Perbezaan antara semakan "Negara sekular"

tiada ringkasan suntingan
Tidak semua negara sekular secara legal adalah keseluruhannya sekular dalam amalan. Di Perancis, contohnya, banyak [[hari suci]] Kristian adalah cuti rasmi untuk pentadbiran awam, dan guru-guru di [[sekolah Katolik]] digajikan oleh negara.<ref>Richard Teese, [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-4086(198605)30%3A2%3C247%3APSIFEO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y Private Schools in France: Evolution of a System], ''[[Comparative Education Review]]'', Vol. 30, No. 2 (May, 1986), pp. 247-259 {{en icon}}</ref> Di [[India]], kerajaan memberikan subsidy pada airfare untuk umat [[Islam]] yang mengamal [[haji]] (Lihat [[Haj subsidy]]). Pada 2007, kerajaan telah membelanja Rs. 47,454 tiap penumpang.<ref>[http://www.financialexpress.com/news/haj-subsidy-has-air-india-fuming/360651/0 Haj subsidy has Air India fuming<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
Banyak negara yang hari ini sekular dalam amalan mungkin mempunyai vestigessisa legal dari suatu [[agama ditubuhkan]] yang terdahulunya. Sekularisme juga mempunyai pelbagai samaran yang dapat terserempak dengan sesetengah peringkat agama rasmi. Oleh itu, dalam [[Dunia Komonwel]], ketua negara diperlukan mengambil [[Coronation Oath Act 1688|Coronation Oath]]<ref>[http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page4105.asp Coronation Oath]{{Dead link|date=May 2010}}</ref> mengangkat sumpah kepada [[pelindung agama|uphold the Protestant faith]]. United Kingdom juga mengekalkan posisi dalam dewan pertuanannya dengan 26 ketua paderi dari Gereja England yang telah ditubuhkan sebagai [[Tuan Rohaniah]] (peer rohaniah).<ref>[http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/members/lords_types.cfm Different types of Lords]</ref> WhileSementara Scotland isadalah partsebahagian of thedari United Kingdom theParlimen ScottishScotland Parliament declaredmendakwakan Scotland asebuah secularnegara statesekular buttetapi maintains themengekalkan religiousraja monarchberagama.<ref>[http://www.vexen.co.uk/UK/religion.html]</ref> ThePerkembangan reverseterbalik progressiondapat canjuga also occurtimbul, asebuah statenegara candapat gopergi fromdari beingmenjadi secularsekular toke asebuah [[stateagama religionrasmi|religiousnegara stateberagama]] asseperti indalam the case ofhal [[Iran]] wheredi themana secularizednegara state of thedisekularkan [[Pahlavidinasti dynasty|Pahlavi dynasts]] wastelah replaceddigantikan by theoleh [[IslamicRepublik RepublicIslam]] (listsenarai belowdi bawah). OverSelama the250 lastlebih 250 yearstahun, there hastelah beenada aarah trendaliran towardsterhadap secularismsekularisme.<ref>[http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=1131 Harris Interactive News Room - Religious views and beliefs vary greatly by country, according to the latest Financial Times/Harris poll<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=300 Summary of Findings: A Portrait of "Generation Next"<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://science.jrank.org/pages/11240/Secularization-Secularism-History-Nature-Secularization-Secularism-1914.html Secularization and Secularism - History and nature of secularization and secularism till 1914 ]</ref>
 
==Negara sekular dan kebebasan agama==
{{POV-section|date=June 2010}}
 
ItIa isbukan nothanya onlynegara-negara thekomunis communistatau orbekas formerkomunis communistyang countries which engage in themelibatkan seculardalam repressionpenindasan ofsekular religionagama.<ref name="Religious freedom in the world">Marshall, Paul A. [http://books.google.com/books?id=PIq-whVzNxoC&dq Religious freedom in the world], p. 16, 2007 Rowman & Littlefield</ref> [[TurkeyTurki]], asebuah secularnegara statesekular whichyang purportsbertujuan tountuk guaranteemeyakinkan freedomkebebasan ofkesedaran, conscience,secara aggressivelyagresif promotesmengalakkan secularismsekularisme, favoringmenggemarkan secularpandangan viewssekular overterhadap religionagama anddan controllingmengawal allsemua aspectsaspek ofamalan religious practiceagama.<ref name="books.google.com">Marshall, Paul A. [http://books.google.com/books?id=PIq-whVzNxoC&dq Religious freedom in the world], p. 14, 2007 Rowman & Littlefield</ref> [[Mexico]], alsojuga asebuah secularnegara statesekular, hastelah, especiallyterutamanya since its 1917 Constitutionsejaknya [[PersecutionPenindasan ofUmat ChristiansKristian indi Mexico|asejarah historytekanan ofantikepaderian]] anticlericalPerlembagaan religious oppression]]1917.<ref name="books.google.com"/> ChurchesGereja-gereja couldtidak notdapat engagemelibatkan indalam worshipamal outsideibadat ofdi aluar churchsebuah buildingbangunan gereja, ownmemiliki propertyharta milik, suemenyaman oratau defendmelindungi itselfdirinya in adalam suitguaman, oratau engagemelibat indalam educationpendidikan; religious ordersurutan werekeagamaan outlaweddlarang, priestspara deprivedpaderi ofserba politicalkekurangan speechtuturan andpolitik the rightdan tohak votemengundi.<ref name="books.google.com"/> ManyBanyak ofdari thesesekatan restrictionsini were removeddialihkan, buttetapi manybanyak remainmasih ada, includingtermasuk limitationshad onpada the rights of freedomhak ofkebebasan speechtuturan.<ref name="books.google.com"/>
 
With regard to oppression by secular states, scholars have distinguished between what are sometimes called "friendly" and "hostile" separations of church and state.<ref><cite id="CITEREFMaierBruhn2004">Maier, Hans and Jodi Bruhn [http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&dq Totalitarianism and Political Religions]</cite>, pp. [http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&pg=PA109 109] 2004 Routledge</ref> The friendly type limits the interference of the church in matters of the state but also limits the interference of the state in church matters.<ref>Op. cit.{{Harvnb|Maier|Bruhn|2004|p=[http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&pg=PA110 110]|Ref=CITEREFMaierBruhn2004}}</ref> The hostile variety, by contrast, seeks to confine religion purely to the home or church and limits religious education, religious rites of passage and public displays of faith.<ref name=MaierBruhn2004p111>Op. cit.{{Harvnb|Maier|Bruhn|2004|p=[http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&pg=PA111 111]|Ref=CITEREFMaierBruhn2004}}</ref>
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