Perbezaan antara semakan "Negara sekular"

Ia bukan hanya negara-negara komunis atau bekas komunis yang melibatkan dalam penindasan sekular agama.<ref name="Religious freedom in the world">Marshall, Paul A. [http://books.google.com/books?id=PIq-whVzNxoC&dq Religious freedom in the world], p. 16, 2007 Rowman & Littlefield</ref> [[Turki]], sebuah negara sekular yang bertujuan untuk meyakinkan kebebasan kesedaran, secara agresif mengalakkan sekularisme, menggemarkan pandangan sekular terhadap agama dan mengawal semua aspek amalan agama.<ref name="books.google.com">Marshall, Paul A. [http://books.google.com/books?id=PIq-whVzNxoC&dq Religious freedom in the world], p. 14, 2007 Rowman & Littlefield</ref> [[Mexico]], juga sebuah negara sekular, telah, terutamanya sejaknya [[Penindasan Umat Kristian di Mexico|sejarah tekanan antikepaderian]] Perlembagaan 1917.<ref name="books.google.com"/> Gereja-gereja tidak dapat melibatkan dalam amal ibadat di luar sebuah bangunan gereja, memiliki harta milik, menyaman atau melindungi dirinya dalam guaman, atau melibat dalam pendidikan; urutan keagamaan dlarang, para paderi serba kekurangan tuturan politik dan hak mengundi.<ref name="books.google.com"/> Banyak dari sekatan ini dialihkan, tetapi banyak masih ada, termasuk had pada hak kebebasan tuturan.<ref name="books.google.com"/>
 
WithDengan regardmenganggap topenindasan oppressionoleh bynegara secular statessekular, scholarssarjana havetelah distinguishedmembezakan betweendi whatantara areapa sometimesyang calledkadang-kadang digelar perasingan "friendlyramah" anddan "hostilebersikap bermusuhan" separationsgereja ofdari church and statenegara.<ref><cite id="CITEREFMaierBruhn2004">Maier, Hans and Jodi Bruhn [http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&dq Totalitarianism and Political Religions]</cite>, pp. [http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&pg=PA109 109] 2004 Routledge</ref> The friendly type limits the interference of the church in matters of the state but also limits the interference of the state in church matters.<ref>Op. cit.{{Harvnb|Maier|Bruhn|2004|p=[http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&pg=PA110 110]|Ref=CITEREFMaierBruhn2004}}</ref> The hostilebersikap bermusuhan variety, by contrast, seeks to confine religion purely to the home or church and limits religious education, religious rites of passage and public displays of faith.<ref name=MaierBruhn2004p111>Op. cit.{{Harvnb|Maier|Bruhn|2004|p=[http://books.google.com/books?id=Wozo1W7giZQC&pg=PA111 111]|Ref=CITEREFMaierBruhn2004}}</ref>
 
The hostilebersikap bermusuhan model ofsekularisme militantketenteraan secularismnaik arose with thedengan [[Dechristianization ofPerancis France during thesewaktu FrenchRevolusi RevolutionPerancis|FrenchRevolusi RevolutionPerancis]] anddan isdibiasakan typified in thedalam [[PersecutionPenindasan ofKristian Christians indi Mexico|MexicanRevolusi RevolutionMexico]] and thedan [[SpanishPerlembagaan Constitution ofSepanyol 1931]].<ref name=MaierBruhn2004p111/><ref>Martinez-Torron, Javier [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3736/is_200101/ai_n8950497/ Freedom of religion in the case law of the Spanish Constitutional court], p. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3736/is_200101/ai_n8950497/pg_2 2], Brigham Young University Law Review 2001</ref> TheModel hostilebersikap modelbermusuhan exhibiteddipamerkan duringsewaktu theseperistiwa-peristiwa eventsini candapat bedilihat seensebagai asmencapai approaching the type ofjenis [[politicalagama religionpolitik]] seendilihat indalam [[totalitariannegara statetotalitarian]]s.<ref name=MaierBruhn2004p111 />
 
ThePengasingan French separation ofPeranic 1905 anddan thepengasingan Spanish separation ofSepanyol 1931 have been characterized astelah thedicirikan twosebagai mostdua hostileyang ofterbersikap thebermusuhan twentiethabad centurykeduapuluh, althoughwalaupun theskema currentkini schemesdalam innegara-negara thosetersebut countriesdianggap arebiasanya considered generally friendlyramah.<ref name="Arguing Comparative Politics">Stepan, Alfred, [http://books.google.com/books?id=nR2tF4k1PXUC&dq Arguing Comparative Politics], p. 221, Oxford University Press</ref> France'sPresiden PresidentPerancis [[Nicolas Sarkozy]], howeversungguhpun, stillmasih considersmenganggap theskema currentkini scheme asuatu "negativelaicite laicitenegatif" anddan wantshendak tomembangunkan develop asuatu "positivelaicite laicitepositif" morelebih openterbuka topada religionagama.<ref>Beita, Peter B. [http://www.christiantoday.com/article/french.presidents.religious.mixing.riles.critics/16423.htm French President's religious mixing riles critics] Christianity Today, Jan. 23, 2008</ref> The hostilities ofterhadap theagama statetelah towarddilihat religionsebagai havepenyebab beenperang seensaudara as a cause of civil war indalam [[SpanishPerang CivilSaudara WarSepanyol#Constitution ofPerlembagaan 1931|SpainSepanyol]]<ref>Payne, Stanley G. , [http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/spainport2.htm ''A History of Spain and Portugal'', Vol. 2], [http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/spainport2.htm Ch. 25: ''The Second Spanish Republic'' ], p. 632, (Print Edition: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973) ([http://libro.uca.edu/title.htm Library of Iberian Resources Online]. Retrieved July 11, 2009.</ref> and [[Cristero War|Mexico]].
 
== Senarai negara sekular mengikut benua ==
Pengguna awanama