Perbezaan antara semakan "Al-‘Uzzá"

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==Di Petra==
The first known mention of al-‘Uzzá is from the inscriptions at [[Dedan]], the capital of the [[Lihyan]]ite Kingdom, in the fourth or third century BC. She had been adopted alongside [[Dushara]] as the presiding goddess at [[Petra]], the Nabataen capital, where she assimiliated with [[Isis]], [[Tyche]], and [[Aphrodite]] attributes and superseded her sisters.<ref>Jane Taylor, Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans, I.B.Tauris Publishers, 2001, ISBN 1860645089 pg. 130</ref> During the 5th century Christianity became the prominent religion of the region following conquest by [[Barsauma]].<ref>Jane Taylor, Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans I.B.Tauris Publishers, 2001, ISBN 1860645089 pg. 209</ref>
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==Kultus al-‘Uzzá==
It is now problematic to get a glimpse of the deities of pre-Islamic Arabia. Origins of deities have to be suggested with caution, but inscriptions related to al-‘Uzzá among the [[Nabataean]]s at [[Petra]] have been interpreted to associate al-‘Uzzá with the planet [[Venus]].
 
According to the "Book of Idols" (''Kitāb al-Aṣnām'') by [[Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi|Hishām ibn al-Kalbī]] (N.A. Faris 1952, pp.&nbsp;16–23)
{{Quote|Over her [an Arab] built a house called ''Buss'' in which the people used to receive oracular communications. The Arabs as well as the [[Quraysh (tribe)|Quraysh]] were wont to name their children "''‘Abdu l-‘Uzzá''". Furthermore, al-‘Uzzá was the greatest idol among the [[Quraysh (tribe)|Quraysh]]. They used to journey to her, offer gifts unto her, and seek her favours through sacrifice.<ref>Jawad Ali, Al-Mufassal Fi Tarikh al-Arab Qabl al-Islam (Beirut), 6:238-9</ref>}}
:The [[Quraysh (tribe)|Quraysh]] were wont to circumambulate the [[Ka'ba|Ka‘bah]] and say,
::By ''[[Allat|al-Lāt]]'' and ''al-‘Uzzá'',
::And ''[[Manah|al-Manāt]]'', the third idol besides.
::Verily they are ''al-gharānīq''
::Whose intercession is to be sought.
This last phrase is said to be the source of the aforementioned [[Satanic Verses]]; the Arabic term is translated as "most exalted females" by Faris in the text, but he annotates this much-argued term in a footnote as "lit. Numidean cranes."
 
The ''Kitāb al-Aṣnām'' offers additional detail on the "three exalted cranes" ibn Isḥaq says were deleted from the [[Qur'an]]: "These were also called "the Daughters of Allah" and were supposed to intercede before Allah."
 
It is unclear whether these goddesses were always regarded as the daughters of God, or had originally been called daughters of some other deity; the "Book of Idols" says that each of the three's worship was introduced at a different period, suggesting that they may not originally even have been sisters.
 
Each of the three goddesses had a separate shrine near [[Mecca]]. The most prominent Arabian shrine of al-‘Uzzá was at a place called Nakhlah near Qudayd, east of Mecca towards [[Taif|aṭ-Ṭā’if]]; three trees were sacred to her there (according to a narration through al-'Anazi Abū-‘Alī in the ''Kitāb al-Aṣnām''.){{Quote|She was the Lady ‘Uzzayan to whom a South Arabian offered a golden image on behalf of his sick daughter, Amat-‘Uzzayan ("the Maid of ‘Uzzayan")}} ''‘Abdu l-‘Uzzá'' ["Slave of the Mightiest One"] was a favourite proper name at the rise of Islam. (Hitti 1937). The name al-‘Uzzá appears as an emblem of beauty in late pagan Arabic poetry quoted by Ibn al-Kalbī, and oaths were sworn by her.<ref>[http://answering-islam.org.uk/Books/Al-Kalbi/uzza.htm]</ref>
 
Al-‘Uzzá's possible presence in South Arabia has been thoroughly effaced by time but her presence has not been obliterated far north at [[Petra]] of the [[Nabataeans]], who had deities with Arabian names early in their history, whom they later associated with Hellenistic gods, al-‘Uzzá becoming associated with [[Isis]] and with [[Aphrodite]] [http://nabataea.net/gods.html]. Excavations at Petra since 1974 have revealed a temple, apparently dedicated to [[Isis]]/al-‘Uzzá, now named after some carvings found inside, the Temple of the Winged Lions (Hammond). Inscriptions record the name of al-‘Uzzá at [[Petra]].
 
A fragment of poetry by Zayd ibn-'Amr ibn-Nufayl, quoted in the "Book of Idols", suggests that al-‘Uzzá had two daughters: "No more do I worship al-‘Uzzá and her two daughters. ({{lang-ar|فلا العزى أدين ولا ابنتـيهـا.}})"
 
Muhammad Mohar Ali writes (2002):{{Quote|The Arabs had developed a number of subsidiary Ka‘bāt (''tawaghit'') at different places in the land, each with its presiding god or goddess. They used to visit those shrines at appointed times, circumambulate them and make sacrifices of animals there, besides performing other polytheistic rites. The most prominent of these shrines were those of al-Lāt at Ta'if, al-‘Uzzá at Nakhlah and al-Manāt near Qudayd. The origins of these idols are uncertain. Ibn al-Kalbī says that al-Lāt was "younger" ('ahdath) than al-Manawat, while al-‘Uzzá was "younger" than both al-Lāt and al-Manawat. But though al-‘Uzzá was thus the youngest of the three; it was nonetheless the most important and the greatest (''‘azam'') idol with the [[Quraysh (tribe)|Quraysh]] who, along with the Banū Kinānah, ministered to it.}}
 
On the authority of [[Abdullah ibn Abbas|‘Abdu l-Lāh ibn ‘Abbās]], at-[[Tabari]] derived ''al-‘Uzzá'' from ''al-‘Azīz'' "the Mighty", one of the 99 "beautiful names of Allah" in his commentary on Qur'an 7:180.<ref>[[Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi]], The Book of Idols, 25</ref>
 
==Uzza yang Taman==
According to [[Easton's Bible Dictionary]], ''Uzza'' was a [[garden]] in which [[Manasseh of Judah|Manasseh]] and [[Amon]] were buried (2 Kings 21:18, 26). It was probably near the king's palace in [[Jerusalem]], or may have formed part of the palace grounds. Manasseh may probably have acquired it from some one of this name.
 
==Sebagai Malaikat==
In Judaic and Christian lore [[List of alternate names for Metatron|Uzza has been also used as an alternative name]] for the angel [[Metatron]] in the '''Sefer ha-heshek'''. More commonly he is referred to as either the [[seraphim]] [[Semyaza]] or as one of the three guardian angels of [[Egypt]] ([[Rahab (demon)|Rahab]], [[Mastema]], and Duma) that harried the Jews during the [[The Exodus|Exodus]].<ref>Gustav Davidson, A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels, Scrollhouse, 1967 ISBN 002907052X pg. xiii, xxiv,</ref> As Semyaza in legend he is the seraph tempted by Ishtahar into revealing the explicit name of God and was thus burned alive and hung head down between heaven and earth as the constellation [[Orion (constellation)|Orion]].<ref>Gustav Davidson, A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels, Scrollhouse, 1967 ISBN 002907052X pg. 301</ref> In the [[3 Enoch|3rd book of Enoch]] and in the [[Zohar]] he is one of the [[fallen angel]]s punished for cohabiting with human women and fathering the [[anakim]].<ref>Gustav Davidson, A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels, Scrollhouse, 1967 ISBN 002907052X pg. 18, 65</ref> ‘Uzzā is also identified with Abezi Thibod ("father devoid of counsel") who in early Jewish lore is also used as another name for [[Samael]] and [[Mastema]] referring to a powerful spirit who shared princedom of Egypt with [[Rahab (demon)|Rahab]] and opposed [[Moses]] to eventually drown in the [[Red sea]].<ref>Gustav Davidson, A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels, Scrollhouse, 1967 ISBN 002907052X pg. 4</ref>
 
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