===Stare decisis secara mendatar===
In the [[United States federal court system]], the intermediate appellate courts are divided into "circuits". Each panel of judges on the [[United States court of appeals|court of appeals]] for a circuit is bound to follow the prior appellate decisions of the same circuit. Precedents of a United States court of appeals may be overruled only by the court ''[[en banc]],'' that is, a session of all the active appellate judges of the circuit, or by the [[United States Supreme Court]].
When a court binds itself, this application of the doctrine of precedent is sometimes called ''horizontal stare decisis''. The State of New York has a similar appellate structure as it is divided into four [[appellate department]]s supervised by the final [[New York State]] [[Court of Appeals]]. Decisions of one appellate department are not binding upon another, and in some cases the departments differ considerably on basic points of law.
===Tempat rayuan terakhir===