Perbezaan antara semakan "Gelsenkirchen"

bot menambah: lmo:Gelsenkirchen; perubahan kosmetik
k (bot menambah: eu:Gelsenkirchen)
k (bot menambah: lmo:Gelsenkirchen; perubahan kosmetik)
Pada [[Jerman Nazi|zaman Nazi]], Gelsenkirchen tetap merupakan sebuah pusat pengeluaran batu arang dan [[penapisan minyak]] dan atas alasan itu, telah dibom oleh serangan udara [[Pihak Berikat]] dalam [[Perang Dunia II]]. Gelsenkirchen kini tidak lagi mempunyai sebarang [[lombong]] [[batu arang]] dan oleh itu, sedang mencari-carikan imej yang baru selepas dilanda dengan salah satu kadar [[pengangguran]] yang tertinggi di negara sejak berdekad-dekad lagi. Kini, [[loji]] [[kuasa suria]] Jerman yang terbesar terletak di bandar raya ini, dengan sebuah [[stesen kuasa]] batu arang yang mempunyai [[serombong]] yang tertinggi di Jerman (302 [[meter]]) terletak di Gelsenkirchen-Scholven.
== Sukan ==
Gelsenkirchen ialah tempat asal untuk [[Bundesliga (bola sepakl)|kelab]] [[bola sepak]] [[KBS Schalke 04]], dengan [[Veltins-Arena]], tempat Schalke sendiri, umumnya dianggap sebagai salah satu [[stadium]] yang paling inovatif yang telah dibina pada tahun-tahun terkini. Gelsenkirchen merupakan salah satu daripada 12 buah bandar raya Jerman yang mengehoskan permainan semasa [[Piala Bola Sepak Dunia 2006]] dan telah mengehoskan perlawanan-perlawanan antara [[Poland]] dan [[Ecuador]], [[Argentina]] dan [[Serbia]] dan [[Montenegro]], [[Portugal]] dan [[Mexico]], serta juga [[Amerika Syarikat]] dan [[Republik Czech]].
{| style="width:210px; float:right;"
|[[Image:BuerSueden1955 1.jpg|thumb|200px|Gelsenkirchen-Buer looking south towards downtown Gelsenkirchen, 1955]]
[[Image:BuerSueden2005_1.jpg|thumb|200px|Plus ça change &mdash; 50 years later]]
[[Image:Buer_stadtwald.jpg|thumb|200px|In the city-forest of Buer (Buerscher Stadtwald)]]
[[Image:Zechensiedlung.jpg|thumb|200px|A former mining settlement]]
===Ancient and Medieval times===
Although the part of town now called Buer was first mentioned by Heribert I in a document as ''Puira'' in 1003, there were hunting people on a hill north of the [[Emscher]] as early as the [[Bronze Age]] &mdash; and therefore earlier than 1000 BC. They did not live in houses as such, but in small yards gathered together near each other. Later, the [[Ancient Rome|Romans]] pushed into the area. In about 700, the region was settled by the [[Saxons]]. A few other parts of town which today lie in Gelsenkirchen's north end were mentioned in documents from the early [[middle ages]], some examples being: ''Raedese'' (nowadays ''Resse''), Middelvic (''Middelich'', today part of Resse), ''Sutheim'' (''Sutum''; today part of Beckhausen) and ''Sculven'' (nowadays ''Scholven''). Many nearby [[farming]] communities were later identified as ''iuxta Bure'' ("near Buer").
It was about 1150 when the name ''Gelstenkerken'' or ''Geilistirinkirkin'' cropped up for the first time. At about the same time, the first [[church]] in town was built in what is now Buer. This ''ecclesia Buron'' ("church at Buer") was listed in a directory of [[parish]] churches by the sexton from [[Deutz]], Theodericus. This settlement belonged to the [[Mark (county)|Mark]]. However, in [[ancient times]] and even in the Middle Ages, only a few dozen people actually lived in the settlements around the Emscher basin.
Up until the middle of the 19th century, the area in and around Gelsenkirchen was only thinly settled and almost exclusively agrarian. In 1815, after temporarily belonging to the [[Grand Duchy]] of [[Berg (German region)|Berg]], the land now comprising the city of Gelsenkirchen passed to [[Prussia]], which assigned it to the province of [[Westphalia]]. Whereas the Gelsenkirchen of that time &mdash; not including today's north-end communities, such as Buer &mdash; was put in the ''[[Amt (subnational entity)|Amt]]'' of [[Wattenscheid]] in the [[Bochum]] district, in the governmental district of Arnsberg, Buer, which was an ''Amt'' in its own right, was along with nearby Horst joined to [[Recklinghausen]] district in the governmental district of [[Münster]]. This arrangement came to an end only in 1928.
After the discovery of [[coal]] &mdash; lovingly known as "Black Gold" &mdash; in the [[Ruhr area]] in 1840, and the subsequent [[industrialization]], the [[Cologne]]-[[Minden]] [[Railway]] and the Gelsenkirchen Main Railway Station were opened. In 1868, Gelsenkirchen became the seat of an ''Amt'' within the Bochum district which encompassed the communities of Gelsenkirchen, Braubauerschaft (as of 1900, Bismarck), Schalke, Heßler, Bulmke and Hüllen.
[[Friedrich Grillo]] founded the Corporation for Chemical Industry (''Aktiengesellschaft für Chemische Industrie'') in Schalke in 1872, and also the Schalke Mining and Ironworks Association (''Schalker Gruben- und Hüttenverein''). A year later, and once again in Schalke, he founded the Glass and Mirror Factory Incorporated (''Glas- und Spiegel-Manufaktur AG'').
On [[17 December]] [[1953]], the Kokerei ''Hassel'' went into operation, billed as Germany's "first new coking plant" since the war. When [[postal code]]s (''Postleitzahlen'') were introduced in 1961, Gelsenkirchen was one of the few cities in [[West Germany]] to be given two codes: Buer was given 466, while Gelsenkirchen got 465. These were in use until [[1 July]] [[1993]]. The "first [[comprehensive school]] in [[North Rhine-Westphalia]]" was opened in 1969. Scholven-Chemie AG (the old hydrogenation plant) merged with Gelsenberg-Benzin-AG to form the new corporation VEBA-Oel AG. In 1987, [[Pope John Paul II]] celebrated [[Mass (liturgy)|Mass]] before 85,000 people at Gelsenkirchen's Parkstadion. The Pope also became an honorary member of [[FC Schalke 04]].
In 1997, the Federal Garden Show (''Bundesgartenschau'' or ''BUGA'') was held on the grounds of the disused Nordstern [[coalmine]] in Horst. In 1999, the last phase of the Emscher Park International Building Exhibition, an undertaking that brought together many cities in North Rhine-Westphalia, was held. [[Coke (fuel)|Coke]] was produced at the old Hassel coking works for the last time on [[29 September]] [[1999]]. This marked the shutdown of the last coking plant in Gelsenkirchen, after being a coking town for more than 117 years. In the same year, Shell Solar Deutschland AG took over production of [[photovoltaic]] equipment. On [[28 April]] [[2000]], the Ewald-Hugo colliery closed &mdash; Gelsenkirchen's last colliery. Three thousand coalminers lost their jobs. In [[2003]], Buer celebrated its thousandth anniversary of first documentary mention, and FC Schalke 04 celebrated on [[4 May]] [[2004]] its hundredth anniversary.
Today, Gelsenkirchen is a centre for sciences, services, and production, with good infrastructure.
== Pautan luar ==
{{Commons|Category:Gelsenkirchen, Germany}}
* [ Laman web rasmi Gelsenkirchen] &ndash; dengan maklumat tentang pengaruh British/Ireland pada abad ke-19
* [ Laman web ''MapQuest:'' Gelsenkirchen (interaktif)]
* [ Laman web ''FifaWorldCup:'' Piala Bola Sepak Dunia 2006 di Gelsenkirchen]
[[Kategori:Gelsenkirchen| ]]
[[Kategori: Bandar di Rhine Utara-Westphalia]]
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