== Perhubungan dengan Kerajaan ==
Kerajaan British bertanggung jawab terhadap Dewan Rakyat. Meskipun, tidak pun Perdan Menteri atau ahli-ahli Kerajaan dipilih oleh Dewan Rakyat. Daripada itu, Ratu meminta orang yang lebih mungkin mengarah sokongan suatu kebanyakan dalam Dewan, biasanya ketua parti terbesar dalam Dewan Rakyat, untuk membentuk suatu kerajaan. Supaya mereak dapat bertanggungjawab pada Dewan Bawah, Perdana Menteri dan kebanyakan ahli [[Kabinet United Kingdom|Kabinet]] adalah ahli Dewan Rakyat. Perdana Menteri terakhir dari seorang ahli Dewan Pertuanan adalah [[Alec Douglas-Home|Alec Douglas-Home, 14th Earl of Home]], yang menjadi Perdana Menteri pada 1963. Untuk mematuhi konvensyen di bawah mana dia telah bertanggung jawab pada Dewan Bawah, dia disclaimed his peerage and procured election to the House of Commons within days of becoming Prime Minister.
Governments have a tendency to dominate the legislative functions of Parliament, by using their in-built majority in the House of Commons, and sometimes using their patronage power to appoint supportive peers in the Lords. In practice, governments can pass any legislation (within reason) in the Commons they wish, unless there is major dissent by MPs in the governing party. But even in these situations, it is highly unlikely a bill will be defeated, though dissenting MPs may be able to extract concessions from the government. In 1976, [[Lord Hailsham]] created a now widely used name for this behaviour, in an academic paper called "[[elective dictatorship]]".
Parliament controls the executive by passing or rejecting its Bills and by forcing Ministers of the Crown to answer for their actions, either at [[Prime Minister's Questions|"Question Time"]] or during meetings of the [[List of Committees of the United Kingdom Parliament|parliamentary committees]]. In both cases, Ministers are asked questions by members of their Houses, and are obliged to answer.
Although the House of Lords may scrutinise the executive through Question Time and through its committees, it cannot bring down the Government. A ministry must always retain the confidence and support of the House of Commons. The Lower House may indicate its lack of support by rejecting a [[Motion of Confidence]] or by passing a [[Motion of No Confidence]]. Confidence Motions are generally originated by the Government in order to reinforce its support in the House, whilst No Confidence Motions are introduced by the Opposition. The motions sometimes take the form "That this House has [no] confidence in Her Majesty's Government" but several other varieties, many referring to specific policies supported or opposed by Parliament, are used. For instance, a Confidence Motion of 1992 used the form, "That this House expresses the support for the economic policy of Her Majesty's Government." Such a motion may theoretically be introduced in the House of Lords, but, as the Government need not enjoy the confidence of that House, would not be of the same effect as a similar motion in the House of Commons; the only modern instance of such an occurrence involves the 'No Confidence' motion that was introduced in 1993 and subsequently defeated.
Many votes are considered votes of confidence, although not including the language mentioned above. Important bills that form part of the Government's agenda (as stated in the Speech from the Throne) are generally considered matters of confidence. The defeat of such a bill by the House of Commons indicates that a Government no longer has the confidence of that House. The same effect is achieved if the House of Commons "[[Loss of Supply|withdraws Supply]]", that is, rejects the budget.
Where a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister is obliged either to resign, or seek the dissolution of Parliament and a new general election. Where a Prime Minister has ceased to retain a majority in that vote and requests a dissolution, the Sovereign can in theory reject his request, forcing his resignation and allowing the [[Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)|Leader of the Opposition]] to be asked to form a new government. This power is used extremely rarely. The conditions that should be met to allow such a refusal are known as the [[Lascelles Principles]]. These conditions and principles are merely informal conventions; it is possible, though highly improbable, for the Sovereign to refuse dissolution for no reason at all.
In practice, the House of Commons' scrutiny of the Government is very weak. Since the [[first-past-the-post]] electoral system is employed in elections, the governing party tends to enjoy a large majority in the Commons; there is often limited need to compromise with other parties. Modern British political parties are so tightly organised that they leave relatively little room for free action by their MPs. In many cases, MPs may be expelled from their parties for voting against the instructions of party leaders. During the 20th century, the Government has lost confidence issues only three times — twice in 1924, and once in 1979.
== Kedaulatan ==