Perbezaan antara semakan "Undang-undang China"

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{{for|sistem undang-undang kini dikuatkuasa di China|Undang-undang Republik China|Undang-undang Republik Rakyat China}}
{{terjemah|en|Chinese law}}
'''Undang-undang China''' adalah salah satu tradisi [[undang-undang]] tertua di dunia. Pada abad ke-20 dan ke-21, [[undang-undang]] di [[China]] telah menjadi campuran kompleks [[Undang-undang China tradisional|kecapaian China tradisional China]] dan [[Undang-undang Barat|pengaruh Barat]].
==Tradisi hukum China==
{{Mainutama|Undang-undang China tradisional}}
===Gagasan undang-undang===
Perkataan untuk undang-undang dalam [[bahasa Cina klasik]] ialah ''fǎ''. [[Sifat Cina]] untuk ''fǎ'' menandakan makna "adil", "lurus" dan "keadilan", berasal dari airnya [[Radical (Chinese character)|radical]]. Ia juga menjalankan segi "piawai, ukuran, dan model".<ref>See [[Lang Chippings]], "Explicating 'Law': A Comparative Perspective of Chinese and Western Legal Culture" (1989) 3(1) ''Journal of Chinese Law'' 55-92.</ref> Derk Bodde and Clarence Morris held that the concept of ''fǎ'' had an association with ''yi'' (義: "social rightness").<ref>Derk Bodde and Clarence Morris, ''Law in Imperial China: Exemplified by 190 Ching Dynasty Cases with Historical, Social, and Judicial Commentaries'' (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1973) at 14-15.</ref> [[Yan Fu]], dalam terjemahan bahasa Cinanya dari ''[[De l'esprit des lois]]'' [[Montesquieu]] diterbitkan pada 1913, memberi amaran kepada para pembacanya tentang perbezaan di antara ''fǎ'' China dan undang-undang Barat: "Perkataan 'undang-undnag' dalam bahasa-bahasa Barat mempunyai empat terjemahan berlainan i "rites", "decorum"), ''fǎ'' (法: "undang-undang manusia") dan ''zhì'' (制: "kawalan").<ref>Yan Fu, ''Fayi'' [法意: "The Spirit of the Laws"] (Beijing: The Commercial Press, 1981) at 2.</ref>
===Republik China===
{{Mainutama|Law of the Republic of China}}
Law in the [[Republic of China]] ([[Taiwan]]) is mainly a civil law system. The legal structure is codified into the [[Six Codes]]: the Constitution, the Civil Code, the Code of Civil Procedures, the Criminal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedures and in Administrative laws.
===Republik Rakyat China===
{{Mainutama|Undang-undang Republik Rakyat China}}
After the [[History of China|Communist victory]] in 1949, the [[People's Republic of China]] quickly abolished the ROC's legal codes and attempted to create a system of [[socialist law]] copied from the [[Soviet law|Soviet Union]]. With the [[Sino-Soviet split]] and the [[Cultural Revolution]], all legal work was suspected of being counter-revolutionary, and the legal system completely collapsed.
==Hak undang-undang==
China Klasik tidak mempunyai persamaan semantik dengan konsep "hak". Gagasan hak diperkenalkan ke China dari Barat. Terjemahannya sebagai ''quanli'' (权利) dicipta oleh [[William Alexander Parsons Martin]] pada 1864, dalam terjemahannya ''Elements of International Law'' [[Henry Wheaton]].
==Kedaulatan undang-undang==
{{Citation style|date=September 2009}}
{{Wikify|date=August 2008}}
One of the most commonly used phrases in contemporary China, by legal scholars and politicians alike, is fǎzhì (法治). Fǎzhì can be translated into English as "[[rule of law]]". The related concepts of yi fa zhi guo (以法治国: "governing the nation in accordance with law") and jianshe shehui zhuyi fazhi guojia (建设社会主义法制国家: "building a socialist rule of law state") have been part of the [[Chinese Communist Party]]'s official policy since the mid-1990s. In 1999, the NPC adopted an amendment to the Chinese Constitution, incorporating both concepts in Article 5.
The existence of the rule of law in China has been widely debated.<ref>See Randall Peerenboom & He Xin, Dispute Resolution in China: Patterns, Causes, and Prognosis, 4 [[East Asia Law Review]] (2009) []</ref> There are differing theories of the rule of law. One theory is the thin, or formal, theory of rule of law, and the other is the thick theory. The thin theory of rule of law is described by Randall Peerenboom as at the basest level incorporating a legal system that imposes meaningful restraints on the state and individuals in ruling power, that the law is supreme, and that all citizens are equal before the law (Peerenboom, 2). According to Lon Fuller’s account of thin theory, rule of law exists in a society when the laws of that society are “general, public, prospective, clear, consistent, capable of being followed, stable, and enforced” (Peerenboom, 3). The thin theory has also been explained by Joseph Raz as emphasizing the formal or instrumental aspects of a legal system regardless of whether it is part of a particular political structure, i.e. a democratic or non-democratic society.[14] Thick theory rule of law espouses all the elements of thin theory s in addition imposes a political, social, and economic concept into the rule of law. The [[rule of law]] is regarded by some as presupposing political or economic structures of [[liberal democracy]], [[human rights]] and other ideal socio-legal order.[11] Some scholars believe that given China's socialist and non-democratic political system and practice, it is at best regarded as a country of rule by law with law used by the state as an instrument for social control.[12] However, others rely on the formal or thin theory of rule of law to interpret fazhi as a legal reality in China.[13] Additionally, some believe that China may still fall short of the thin theory of rule of law.
Of particular relevance to the second principle set out above, was the enactment of the Administrative Permission Law of the PRC (APL) on 27 August 2003, effective from July 2004. The APL for the first time requires all laws and regulations that subject any civil act to approval requirements to be published.<ref name="China Briefing Business Guide: North East China">{{cite web|title=China Briefing Business Reports|url=|publisher=Asia Briefing |year=2008|accessdate=2009-02-08}}</ref>
The APL also provides that only those laws adopted by the National People’s Congress or its Standing Committee, administrative regulations promulgated by the State Council, and local regulations adopted by the local people’s congresses may impose administrative approval requirements. Individual ministries or agencies (central or local) do not have such powers except in specified circumstances. This is consistent with the hierarchy of laws and regulations provided under the Legislative Law of the PRC. The enactment of the APL represents an encouraging step forward.<ref name="China Briefing Business Guide: North East China"/>
Despite the newly elevated role of courts in Chinese society, there still remains some consensus about defects in China’s legal system in regards to progressing towards the rule of law. Scholars point to the following defects as slowing movement toward rule of law.
* First, the [[National People’s Congress]] is ineffective at executing its constitutional duty to legislate and supervise the government.<ref>Albert Hung-yee Chen, An Introduction to the Legal Systems of the People’s Republic of China, Butterworths Asia (1992), 80-82.</ref>
* Second, the [[Constitution of the People's Republic of China|Chinese Constitution]] is not treated as the supreme law, nor is it enforced.<ref>Chen, 107; Randal Peerenboom, China’s Long March Toward Rule of Law, Cambridge University Press (2002), 61</ref>
* Third, the judiciary is not independent from political pressure. On the other hand, direct intervention in particular cases by the CCP has lessened in recent years, as has the direct influence of the CCP on the legislative process.<ref>Chen, 106, 117-121</ref>
* Fourth, there is a high level of corruption among public officials. Personal favors, bribery, and taking of public monies are all too common at all levels of government.<ref>Peerenboom, 295-297</ref>
* Finally, the legal profession is inadequate for lack of qualified attorneys and judges.<ref>Chen, 121-123</ref> This failure is being remedied by legislation aimed at instituting higher educational standards for judges, opening more courts and law schools throughout China.<ref>Peerenboom, 290-293</ref>
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