Perbezaan antara semakan "Duluan kehakiman"

 
==Pengelakan==
Meskipun mahkamah-mahkamah rendah diikat oleh duluan mahkamah lebih tinggi secara teorinya, dalam realiti para hakim kadangkala cuba untuk mengelak duluan dengan membezakan mereka atas alasan-alasan remeh. Juga, aayuan satu keputusan yang tidak mengikut duluan mungkin tidak berlaku kerana kos perbelanjaan berbuat sedemikian akan melumpuhkan keupayaan pihak yang kalah membuat sedemikian. Maka keputusan mahkamah rendah mungkin berdiri meskipun ia tidak mengikut keputusan mahkamah atasan oleh sebab satu-satunya cara satu keputusan boleh dirayui adalah dengan permohonan salah satu daripada pihak-pihak yang terikat padanya.
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And while lower courts are bound in theory by higher court precedent, in practice judges may sometimes attempt to evade precedents, by distinguishing them on spurious grounds. The appeal of a decision that does not follow precedent might not occur, however, as the expense of an appeal may prevent the losing party from doing so. Thus the lower court decision may stand even though it does not follow the higher court decision, as the only way a decision can enter the appeal process is by application of one of the parties bound by it.
 
===…dan penentangan===
Occasionally,Kadangkala thejuga applicationsatu ofhakim priorakan casemelafazkan lawrasa resultstidak insetujunya courtterhadap decisionskeputusan-keputusan whichduluan theyang judgedibuat explicitlymahkamah statesatasan personalakan disagreementtetapi withharus themengikutinya judgmentoleh he or she has rendered, but that he or she is required to do so bysebab [[bindingduluan precedentmengikat]], that is, the issue at hand was already decided by a higher court. NoteNotakan thatjuga bindingyang precedentduluan ismengikat thusadalah distinctberbeza fromdengan ''stare decisis,'' whichyang aremerupakan decisionskeputusan frommahkamah-mahkamah lateral courts, lower courtsrendah, oratau themahkamah sameyang courtsama, anddan affordsmembolehkan deviationpembezaan based uponberdasarkan "compellingalasan yang justificationkukuh" (seelihat ''Hilton v.s. Carolina Pub. Rys. Cmsn.,m 502 U.S. 197, 202, 112 S. Ct. 560, 565 (1991).'')
 
===Kepincangan===
Di [[Amerika Syarikat]], ''stare decisis'' boleh berinteraksi dalam cara yang berlawanan dengan sistem mahkamah persekutuan dan sistem mahkamah [[Negeri Amerika Syarikat|negeri]]. Dalam satu isu undang-undang persekutuan, satu mahkamah negeri tidak terikat dengan pentafsiran undang-undang persekutuan pada peringkat daerah atau litar tetapi terikat dengan pentafsiran [[Mahkamah Agung Amerika Syarikat]]. Dalam pentafsiran undang-undang negeri, sama ada ia merupakan [[common law]] atau [[undang-undang statut]], mahkamah persekutuan terikat dengan pentafsiran mahkamah negeri tertinggi negeri berkenaan, dan biasanya perlu merujuk duluan mahkamah menengah negeri juga.
In the United States, ''stare decisis'' can interact in counterintuitive ways with the federal and [[U.S. state|state]] court systems. On an issue of federal law, a state court is not bound by an interpretation of federal law at the district or circuit level, but is bound by an interpretation by the United States Supreme Court. On an interpretation of state law, whether [[common law]] or [[statutory law]], the federal courts are bound by the interpretation of a state court of last resort, and are normally required to defer to the precedents of intermediate state courts as well.
 
Mahkamah boleh memilih untuk mengikut duluan bidang kuasa lain, tetapi ini bukan aplikasi doktrin ''stare decisis'' kerana keputusan asing tidak mengikat. Satu keputusan asing yang diikut atas sebab kemunasabahannya digelar ''[[autoriti berpengaruh]]'' — sekaligus menandakan bahawa pengaruhnya terhad kepada alasan yang dikemukakannya.
Courts may choose to follow precedents of other jurisdictions, but this is not an application of the doctrine of ''stare decisis'', because foreign decisions are not binding. Rather, a foreign decision that is followed on the basis of the soundness of its reasoning will be called ''[[persuasive authority]]'' — indicating that its effect is limited to the persuasiveness of the reasons it provides.
 
==''Stare decisis'' dalam sistem perundangan sivil==
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