Perbezaan antara semakan "Duluan kehakiman"

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==Prinsip==
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The principle of stare decisis can be divided into two components:
 
Prinsip stare decisis boleh dibahagikan mengikut dua komponen:
The first is the rule that a decision made by a higher court is binding precedent which a lower court cannot overturn.
 
Pertamanya merupakan peraturan bahawa satu keputusan yang dibuat oleh mahkamah tinggi adalah duluan mengikat yang mahkamah rendah tidak boleh batalkan.
The second is the principle that a court should not overturn its own precedents unless there is a strong reason to do so and should be guided by principles from lateral and lower courts. The second principle is an advisory one which courts can and do occasionally ignore.
 
Keduanya merupakan prinsip yang satu mahkamah tidak seharusnya membatalkan suatu keputusan yang dibuat oleh dirinya sendiri pada suatu ketika dahulu kecualilah apabila terdapat satu alasan kuat untuk berbuat demikian. Prinsip kedua ini lebih berbentuk nasihat yang boleh dan sememangnya diketepikan mahkamah dari masa ke semasa.
 
===Stare decisis secara menegak===
Secara am, satu sistem [[common law]] mempunyai [[mahkamah perbicaraan]], [[mahkamah rayuan]] dan [[mahkamah tinggi]]. Mahkamah-mahkamah rendah menadbirkan kebanyakan keadilan seharian. Mahkamah-mahkamah ini juga dimestikan mengikut duluan yang diputuskan mahkamah rayuan untuk kawasan mereka dan mahkamah tinggi.
Generally, a common law court system has [[trial court]]s, intermediate [[appellate court]]s and a [[supreme court]]. The lower courts administer most day-to-day justice. The lower courts are bound to follow precedents established by the appellate court for their region and the supreme court.
Appellate courts are only bound to follow supreme court decisions. The application of the doctrine of stare decisis from a higher court to a lower court is sometimes called ''vertical stare decisis''.
 
Mahkamah rayuan hanya dimestikan mengikut keputusan mahkamah tinggi. Aplikasi doktrin stare decisis dari satu mahkamah tinggi pada mahkamah rendah kadangkala dirujuk sebagai ''stare decisis secara menegak''.
===Stare decisis secara mendatar===
 
===Stare decisis secara mendatar===
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In the [[United States federal court system]], the intermediate appellate courts are divided into "circuits". Each panel of judges on the [[United States court of appeals|court of appeals]] for a circuit is bound to follow the prior appellate decisions of the same circuit. Precedents of a United States court of appeals may be overruled only by the court ''[[en banc]],'' that is, a session of all the active appellate judges of the circuit, or by the [[United States Supreme Court]].
 
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