Perbezaan antara semakan "Negara sekular"

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(Mencipta laman baru dengan kandungan '{{proses|BukanTeamBiasa}} Sebuah '''negara sekular''' adalah suatu konsep secularisme, di mana sebuah negara purports menjadi secara rasmi neutral deng...')
 
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Negara-negara sekular menjadi sekular sama ada pada pertubuhan negara atau dengan [[sekularisasi]] negara (contohnya [[Perancis]]). Gerakan untuk [[laïcité]] di PerancsiPerancis dan untuk [[separation of church and state]] di Amerika Syariakt mentakrifkan konsep moden sekularisme. Historically, the process of secularising states typically involves granting religious freedom, disestablishing state religions, stopping public funds to be used for a religion, freeing the legal system from religious control, freeing up the education system, tolerating citizens who change religion or abstain from religion, and allowing political leadership to come to power regardless of religious beliefs.<ref>Jean Baubérot [http://www.ambafrance-us.org/atoz/secular.asp The secular principle]{{Dead link|date=May 2010}}</ref>
 
Not all legally secular states are completely secular in practice. In France for example, many Christian [[holy day]]s are official holidays for the public administration, and teachers in [[Catholic school]]s are salaried by the state.<ref>Richard Teese, [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-4086(198605)30%3A2%3C247%3APSIFEO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y Private Schools in France: Evolution of a System], ''[[Comparative Education Review]]'', Vol. 30, No. 2 (May, 1986), pp. 247-259 {{en icon}}</ref> In [[India]], the government gives subsidy in airfare for [[Muslims]] going on [[Haj]] pilgrimage(See [[Haj subsidy]]). In 2007, the government had to spend Rs. 47,454 per passenger.<ref>[http://www.financialexpress.com/news/haj-subsidy-has-air-india-fuming/360651/0 Haj subsidy has Air India fuming<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
Many states that nowadays are secular in practice may have legal vestiges of an earlier [[established religion]]. Secularism also has various guises which may coincide with some degree of official religiosity. Thus, in the [[Commonwealth Realms]], the head of state is required to take the [[Coronation Oath Act 1688|Coronation Oath]]<ref>[http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page4105.asp Coronation Oath]{{Dead link|date=May 2010}}</ref> swearing to [[defender of the faith|uphold the Protestant faith]]. The United Kingdom also maintains positions in its upper house for 26 senior clergymen of the established Church of England known as the [[Lords Spiritual]] (spiritual peers).<ref>[http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/members/lords_types.cfm Different types of Lords]</ref> While Scotland is part of the United Kingdom the Scottish Parliament declared Scotland a secular state but maintains the religious monarch.<ref>[http://www.vexen.co.uk/UK/religion.html]</ref> The reverse progression can also occur, a state can go from being secular to a [[state religion|religious state]] as in the case of [[Iran]] where the secularized state of the [[Pahlavi dynasty|Pahlavi dynasts]] was replaced by the [[Islamic Republic]] (list below). Over the last 250 years, there has been a trend towards secularism.<ref>[http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=1131 Harris Interactive News Room - Religious views and beliefs vary greatly by country, according to the latest Financial Times/Harris poll<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=300 Summary of Findings: A Portrait of "Generation Next"<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://science.jrank.org/pages/11240/Secularization-Secularism-History-Nature-Secularization-Secularism-1914.html Secularization and Secularism - History and nature of secularization and secularism till 1914 ]</ref>
 
==Negara sekular dan kebebasan agama==
==Secular states and religious freedom==
{{POV-section|date=June 2010}}
 
The French separation of 1905 and the Spanish separation of 1931 have been characterized as the two most hostile of the twentieth century, although the current schemes in those countries are considered generally friendly.<ref name="Arguing Comparative Politics">Stepan, Alfred, [http://books.google.com/books?id=nR2tF4k1PXUC&dq Arguing Comparative Politics], p. 221, Oxford University Press</ref> France's President [[Nicolas Sarkozy]], however, still considers the current scheme a "negative laicite" and wants to develop a "positive laicite" more open to religion.<ref>Beita, Peter B. [http://www.christiantoday.com/article/french.presidents.religious.mixing.riles.critics/16423.htm French President's religious mixing riles critics] Christianity Today, Jan. 23, 2008</ref> The hostilities of the state toward religion have been seen as a cause of civil war in [[Spanish Civil War#Constitution of 1931|Spain]]<ref>Payne, Stanley G. , [http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/spainport2.htm ''A History of Spain and Portugal'', Vol. 2], [http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/spainport2.htm Ch. 25: ''The Second Spanish Republic'' ], p. 632, (Print Edition: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973) ([http://libro.uca.edu/title.htm Library of Iberian Resources Online]. Retrieved July 11, 2009.</ref> and [[Cristero War|Mexico]].
 
== Senarai negara sekular mengikut benua ==
== List of secular countries by continent ==
[[Image:Secularmap.PNG|center|600px|thumb|
{| style="width:100%;"
|-
| valign=top |
{{legend|#EB151C|StatesNegara withdengan notiada [[stateagama religionrasmi]]s}}
{{legend|#FFBB0A|StatesNegara withdengan [[state[agama religionrasmi]]s}}
{{legend|#ACACAC|AmbiguousTidak ordiketahui withoutatau tidak mempunyai data}}
|}
]]
 
===AfricaAfrika===
* {{flag|Angola}}<ref>[http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ao00000_.html#A008_ Article 8 of Constitution]</ref>
* {{flag|Benin}}<ref>[http://www.trazibule.fr/anglais/BENIN.txt Article 2 of Constitution]</ref>
* {{flag|South Africa}}<ref>[http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90121.htm South Africa - International Religious Freedom Report 2007]</ref>
 
===AmericasBenua Amerika===
* {{flag|Brazil}}<ref>[http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/br00000_.html#A019_ Article 19 of Constitution]</ref>
* {{flag|Canada}}<ref>[[Section Two of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms]]</ref>
* {{flag|Syria}}<ref>[http://religion.blogs.cnn.com/2010/07/19/secular-syrias-veil-ban/]</ref>
 
===EuropeEropah===
* {{flag|Azerbaijan}}<ref>[http://azerbaijan.az/portal/General/Constitution/doc/constitution_e.pdf Article 7.1 of Constitution]</ref>
* {{flag|Austria}}<ref>[http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/au00000_.html Articles 7 and 14 of Constitution]</ref>
* {{flag|New Zealand}}
 
==FormerBekas secularnegara statessekular==
* {{flag|Iran|1964}} - Became a secular state in 1925 after [[Reza Shah|Reza Pahlavi]] was installed as Shah. Islam was re-instituted as the state religion in December 1979 following the adoption of a new constitution.
* {{flag|Iraq}} ([http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2005-08-24-iraqi-constitution-draft_x.htm Chapter 1, Article 2 of the 2005 Constitution], constitution is subject to review by the Constitutional Review Committee and a possible public referendum in 2007)
* {{flag|Madagascar}} (1960–2007) [http://www.madagascar-presidency.gov.mg/index.php/view/news/item/584 Constitution with "laïc" removed]
 
==Negara Tidak Diketahui==
==Ambiguous States==
* {{flag|United Kingdom}} - The [[Church of England]] is the established state religion of [[England]] - though not [[Northern Ireland]], [[Scotland]] or [[Wales]] - with members holding seats in the [[House of Lords]] as the [[House_of_Lords#Lords_Spiritual|Lords Spiritual]]. Traditionally they do not vote, though the potential is there for direct church involvement in law-making decisions over the entire [[United Kingdom]].
* {{flag|Australia}} - Australia is only notionally secular by way of Section 116 of its Constitution. In practice Australian governments fund both religious schools as well as Christian "chaplains" in State schools. Religious education is compulsory in most Australian State schools.The Federal Parliament of Australia opens with Christian prayers. Australia has been referred to as a "soft theocracy" by some.<ref>[http://embiggenbooks.com/the-purple-economy-supernatural-charities-tax-and-the-state.html The Purple Economy, Max Wallace ,2006]</ref>
 
==SeeLihat alsojuga==
{{Wiktionary|secular}}
* [[CivilAgama religionsivil]]
* [[Laïcité]]
* [[ReligiousPolis policeagama]]
* [[SecularPendidikan educationsekular]]
* [[SecularismSekularisme]]
* [[SecularAgama religionsekular]]
* [[StateAteisme atheismrasmi]]
* [[StateAgama religionrasmi]]
* [[TheocracyTeokrasi]]
 
==NotesCatatan==
{{Ibid|date=May 2010}}
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Secular State}}
[[Category:SecularismSekularisme]]
[[Category:ReligionAgama anddan politicspolitik]]
 
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