satu jam. SpaceShipOne kemudian dibebaskan, dan meluncur singkat tanpa kuasa. Enjin roket mungkin dihidupkan serta-merta atau dilewatkan. Jika enjin roket tidak dihidupkan, pesawat boleh melayang ketanah, sebagaiman dalam ujian melayang.
SpaceShipOne takes off from the ground attached to White Knight, under White Knight's power. The combined craft flies to an altitude of around 14 km, which takes about an hour. SpaceShipOne is then released, and briefly glides unpowered. Rocket ignition may take place immediately, or may be delayed. If the rocket is never lit then the craft can glide down to the ground, as took place in the glide tests.
 
TheEnjin rocketroket enginedihidupkan isketika ignitedpesawat while the craft is glidingmeluncur. Dengan Underkuasa powertujahan, itia ismenunding soonke pointed upwardsatas, anddan climbsmendaki essentiallyhampir verticallymenegak. Pembakaran Theroket longestpaling rocketlama burndalam performedpenerbangan insetakat flight so farini wasadalah 76 secondssaat ([[SpaceShipOne flight 15P|flight 15P]]), buttetapi ia mampu itmenyimpan canbahan holdapi fueluntuk forpembakaran ayang slightlylebih longerlama burnsedikit thandari thatini.
 
ByPada thepenghujung endpembakaran ofpesawat thetersebut burnterbang themendaki craftpada iskelajuan flyingmelebihi upwardskelajuan atbunyi adan speedia somewhatterus greatermendaki thantanpa that of sound, and it continues to coast upwards unpoweredkuasa. Jika Ifpembakaran thecukup burnlama, wasia longkemudiannya enoughakan then it will exceed anmelebihi altitude of 100 km, atpada whichketinggian heightdi themana atmosphere presentstidak nomemberi appreciablerintangan resistanceyang berkesan, anddan thepesawat craft experiencesakan mengalami[[weightlessness|free fall]] for auntuk fewbeberapa minutesminit.
 
Pada [[puncak|puncak ( ‘’apogee]] sayap akan ditukar rajah kepada mod rintangan tinggi. Ketika pesawat memasuki kembali atmosphere ia perlahan dengan kasar, bagaimanapun mencapai kelajuan tinggi berbanding kelajuan yang dicapai dalam pendakiannya. Pada altitude sekitar 10 km dan 20 km ia menukar tatarajah kepada mod peluncur rintangan rendah, dan meluncur turun untuk mendarat dalam tempoh 20 minit.
While at [[apogee]] the wings are reconfigured into high-drag mode. As the craft reenters the atmosphere it decelerates violently, but nevertheless achieves high speeds comparable to those achieved on the way up. At some altitude between 10 km and 20 km it reconfigures into low-drag glider mode, and glides down to a landing in about 20 minutes.
 
White Knight takesmemakan longermasa toyang descend,lebih andpanjang untuk mendarat, typicallydan landsbiasanya amendarat fewbeberapa minutesminit afterselepas SpaceShipOne.
 
==DevelopmentPembangunan==
TheKom costspembinaan ofdan development and construction forpembangunan SpaceShipOne, althoughwalaupun tidak notditerbitkan publiclypada releasedumum, aredianggarkan estimated to be in the range ofsekitar 20 millionjuta dollars (US dollar), roughlysekitar twicedua theganda valuenilai of theanugerah [[Ansari X Prize]] award. [[Paul Allen]], arakan cofounder ofpengasas [[Microsoft]], is the sole source ofmerupakan thepembiayai fundingtunggal.
 
==TestPenerbangan flightsujian==
 
[[ImageImej:SpaceShipOne_WhiteKnight.jpg|thumb|200px|right|AllSemua penerbangan SpaceShipOne flights begin with thebermula dengan[[Scaled Composites White Knight|White Knight]] carrying membawa SpaceShipOne topada altitude, aboutsekitar 14km, assebagaimana demonstrateddipaparkan indalam thisujian [[captivebawa carrytahanan|bawa tahanan ( ‘’captive carry’’ )]] test ofbagi thesistem two-vehicledua systempesawat.]]
 
On Pada[[April 11April]], [[2004]], Scaled Composites receivedmenerima thelesen firstpertama licenseuntuk penerbangan for [[sub-orbital flight|sub-orbital]] pilotedberpemandu rocketyang flights to be issued by thedikeluarkan oleh[[United States Department of Transportation|US Department of Transportation]]. ThisLesen licenseini permitsmembenarkan thesyarikat companymelakukan toujian conductpenerbangan powereduntuk test flights for a period oftempoh onesatu yeartahun.
 
AllSemua thepenerbangan SpaceShipOne flights have been based at theberpengkalan di[[Mojave Airport Civilian Flight Test Center]] whichyang reclassifiedmengkelaskan itselfdiri sendiri (part-timeseparuh masa) as thesebagai [[Pengkalan angkasa Mojave|Pengkalan Spaceportangkasa Mojave ( ‘’Mojave Spaceport’’ )]] onpada [[June 17 Jun]], [[2004]].
 
SpaceShipOne is registered with thedidaftarkan pada[[Federal Aviation Administration|FAA]] assebagai [http://162.58.35.241/acdatabase/NNumSQL.asp?NNumbertxt=328KF '''N328KF''']. 'N' is theadalah prefix foruntuk US-registeredpesawat aircraftudara pendaftaran-US; '328KF' stands formewakili 328 thousandribu (K) feetkaki (approximatelysekitar 100 kilometerskilometer, thediiktiraf officiallysecara designatedrasmi sebagai [[edgepinggir angkasa|pinggir angkasa ( ‘’edge of spacespace’’ )]]). ThePilihan originalasal choice ofnombor registrypendaftaran number — '''N100KM''' — was alreadytelah takendigunakan.
 
[[Pemandu uji|Pemandu uji ( ''Test pilot'' )]]s forbagi theprojek SpaceShipOne project were adalah[[Brian Binnie]], [[Peter Siebold]], [[Mike Melvill]], anddan [[Doug Shane]].
 
[[SpaceShipOne flight 15P|Flight 15P]] wasadalah penerbangan angkasa SpaceShipOne's firstyang pertama, dan [[spaceflight]],penerbangan andangkasa themanusia|penerbangan firstangkasa privately-fundedmanusia [[human( spaceflight‘’human spaceflight’’ )]] dibiayai secara persendirian. WhilstWalaupun thisini wasmerupakan aujian successfulpenerbangan testyang flightberjaya, itia hadberhadapan severaldengan technicalbeberapa problemsmasalah teknikal, anddan SpaceShipOne issedang nowdiperiksa beingdengan closelyteliti examineduntuk formengesan technicalkecacatan defectsteknikal inagar orderboleh todiperbaiki rectifysebelum themmelakukan prior to making ancubaan X Prize attempt.
 
Dalam jadual di bawah, "kelajuan tertinggi" dilapurkan dalam bentuk [[nombor Mach]] pada tutup-bakar ( ''burn-out'' ) (penghujung pembakaran roket). Ini bukannya kelajuan mutlak.
In the table below, the "top speed" reported is the [[Mach number]] at burn-out (the end of the rocket burn). This is not an absolute speed.
 
{| cellpadding="4" cellspacing="3" border=1 style="margin:3px; border:0px solid #A0DFFF; font-size:100%; font-family:Arial,Helvetica" align="left"
!bgcolor="#A0DFFF" colspan="5" align="center"|SpaceShipOnePenerbangan poweredujian test flightsberkuasa SpaceShipOne
|- bgcolor="#A0DFFF" align="center"
!Penerbangan
!Flight
!Tarikh
!Date
!Kelajuan Tertinggi
!Top Speed
!Altitude
!Pilot
|- bgcolor="fff3e8"
| align="center"|'''[[SpaceShipOne flight 11P|11P]]'''
| align="left"|[[December 17 Disember]], [[2003]]
| align="right"|Mach 1.2
| align="right"|20.7 km
|- bgcolor="ffe5cd"
| align="center"|'''[[SpaceShipOne flight 13P|13P]]'''
| align="left"|[[April 8 April]], [[2004]]
| align="right"|Mach 1.6
| align="right"|32.0 km
|- bgcolor="fff3e8"
| align="center"|'''[[SpaceShipOne flight 14P|14P]]'''
| align="left"|[[May 13 May]], [[2004]]
| align="right"|Mach 2.5
| align="right"|64.3 km
|- bgcolor="ffe5cd"
| align="center"|'''[[SpaceShipOne flight 15P|15P]]'''
| align="left"|[[June 21 Jun]], [[2004]]
| align="right"|Mach 2.9
| align="right"|100.1 km
<br style="clear: both">
 
==ExternalPautan linksluar==
*[http://scaled.com/projects/tierone/index.htm SpaceShipOne] at Scaled Composites's website
*[http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsa/n5ctrl/events04/sci/spaceship1/nb_60km.ram SpaceShipOne video footage] at the BBC News website (requires Real player; this is not the 100km flight, but an earlier, shorter test flight, probably flight 14P)
*[http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20040531/xprize.html ''Private Craft to Shoot for Space'' by Irene Mona Klotz, Discovery News]
*[http://www.fileradio.com/spaceshipone/ June 21, 2004 LaunchGambar Photosperlancaran]
 
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[[Category:Spaceplanes]]
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