Perbezaan antara semakan "Duluan kehakiman"

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===Stare decisis secara mendatar===
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In the [[United States federal court system]], the intermediate appellate courts are divided into "circuits". Each panel of judges on the [[United States court of appeals|court of appeals]] for a circuit is bound to follow the prior appellate decisions of the same circuit. Precedents of a United States court of appeals may be overruled only by the court ''[[en banc]],'' that is, a session of all the active appellate judges of the circuit, or by the [[United States Supreme Court]].
 
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