Perbezaan antara semakan "Panggung wayang gambar"

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[[Fail:Arclight.JPG|200px|thumb|right|''Cinerama Theater'' di Los Angeles, California]]
[[Fail:London IMAX cinema1.jpg|thumb|right|200px|IMAX London]]
[[File:Cinemaaustralia.jpg|thumb|<center>A cinema in [[Australia]]</center>]]
'''Pawagam''' (akronim bagi '''panggung wayang gambar''') merupakan seuatu tempat yang digunakan untuk melihat [[wayang]] atau filem. Kebanyakan pawagan merupakan pawagam komersil untuk orang awam dan memerlukan [[tiket]]. Filem itu ditayang menggunakan [[projektor wayang]] yang memancarkan cerita tersebut ke atas [[skrin tayangan]] di bahagian hadapan [[auditorium]].Perkataan "Pawagam" diperkenal dan dipopularkan oleh Allahyarham Tan Sri P. Ramlee.
[[File:Sommerkino.JPG|thumb|Movies in the park: People watching films on an [[inflatable movie screen]] outdoors. ]]
[[File:Football match in cinema.jpg.jpg|thumb|right|People watching a football match in a movie theater]]
[[File:Amcpromenade16.jpg|thumb|right|A typical [[Multiplex (movie theater)|multiplex]] ([[AMC Theatres|AMC]] Promenade 16 in [[Woodland Hills, Los Angeles|Woodland Hills]], [[Los Angeles]], [[United States|U.S.]])]]
Sebuah '''pawagam''' (also called a '''cinema''', '''movie house''', '''film house''', '''film theater''' or '''picture theater''') ialah sebuah tempat, biasanya bangunan, bagi menonton [[filem]].
Most but not all movie theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, who attend by purchasing a [[Ticket (admission)|ticket]]. Filem ditayangkan menggunakan [[projektor]] onto a large [[skrin tayangan]] di bahagian depan [[auditorium]]. Kebanyakan pawagam sekarang mempunyai perkakas [[Digital cinema#Digital projection|digital cinema projection]], removing the need to create and transport a physical [[film stock#Intermediate_and_print_stocks|cetakan filem]].
== Lihat juga ==
* [[Pawagam rumah]]
* [[Wayang]]
==Ejaan dan istilah lain==
Di luar [[Amerika Utara]], negara berbahasa Inggeris memakai istilah ''cinema'' ({{IPAc-en|icon|ˈ|s|ɪ|n|ɨ|m|ə}}), ejaan dan lafazan sampingan "kinema" ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|ɪ|n|ɨ|m|ə}}).<ref>[ Merriam-Webster: '''kinema''' - British variant of ''cinema''] Retrieved 2012-07-21</ref><ref>[ Kinema - a journal for film and audiovisual media] Retrieved 2012-07-21</ref><ref>[http:// The Kinema in the Woods] - name of cinema in [[Woodhall Spa]] Retrieved 2012-07-21</ref> Kedua-dua istilah, bersama kata adjektif derivative adjectives "cinematic" dan "kinematic," ultimately derive from Greek κινῆμα, κινῆματος, (kinema, kinematos) "pergerakan". Dalam kawasan-kawasan tersebut istilah "theatre" ("panggung wayang") biasanya terhad kepada tempat persembahan aksi nyata.
In the [[United States]], the customary spelling is "theater", but the [[Persatuan Pemilik Pawagam Kebangsaan]] uses the spelling "theatre" to refer to a movie theater.
Colloquial expressions, mostly used for cinemas collectively, include ''the silver screen''(''layar perak''), ''the big screen''(''layar besar'') (contrasted with the "small screen" of [[television program|television]]) and (in the United Kingdom) ''the pictures'', ''the flicks'', dan ''the flea pit'' (or ''fleapit'').
Sebuah "bilik tayangan" biasanya merujuk kepada kemudahan kecil bagi penontonan filem, often for the use of those involved in the production of motion pictures, or in large private residences.
Di Malaysia, perkataan "Pawagam" diperkenal dan dipopularkan oleh Allahyarham [[Tan Sri P. Ramlee]].
==The History in the US==
[[File:Gateway Theatre (Chicago).jpg||thumb|right| The [[Gateway Theatre (Chicago, Illinois)|Gateway Theatre]] in [[Jefferson Park, Chicago]] was a [[Movie palace]] for the [[Balaban and Katz]] theater chain. The theater's [[Baroque]] spire is a replica of the [[Royal Castle, Warsaw|Royal Castle]] in [[Warsaw]].]]
===Before 1900===
The first public exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was at [[Koster and Bial's Music Hall]] on 34th Street in New York City on April 23, 1896 []. However, the first "storefront theater" in the US dedicated exclusively to showing motion pictures was Vitascope Hall, established on [[Canal Street, New Orleans|Canal Street]], [[New Orleans|New Orleans, Louisiana]] July 26, 1896—it was converted from a vacant store [].
A crucial factor was Thomas Edison's decision to sell a small number of Vitascope Projectors as a business venture in April–May 1896. In the basement of the new [[Ellicott Square Building]], Main Street, [[Buffalo, New York]], [[Mitchell Mark]] (properly spelled [[Mitchel Mark]]) and his brother [[Moe Mark]] added what they called [[Thomas Edison|Edison]]’s [[Vitascope Theater]] (entered through [[Edisonia Hall]]), which they opened to the general public on October 19, 1896 in collaboration with [[Rudolf Wagner]], who had moved to Buffalo after spending several years working at the Edison laboratories. This 72-seat plush theater was designed from scratch solely to show motion pictures.
Terry Ramseye, in his book, ''A Million and One Nights'' (1926) [p.&nbsp;276], notes that this “was one of the earliest permanently located and exclusively motion-picture exhibitions.” According to the ''Buffalo News'' (Wednesday, November 2, 1932), "There were seats for about 90 persons and the admission was three cents. Feeble, flickering films of travel scenes were the usual fare." (The true number of seats was 72.) The theater remained open for two years making it the first permanent, purpose built movie theater in the world.
[[File:Vitascope Theater Buffalo Nov 1897 ad.jpg|thumb|This November 7, 1897 ad shows the actual programming of Vitascope Theater, one of the first motion picture theaters specially built for that purpose. In its first year, 200,000 people attended. It was in [[Buffalo, New York]]. However, during the rest of this period, between 1891–1900, films did not achieve much popularity.<ref>[ Vitascope Hall<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>]]
[[File:HoustonRiverOaksTheater.JPG|thumb|left|Many older movie theaters, such as the [[River Oaks Theatre]] in [[Houston|Houston, Texas]], have been restored and play [[Art film|arthouse]] movies; newer multiplexes in the areas with restored theaters show first run films.]]
[[File:Texastheater.JPG|thumb|left|Other older movie theaters, such as the [[Texas Theatre]] in [[Dallas|Dallas, Texas]], have been deemed historically significant and undergone restoration. The Texas Theater is shown here in 2008 with replica marquee and appears as it did in 1963 when [[Lee Harvey Oswald]] was arrested on the premises. The building today hosts live theater.]]
[[File:KinoPionierSzczecin.jpg|thumb|right|The Pionier Cinema in [[Szczecin]], [[Poland]]]]
[[File:Wetherby Cinema.jpg|thumb|right|An independent cinema in [[Wetherby]], [[West Yorkshire]], [[United Kingdom|UK]].]]
The first permanent structure designed for screening of movies in the state of [[California]] was [[Thomas Lincoln Tally|Tally's Electric Theater]], completed in 1902 in [[Los Angeles]]. Tally's theater was a storefront within a larger building, but apparently purpose-built as a movie theater. ''[[The Great Train Robbery (film)|The Great Train Robbery]]'' ([[1903 in film|1903]]), which was 12 minutes in length, would also give the film industry a boost.<ref>{{cite journal |first=Andre |last=Millard |title=Review: ''Before the Nickelodeon: Edwin S. Porter and the Edison Manufacturing Company by Charles Musser'' |journal=Technology and Culture |volume=34 |issue=1 |year=1993 |pages=166–167 |jstor=3106478 }}</ref>
In 1905, [[Pittsburgh]] movie theater owners Harry Davis and John Harris also established the first of what would become a popular form of movie theaters spread throughout the country, which were five-cent [[Nickelodeon (movie theater)|nickelodeon movies]]. In 1906, Montreal opened one of the first movie theatres in the world. An even older movie theatre -which is still in action today, according to the Guinness World Records- belonged to the Pionier Cinema, and opened as the Helios on September 26, 1909, in [[Szczecin]], [[Poland]] (at the time of the opening it was Stettin, Germany).<ref></ref> Nevertheless, this position was beaten in 2008 when the owners of the ''Korsør Biograf Teater'' in [[Korsør]], Denmark, discovered that they actually operated a movie theater that opened in August 1908. They were accepted into the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest still operating movie theater the same year (to appear in the 2010 edition of the book).<ref>[ ''World's oldest cinema is Danish'',, August 6th, 2008]</ref>
In 1912, the [[Curzon Community Cinema, Clevedon|Picture House]], in [[Clevedon]], [[England]], opened with a charity film performance to raise funds for the victims of the [[RMS Titanic|Titanic]] disaster, and has been showing films continuously since. The 1913 opening of the [[UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television|Regent Theater]] in [[New York City]] signaled a new respectability for the medium, and the start of the two-decade heyday of American cinema design. The million dollar [[Mark Strand Theatre|Mark Strand Theater]] at 47th Street and Broadway in [[New York City]] opened in 1914 by [[Mitchell Mark]] was the archetypical movie palace. The ornate [[Al. Ringling Theatre|Al Ringling Theater]] was the very first "Movie Palace" it was built in Baraboo, WI by Al Ringling, one of the founders of the Ringling Bros. Circus for the then incredible sum of $100,000.00. In 1915, the movie ''[[The Birth of a Nation]]'' would also pave way for [[feature film]]s.<ref>[; MJ Movie Reviews – Birth of a Nation, The (1915) by Dan DeVore<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> By 1915, feature films were so successful that the five cent ticket admission prices would expand to ten cents, hence ending the era of nickelodeon movie theaters.<ref>[ The Nickelodeon's history<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Later, Los Angeles promoter [[Sid Grauman]] continued the trend of theatre-as-destination with his ornate "[[Million Dollar Theater|Million Dollar Theatre]]", using the same design firm as Ringling (the MDT was the first to signify its primary use for motion pictures with the "theatre" spelling), and opened on Broadway in [[downtown Los Angeles]] in 1918.
===Post 1920s: modern era===
In the next ten years, as movie revenues exploded, independent promoters and movie studios (who owned their own proprietary chains until an [[Competition law|antitrust]] ruling in 1948) raced to build the most lavish, elaborate, attractive theatres.
[[File:Queen's Theatre 1941.jpg|right|thumb|250px|Showing [[Gone with the Wind (film)]] at the Queen's Theatre, Hong Kong in 1941, though the film was released in 1939]]
These forms morphed into a unique architectural genre—the '''[[movie palace]]'''—a unique and extreme architectural genre which boasted a luxurious design, a giant screen, and, beginning in 1953, [[stereophonic sound]]. The movie chains were also among the first industries to install [[air conditioning]] systems which gave the theatres an additional lure of comfort in the summer period. In addition in the early 1931 a chair was designed, where the person sitting could move back so other patrons could easily leave their seats during the movie showing. This type of seat became standard in almost all US movie theaters.<ref>[ "Theater Chair Has Adjustable Back", March 1931, Popular Science] bottom of page 34</ref>
Several [[movie studio]]s achieved [[vertical integration]] by acquiring and constructing theatre chains. The so-called "Big Five" theatre chains of the 1920s and 1930s were all owned by studios: [[Paramount Pictures|Paramount]], [[Warner Bros.|Warner]], [[Loews Cineplex Entertainment|Loews]] (which owned [[Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer]]), [[20th Century Fox|Fox]], and [[RKO Pictures|RKO]]. All were broken up as a result of the [[Supreme Court of the United States|U.S. Supreme Court]]'s ruling in the 1948 ''[[United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc.]]'' [[Competition law|anti-trust]] case.
In the 1970s, [[adult movie theater|porn theatres]] became ubiquitous in some areas. However, the introduction of the low-cost [[VHS]] video system for home televisions has decommissioned many porno cinemas as well as many 'second-run' theatres.
People can pay to watch movies at home after a few short months following their theatrical release, through [[cable television]] or [[streaming media]]: [[pay-per-view]] (PPV) and [[video on demand]] (VOD). Initially, home video contributed to an industry wide slump in the late 1980s (see [[disruptive technology]]), not to mention the decline of the 'Dollar Cinema' (where first-run films are pulled from circulation to play at reduced rates for the remainder of their run). The theater industry responded by building larger auditoriums with [[stadium seating]] layouts, installing more screens (to allow for more variety and more show times), upgrading sound systems and installing more amenities and higher-quality food and drink. The growing popularity of [[high-definition television]] sets, along with [[HD DVD]] and [[Blu-ray Disc]] players may also contribute to the decline in cinema attendance, although there seems to be little evidence of this at the moment.
== 3D==
[[Filem 3D]] is a system of presenting film images so that they appear to the viewer to be three-dimensional. Visitors usually borrow or keep special glasses to wear while watching the film. Depending on the system used, these are typically [[Polarized 3D glasses|polarized glasses]]. Three-dimensional films use two images channelled, respectively, to the right and left eyes to simulate depth by using 3-D glasses with red and blue lenses (anaglyph), polarized (linear and circular), and other techniques. 3-D glasses deliver the proper image to the proper eye and make the image appear to "pop-out" at the viewer and even follow the viewer when he/she moves so viewers relatively see the same image. Most 3-D films are shown in amusement parks and even "4-D" techniques are used when certain effects such as spraying of water, movement of seats, and other effects are used to simulate actions seen on the screen. The earliest 3-D films were presented in the 1920s. There have been several "waves" of 3D film distribution, most notably in the 1950s when they were promoted as a way to offer audiences something that they could not see at home on television. Still the process faded quickly and as yet has never been more than a periodic novelty in film presentation. Currently, films are again being presented in cinemas in 3-D, in the [[IMAX#IMAX_3D|IMAX 3D]] system and in digital 3-D, such as is used in the animated films of [[The Walt Disney Company|Disney]]/[[Pixar]].
In 2009, Ben Walters suggested that film exhibitors are now more interested in 3-D film. The number of 3-D screens in theaters is increasing ([[RealD Cinema|Real D]] company expects 15,000 screens worldwide in 2010). 3-D films encourage exhibitors to adopt [[digital cinema]] and provide a way to compete with home theaters. One incentive for 3-D screens is that although ticket sales decline, revenues from 3-D tickets grow.<ref>Walters, Ben. "The Great Leap Forward." Sight & Sound, 19.3. (2009) pp. 38–41.</ref>
The RealD 3D system works by using a single digital projector, that swaps back and forth between the images for each eye. A filter is placed in front of the projector that changes the polarisation of the light coming from the projector. A silver screen is used to reflect this light back at the audience and reduce loss of brightness. RealD is the most popular system, but there are three other systems available: Master Image, XpanD and [[Dolby 3D]].
When a system is used that requires inexpensive 3D glasses, they can sometimes be kept by the visitor. In most theaters the price is not simply for the glasses, but for the experience of 3D. Most theatres have a fixed cost for 3D, while others charge for the glasses, but the latter is uncommon (at least in the United States). For example, in [[movie theaters in the Netherlands|Pathé theaters in the Netherlands]] the extra fee for watching a 3D film consists of a fixed fee of € 1.50, and an optional fee of €1 for the glasses.<ref></ref> Holders of the ''Pathé Unlimited Gold'' pass (see also below) are supposed to bring along their own glasses; one pair, supplied yearly, more robust than the regular type, is included in the price.
[[IMAX]] ialah sebuah sistem yang memakai filem yang mempunyai lebih sepuluh kali ganda saiz gambar [[filem 35 mm]] untuk menghasilkan mutu gambar yang jauh lebih baik daripada filem biasa. Pawagam IMAX menggunakan skrin lebih saiz bersama projektor khas. Ciptaan sebuah syarikat Kanada, pawagam kekal pertama IMAX terletak di [[Ontario Place]] di [[Toronto]], [[Ontario]], [[Canada]].
Di pawagam IMAX yang disambungkan ke [[Muzium Media Kebangsaan]] di [[Bradford]], [[West Yorkshire]], [[England]], di [[United Kingdom]], pelawat ke tingkat enam muzium boleh melihat bilik projektor IMAX melalui dinding kaca belakang, dan melihat filem format besar dimuatkan dan ditayangkan.<ref></ref>
[[File:Cinema odeon firenze 1.JPG|thumb|Cinema Odeon in Florence]]
[[File:MovieTheatre gobeirne.jpg|thumb|right|Interior of Hoyts Southbank cinemas in Australia, with [[stadium seating]], [[Architectural acoustics|acoustic wall hangings]], wall-mounted speakers, and cup holders]]
[[File:50sStyleMovieThearter.png|thumb|right|Interior of a 1950s style [[fine arts movie]] theater. A low pitch viewing floor is used.]]
Traditionally a movie theater, like a [[Theatre|stage theatre]], consists of a single auditorium with rows of comfortable seats, as well as a foyer area containing a [[box office]] for buying [[Ticket (admission)|ticket]]s, a counter and/or self-service facilities for buying snacks and drinks, and [[Public toilet|washroom]]s. Stage theaters are sometimes converted into movie theatres by placing a screen in front of the stage and adding a [[movie projector|projector]]; this conversion may be permanent, or temporary for purposes such as showing [[Art film|arthouse]] fare to an audience accustomed to plays. The familiar characteristics of relatively low admission and open seating can be traced to [[Samuel Roxy Rothafel]], an early movie theater [[impresario]]. Many of these early theatres contain a [[balcony]], an elevated level across the auditorium above the theater's rearmost seats. The rearward main floor "loge" seats were sometimes larger, softer, and more widely spaced and sold for a higher price.
In conventional low pitch viewing floors the preferred [[Seating assignment|seating]] arrangement is to use staggered rows. While a less efficient use of floor space this allows a somewhat improved sight line between the patrons seated in the next row toward the screen, provided they do not lean toward one another.
"[[Stadium seating]]", popular in modern multiplexes, actually dates back to the 1920s. The 1922 Princess Theatre in Honolulu, Hawaii featured "stadium seating," sharply raked rows of seats extending from in front of the screen back towards the ceiling. It gives patrons a clear sight line over the heads of those seated in front of them. Modern "stadium seating" was utilized in [[IMAX]] theatres, which have very tall screens, beginning in the early 1970s.
Rows of seats are divided by one or more aisles so that there are seldom more than 20 seats in a row. This allows easier access to seating, as the space between rows is very narrow. Depending on the angle of rake of the seats, the aisles have steps. In older theaters, aisle lights were often built into the end seats of each row to help patrons find their way in the dark. Since the advent of stadium theaters with stepped aisles, each step in the aisles may be outlined with small [[lighting|light]]s to prevent patrons from tripping in the darkened theater.
Theaters often have booster seats for children and other short people to put on the seat, to sit higher, for a better view.
See also [[Movie_theater#Luxury_screens|luxury screens]] below.
===Multiplexes and megaplexes===
[[File:MultiplexMovieTheaterUSP06164018.png|thumb|right|Example of a Multiplex layout]]
[[File:ArenaMovieTheaterinSofia.jpg|thumb|200px|ARENA – a fifteen-screen movie theater in [[Sofia]], [[Bulgaria]]]]
Canada was the first country in the world to have a two-screen theater. The [[Elgin Theatre (Ottawa)|Elgin Theatre]] in [[Ottawa]] became the first venue to offer two film programs on different screens in 1957 when Canadian theater-owner [[Nat Taylor]] converted the dual screen theater into one capable of showing two different films simultaneously.
Taylor is credited by Canadian sources as the inventor of the multiplex or cineplex; he later founded the [[Cineplex Odeon Corporation]], opening the 18-screen [[Toronto Eaton Centre]] Cineplex, the world's largest at the time, in Toronto, Canada.[]
In the United States, Stanley Durwood of American Multi-Cinema (now [[AMC Theatres]]) is credited as pioneering the ''multiplex'' in 1963 after realizing that he could operate several attached auditoriums with the same staff needed for one through careful management of the start times for each movie. Ward Parkway Center in Kansas City, Missouri had the first multiplex cinema in the United States.
Since the 1960s, multiple-screen theatres have become the norm, and many existing venues have been retrofitted so that they have multiple auditoriums. A single foyer area is shared among them. In the 1970s many large 1920s [[movie palace]]s were converted into multiple screen venues by dividing their large auditoriums, and sometimes even the stage space, into smaller theaters.
In most markets, nearly all single-screen theatres (sometimes referred to as a "Uniplex") have gone out of business; the ones remaining are generally used for [[Art film|arthouse]] films, e.g. the Crest Theatre [] in downtown [[Sacramento, California]], small scale productions, film festivals or other presentations. Because of the late development of multiplexes, the term "cinema" or "theater" may refer either to the whole complex or a single auditorium, and sometimes "screen" is used to refer to an auditorium.
A popular film may be shown on multiple screens at the same multiplex, which reduces the choice of other films but offers more choice of viewing times or a greater number of seats to accommodate patrons. Two or three screens may be created by dividing up an existing cinema (as Durwood did with his Roxy in 1964), but newly built multiplexes usually have at least six to eight screens, and often as many as twelve, fourteen or even sixteen.
Although definitions vary, a large multiplex with 20 or more screens is usually called a [[Multiplex (movie theater)|megaplex]] however in the United Kingdom this was a brand name for large Virgin Cinema (later UGC). The first megaplex is generally considered to be the [[Kinepolis]] in [[Brussels]], [[Belgium]], which opened in 1988 with 25 screens and a [[seating capacity]] of 7,500. The first theatre in the U.S. built from the ground up as a megaplex was the AMC Grand 24 in [[Dallas|Dallas, Texas]], which opened in May 1995, while the first megaplex in the U.S. based on an expansion of an existing facility was Studio 28 in [[Grand Rapids, Michigan]], which reopened in November 1988 with 20 screens and a [[seating capacity]] of 6,000.
===Pandu masuk===
[[Pawagam pandu masuk]] secara amnya adalah tempat letak kereta luar dengan skrin – sometimes an [[Inflatable movie screen|inflatable screen]] – at one end and a projection booth at the other. Penonton memandu memasuki tempat letak kereta yang kadangkala dicondongnaik di bahagian depan untuk memberi pandangan lebih terus kepada skrin. Filem biasanya ditonton melalui cermin hadapan kereta walaubagaimanapun sesetengah orang lebih biasa duduk atas penutup enjin kereta. Bunyi dibekalkan melalui [[ pembesar suara]] mudah alih ditepi setiap tapak letak kerea, atau dipancarkan melalui frekuensi radio FM, untuk dimainbalikkan melalui sistem bunyi kenderaan. Because of their outdoor nature, drive-ins biasanya beroperasi mengikut musim, dan selepas senja. Drive-in movie theatres are mainly found in the [[United States]], where they were especially popular in the 1950s and 1960s. Once numbering in the thousands, about 400 remain in the U.S. today. In some cases, multiplex or megaplex theatres were built on the sites of former drive-in theatres.
===Tempat-tempat lain===
[[File:Airscreen.JPG|right|thumb|A giant [[inflatable movie screen]] used at a temporary outdoor movie theater (open air cinema)<ref>[ blog about open air cinemas]</ref>]]
[[File:vintage mobile cinema.jpg|right|thumb|1967 Bedford mobile cinema]]
Some [[outdoor cinema|outdoor movie theatres]] are just cleared areas where the audience sits upon chairs or blankets and watch the movie on a temporary screen, or even the wall of a convenient building.
Colleges and universities have often sponsored film screenings in lecture halls. The formats of these screenings include 35&nbsp;mm, 16&nbsp;mm, DVD, VHS, and even 70&nbsp;mm in rare cases.
Some alternative methods of showing films have been popular in the past. In the 1980s the introduction of [[VHS]] cassettes made possible video-salons, small rooms where visitors viewed the film on a large TV. These establishments were especially popular in the [[Soviet Union]], where official distribution companies were slow to adapt to changing demand, and so movie theatres could not show popular [[Hollywood]] and [[Asian cinema|Asian films]].
In 1967 the British government launched seven custom built [[mobile cinema]] units for use as part of the [[Minister of Technology|Ministry of Technology]] campaign to raise standards. Using a very futuristic look these 27 seat cinema vehicles were designed to attract attention. They were built on a [[Bedford SB|Bedford SB3]] chassis with a custom Coventry Steel Caravan extruded aluminium body.
Films are also commonly shown on [[airliner]]s in flight, using large screens in each cabin or smaller screens for each group of rows or each individual seat; the [[airline]] company sometimes charges a fee for the [[headphones]] needed to hear the films's sound. Films are sometimes also shown on [[train]]s, such as the [[Auto Train]].
The smallest purpose-built cinema is the Cabiria Cine-Cafe which measures 24 m² (258.3&nbsp;ft²) and has a [[seating capacity]] of 18. It was built by Renata Carneiro Agostinho da Silva (Brazil) in Brasília DF, Brazil in 2008. It is mentioned in the ''[[Guinness World Records|Guinness Book of Records]]'', January, 2010.
The [[Bell Museum of Natural History]] in [[Minneapolis]], [[Minnesota]] has recently begun summer "bike-ins," inviting only pedestrians or people on bicycles onto the grounds for both live music and movies. In various [[Canada|Canadian]] cities, including [[Toronto]], [[Calgary]], [[Ottawa]] and [[Halifax Regional Municipality|Halifax]], al-fresco movies projected on the walls of buildings or temporarily erected screens in parks operate during the Summer and cater to a pedestrian audience.
Movie theaters may be classified by the type of movies or when they are shown:
*''Pawagam tayangan pertama'': A theater that runs primarily [[mainstream]] film fare from the major film companies and [[pengedar filem|pengedar]] filem, during the initial new release period of each film.
*''Tayangan kedua'' atau ''pawagam diskaun'': A theater that runs films that have already shown in the first-run theaters and presented at a lower ticket price. (These are sometimes known as [[Discount theater|dollar theaters]] or "Cheap Seats" ("Tempat Duduk Murah").) This form of cinema is diminishing in viability owing to the increasingly shortened intervals before the films' [[home video]] release, called the [[video window]].
*''Repertoire/repertory theater'' or ''arthouse'': A theater that presents more alternative and [[art film]]s as well as second-run and classic films (often known as an "Independent Cinema" in the UK).
*Sebuah ''[[pawagam orang dewasa]]'' atau ''pawagam seks'' yang lebih kepada penayangan [[filem lucah]]. Filem sebegini jarang ditayangkan di pawagam lain dan diharamkan secara sambungan undang-undang pengharaman bahan lucah di negara-negara yang melarangkannya. See also [[Golden Age of Porn]].
*Pawagam [[IMAX]] boleh menayangkan filem-filem biasa, but the major benefits of the IMAX system are only available when showing movies filmed using it. While a few mainstream feature films have been produced in IMAX, [[IMAX#Content|filem IMAX]] are often [[documentary film|documentaries]] featuring spectacular natural scenery, and may be limited to the 45-minute length of a single reel of IMAX film.
[[File:Projecteur cinématographique 35mm.jpg|300px|thumb|[[35 mm film|35 mm]] movie projector in operation]]
[[File:Biografmuseet 2011x.jpg|thumb|The interior of the control room where the projectors are located.]]
Usually an admission is for one [[feature film]]. Sometimes two feature films are sold as one admission ([[double feature]]), with a break in between. Separate admission for a [[Short film|short subject]] is rare; it is either an extra before a feature film or part of a series of short subjects sold as one admission (this mainly occurs at film festivals). (See also [[anthology film]].)
Historically, many movie theatres presented a number of shorter items in addition to the feature film. This might include a [[newsreel]], live-action comedy [[short film]]s, documentary short films, musical short films, and/or [[animated cartoon|cartoon shorts]] (many classic cartoons series such as the ''[[Looney Tunes]]'' and ''[[Mickey Mouse]]'' shorts were created for this purpose). Examples of this kind of programming are available on certain DVD releases of two of the most famous films starring [[Errol Flynn]] as a special feature arrangement designed to recreate that kind of filmgoing experience while the [[PBS]] series, ''[[Matinee at the Bijou]]'', presented the equivalent content. Some theatres ran on ''continuous showings'', where the same items would repeat throughout the day, with patrons arriving and departing at any time rather than having distinct entrance and exit cycles. Newsreels gradually became obsolete by the 1960s with the rise of television news, and most material now shown prior to a feature film is of a commercial or promotional nature.
A typical modern theatre presents [[Television advertisement|commercial advertising short]]s, then [[trailer (film)|movie trailer]]s, and then the feature film. Advertised start times are usually for the entire program or session, not the feature itself;<ref>[ "The love and loathing of cinema ads"], BBC News website, 23 February 2005</ref> thus people who want to avoid commercials and/or trailers would opt to enter later. This is easiest and causes the least inconvenience when it is not crowded, and/or one is not very choosy about where one wants to sit. If one has a ticket for a specific seat (see below) one is formally assured of that, but it is still inconvenient and disturbing to find and claim it during the commercials and trailers, unless it is near an aisle.
Some movie theaters have some kind of [[intermission|break]] during the presentation. There may also be a break between the introductory material and the feature. Some countries such as the [[Netherlands]] have a tradition of incorporating an intermission in regular feature presentations, though many theaters have now abandoned that tradition,<ref>[ website]</ref> while in North America, ini tersangat jarang dan biasanya dihadkan kepada hal-hal khas yang melibatkan filem tersangat panjang.
Semasa [[kredit penutup]] ramai penonton pergi, seglintir tinggal hingga penamat. Biasanya lampu dibuka selepas kredit, kadang-kala semasa kredit berjalan. Sesetengah filem menayangkan babak tambahan semasa kredit berjalan.
Until the multiplex era, prior to showtime, the screen would typically be covered by the traditional curtain which would be drawn for the feature. It is common practice in Australia for the curtain to cover part of the screen during advertising and trailers, then be fully drawn to reveal the full width of the screen for the main feature. Some theaters, lacking a curtain, occupied the screen with slides of some form of [[abstract art]]. Currently, in multiplexes, theater chains often feature a continuous [[slideshow]] between showings featuring a loop of movie trivia, promotional material for the theater chains (such as encouraging patrons to purchase [[Scrip|gift voucher]]s and group rates, or buy foyer retail offers), or advertising for local and national businesses. Advertisements for [[Fandango (ticket service)|Fandango]] and other convenient methods of purchasing tickets is often shown. Also prior to showing the film, reminders, in varying forms would be shown concerning theater etiquette (no smoking, no talking, no littering, removing crying babies, etc.) and in recent years, added reminders to silence mobile phones as well as concerning movie piracy.
Some well-equipped theaters have "interlock" projectors which allow two or more projectors and sound units to be run in unison by connecting them electronically or mechanically. This set up can be used to project two prints in sync (for dual-projector 3-D) or to "interlock" one or more sound tracks to a single film. Sound interlocks were used for stereophonic sound systems before the advent of magnetic film prints. Fantasound (developed by [[RCA]] in 1940 for Disney's Fantasia) was an early interlock system. Likewise, early stereophonic films such as ''[[This Is Cinerama]]'' and ''[[House of Wax (1953 film)|House of Wax]]'' utilized a separate, magnetic oxide-coated film to reproduce up to six or more tracks of stereophonic sound.
Datasat Digital Entertainment, purchaser of [[DTS (sound system)|DTS]]'s cinema division in May 2008, uses a time code printed on and read off of the film to synchronize with a CD-ROM in the sound track, allowing multi-channel soundtracks or foreign language tracks. This is not considered a projector interlock, however.
This practice is most common with so-called blockbuster movies. [[Muvico Theaters]], [[Regal Entertainment Group]], [[Pacific Theatres]] and [[AMC Theatres]] are some theatres that interlock films.{{Citation needed|date=May 2009}}
===Siaran langsung ke pawagam===
Sometimes movie theaters provide digital projection of a live [[Broadcasting|broadcast]] of an opera, concert, or other performance or event. For example, there are regular [[Metropolitan Opera Live in HD|live broadcasts to movie theaters of Metropolitan Opera performances]], with additionally limited repeat showings.
Admission prices are often more than twice the regular movie theater admission prices.
==Pricing and admission==
[[File:50sStyleMovieBoxOffice.png|thumb|333px|right|[[Box office]] of a 1950s style [[fine arts movie]] theater.<ref>[ The Fine Arts Theatre Group Proudly Presents...]</ref>]]
[[File:Msia movie ticket.jpg|thumb|200px|right|A typical Malaysian movie ticket.]]
In order to obtain [[Admission to an event or establishment|admission]] to a movie theater, the prospective theater-goer must usually purchase a [[Ticket (admission)|ticket]], which may be for an arbitrary seat ("open" or "free" seating, [[pertama datang, pertama dilayan]]) or for a specific one ([[allocated seating]]).<ref>[ See e.g]</ref> Movie theaters in North America generally have open seating. Cinemas in Europe can have free seating or numbered seating. Some theatres in Mexico offer numbered seating, in particular, Cinepolis VIP. In the case of numbered seating systems the attendee can often pick seats from a screen; sometimes the attendee cannot see the screen and has to make a choice based on still available seats. In the case of free seats, already seated customers may be forced by staff to move one or more places for the benefit of an arriving couple or group wanting to sit together.
Pada 2010, purata harga tiket pawagam di Amerika Syarikat adalah $7.89.<ref></ref>
The price of a ticket may be discounted during off-peak times e.g. for [[wiktionary:matinée|matinées]], and higher at busy times, typically evenings and/or weekends. In [[Australia]], [[Canada]] and [[New Zealand]], when this practice is used, it is traditional to offer the lower prices for Tuesday for all showings, one of the slowest days of the week in the movie theatre business, which has led to the nickname "cheap Tuesday."<ref>[ Skirl | Dan Dickinson » Blog Archive » First the accusatory vignettes that air before the movie, and now this<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Sometimes tickets are cheaper on Monday, or on Sunday morning. Almost all movie theaters employ economic [[price discrimination]]: tickets for youth, students, and seniors are typically cheaper. Large theater chains, such as AMC Theaters, also own smaller theaters that show "second runs" of popular films, at reduced ticket prices. Movie theaters in India and other developing countries employ price discrimination in seating arrangement: seats closer to the screen cost less, while the ones farthest from the screen cost more.
In the [[United States]], many movie theater chains sell discounted passes, which can be exchanged for tickets to regular showings. These passes are traditionally sold in bulk to institutional customers and also to the general public.<ref>[ Bulktix Movie Passes]</ref><ref>[ Wildaboutmovies Movie Passes]</ref> Some passes provide substantial discounts from the price of regular admission, especially if they carry restrictions. Common restrictions include a waiting period after a movie's release before the pass can be exchanged for a ticket or specific theaters where a pass is ineligible for admission.
Some movie theaters and chains sell monthly passes for unlimited entrance to regular showings. Even if the price is quoted per month the minimum duration may be several months, and when subscribing again after termination a one-time extra fee may be charged. Some examples:
*''UGC Illimité'' passes for all [[UGC (cinema operator)|UGC]]/[[Marin Karmitz|MK2]] movie theaters in France and Belgium (620 screens), for 19.80 euro/month or 35 euro/month for two people, and an entrance fee of 30 euro. (since 2000)
*''Carte Le Pass'' for the chain of movie theatres of [[Pathé]]/[[Gaumont Film Company|Gaumont]] in 40 French cities (with a total of 800 screens), for 20.50 euro/month.
*''UGC Unlimited'' passes for the four [[UGC (cinema operator)|UGC]] movie theaters in Belgium (56 screens), for 16,90 euro/month.
*''Pathé Unlimited Card (PUC)'' for the chain of 16 multi- and megaplex theatres of [[Movie theaters in the Netherlands|Pathé in the Netherlands]] (129 screens), for €19/month.
*''Pathé Unlimited Gold'' for the same movie theaters, but including 3D and IMAX, for €26/month.
*''Cineville Pass'' for 13 Amsterdam movie theaters (almost all movie theaters in Amsterdam except the four of Pathé and the adult movie theaters) for € 17.50 per month.
*''Groninger Filmkaart'' for €20/month for the two movie theaters MustSee [[Euroborg]] (10 screens) and Images (3 screens) in [[Groningen (city)|Groningen]].
*''Must See All Card'' for €18/month for movie theater MustSee Euroborg only.
*''[[Cineworld#Unlimited_card|Unlimited Card]]'' for the chain of movie theaters of [[Cineworld]] (formerly UGC) in the UK and Ireland, for £14.99/month, or £17.99 including those in [[West End of London|London's West End]] (plus £1.50 per 3D film viewed) – tickets can only be purchased on the day of the showing.
*''SF Movie Passport'' pass for all the movies shown in [[SF Group]] theaters in Thailand, valid for a month for one person and one showing per movie, at the price of 800 [[Thai baht|baht]] or eqv USD 20.
*''Membresía Club Cinépolis'' $125 Pesos(10USD)/month for the regular membership grants access to all the facilities across México for unlimited viewing. 1 Year of forced membership is required. There are also VIP and double memberships.
*''Hotlips'' [[adult movie theater]] [[The Hague]], for 55 euro/month.
Note that in Thailand there is the restriction of one viewing per movie, while in the Netherlands one can see any movie as many times as one wants as is the case with the Cineworld UK pass.
The increasing number of 3D films, for which a fee is required, somewhat undermines the concept of unlimited entrance to regular showings, in particular if no 2D version is screened, except in the cases where 3D is included. Also, in one Pathé theater in the Netherlands on one day of the week buying a drink and a snack is compulsory.
Some adult theaters sell a day pass, either as standard ticket, or as an option that costs a little more than a single admission.
Bagi sesetengah [[pesta filem]] sebuah pas dijual bagi kemasukan tanpa had.
===Luxury screens===
Cinemas in city centers are increasingly offering luxury seating with services like complimentary refills of [[soft drink]]s and [[popcorn]], a [[bar (establishment)|bar]], reclining [[leather]] seats and service bells. The [[Vue (cinema)|Vue Cinema]] chain is a good example of a large-scale offering of such a service, called "Gold Class" and similarly [[United Kingdom|Britain]]'s largest cinema chain ODEON have gallery areas in some of their bigger cinemas where there is a separate foyer area with a bar and unlimited snacks.{{citation needed|date=January 2012}}
===Had umur===
Admission to a movie mungkin juga dihadkan oleh [[sistem klasifikasi filem]]. Menurut sesebuah sistem, kanak-kanak atau remaja dibawah umur children or teenagers mungkin dilarang memasuki pawagam yang menayangkan filem-filem tertentu, atau hanya dibenarkan masuk sekiranya ditemani ibubapa atau orang dewasa lain. In some jurisdictions a rating may legally impose this on movie theaters. Lebih lagi, dimana pawagam tidak mempunyai kewajiban itu, mereka mungkin enforce restrictions on their own.
Accordingly, a movie theater may either not be allowed to program an unrated film, atau tidak berbuat demikian secara sukarela. Di Amerika Syarikat many mainstream movie theaters do not even show movies rated [[Sistem klasifikasi filem Persatuan Wayang GAmbar Amerika#5 klasifikasi|NC-17]] ("No one 17 and under admitted")("Tiada orang bawah 17 tahun dibenarkan masuk"). Often, instead, an edited R-rated version ("Restricted. Persons under 17 are not admitted unless accompanied by parent or adult guardian.")("Terhad. Orang dibawah umur 17 tahun dilarang masuk kecali ditemani ibubapa atau penjaga dewasa.") is shown. {{Dubious|date=March 2008}}
[[Movie studio]]s/[[film distributor]]s in the U.S. traditionally drive hard bargains entitling them to as much as 100% of the gross ticket revenue during the first weeks (and then the balance changes in 10% increments at an undetermined time).<ref>Darren Filson, David Switzer and Portia Besocke, "At the movies: the economics of exhibition contracts," ''Economic Inquiry'' 43, no. 2 (April 2005): 354–370.</ref> See also '''[[box office]]'''.
Film exhibition has seen a rise in its development with video consolidation as well as DVD sales, which over the past two decades is the biggest earner in revenue. According to The Contemporary Hollywood Film Industry, Philip Drake states that box office takings currently account for less than a quarter of total revenues and have become increasingly “front loaded,” earning the majority of receipts in the opening two weeks of exhibition, meaning that films need to make an almost instant impact in order to avoid being dropped from screens by exhibitors. Essentially, if the film does not succeed in the first few weeks of its inception, it will most likely fail in its attempt to gain a sustainable amount of revenue and thus being taken out from movie theaters. Furthermore, higher-budget films on the “opening weekend,” or the three days, Friday to Sunday, can signify how much revenue it will bring in, not only to America, but as well as overseas. It may also determine the price in distribution windows through home video and television.
<ref>{{cite book|last=McDonald; Wasko|first=Paul; Janet|title=The Contemporary Hollywood Film Industry|year=2008|publisher=Blackwell|location=Malden, MA|pages=126}}</ref>
===Ticket price uniformity===
The relatively strong uniformity of movie ticket prices, particularly in the U.S., is a common economics puzzle, because conventional supply and demand theory would suggest higher prices for more popular movies, and vice versa. Unlike seemingly similar forms of entertainment such as rock concerts, every movie is a unique product. Demand is very difficult to predict ahead of time, and is usually determined from ticket sale statistics after the movie is already out. Uniform pricing is therefore a strategy to cope with unpredictable demand. Historical and cultural factors are sometimes also cited.<ref>McKenzie, Richard B. ''Why Popcorn Costs So Much at the Movies: And Other Pricing Puzzles''. ISBN 978-0-387-76999-8, 2008, pp. 166–174.</ref>
===Pemeriksaan tiket===
Dalam sesetengah komplex pawagam, susunan pawagam adalah supaya tiket diperiksa semasa memasuki plaza sepenuhnya, rather than before each theater.
Di pawagam yang penuh atau tayangan [[filem 3D]], kerapkali/selalu ada pemeriksaan tiket tambahan, supaya semua penonton dengan tiket untuk filem tersebut boleh mendapatkan tempat duduk/perkakas melihat filem 3D.
Lobi mungkin berada sebelum ataupun selepas tempat pemeriksaan tiket.
==Budaya pawagam Amerika Syarikat==
Pawagam biasanya dikaitkan dengan [[dating]], [[popcorn]] and expensive treats{{citation needed|date=January 2012}}.
Sometimes couples go to a movie theater for the additional reason that it provides the possibility of intimacy, where the dark provides some privacy (with additional privacy in the back-row). This kind of intimacy is considered by some a lesser form of [[public display of affection]]. Compared with being together in a room without other people, it may also be reassuring for one or both of the couple (and for parents) that the intimacy is necessarily limited.
[[Armrest|Arm rests]] pose a hindrance to intimacy for some people. Some theaters have love seats: seats for two without an armrest in the middle. The most modern theaters have movable armrests throughout the theater that when down can hold a food container as well as act as an armrest or partition between the seats and when up allow closer contact between the couple. Some theaters such as the [[Speakeasy Theaters|Parkway]] in [[Oakland, California]] have sofas for greater comfort.<ref>[ The Parkway Speakeasy Theater: interior photo with sofas]</ref>
===Foyer area, food and drinks===
Movie theaters usually sell various [[snack food]]s and drinks at retail counters or kiosks. Sometimes it can be a self-service where one pays at the counter till, and/or a coin-operated machines. Sometimes the area of sale is more like a self-service shop or kiosk (it is not suitable for consuming the goods), and one pays at the check-out between the shop and the area with the screens. Foods usually served at movie theatres include [[popcorn]], [[soft drink]]s, [[nachos]], [[hot dog]]s, [[ice cream]]s and a wide range of [[confectionery]]. At most theatres, people are allowed to select their own sweets (known as "[[pick 'n' mix|pick and mix]]".)
The facilities for buying snacks and drinks often represent the theater's primary source of profit since most of the ticket revenue goes to the film distributor (and onward to the movie studio){{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}. Some movie theaters forbid eating and drinking inside the viewing room (restricting such activities to the foyer), while others encourage it by fitting [[cup holder]]s on the arm rests (on the front side of the arm rests of one's own chair, or the back side of the arm rests in front) and selling large portions of [[popcorn]] and soft drinks; also in that case bringing one's own food and drinks may be forbidden. Retail is currently a huge area of expansion with many companies in the U.S. offering a wider range of snacks, including [[hot dog]]s and [[nachos]].
Many theaters have embraced the "brew and view" concept, serving alcoholic beverages, in addition to snacks and popcorn. Some movie theaters such as the [[Living Room Theaters]] or [[Alamo Drafthouse Cinema|Alamo Drafthouse]] offer full restaurant service at one's seat, though this is not as widespread. [[McMenamins]] is a chain of [[restaurant]]/[[Microbrewery#Brewpub|brewpub]] establishments in the U.S. states of [[Oregon]] and [[Washington (U.S. state)|Washington]], many of which have full movie theaters.
Some movie theaters feature a wider selection than simply snacks and popcorn. These "dine-in" theaters allow patrons to purchase "meals" (ranging from pizza slices to hamburgers and more) yang boleh dimakan semasa menonton tayangan.
The health benefits of this cinema food are generally low, dan telah bertahun-tahun dibahaskan. Pemilik syarikat [[Sony Pictures]], Michael Lynton, has been one of the chief arguers over this, and has wanted cinemas worldwide to stop providing this junk food and instead provide healthier alternatives, like crudités, smoothies, nuts, granola bars and additive-free air-popped popcorn.
Disebabkan julat harga tiket filem hari ini dan harapan keselesaan dan kesunyian dalam suasana panggung wayang, pawagam biasanya menjadi tempat berlakunya pergaduhan semasa tayangan. Para penonton biasanya dikacau oleh penggunaan telefon bimbit, percakapan, dan gangguan lain semasa tayangan.
Contohnya, sebuah filem terpaksa diberhentikan di Regal Stadium 14 di Bowie, MD kerana berlakunya pergaduhan yang berlaku disebabkan remaja yang selalu meletakkan kakinya atas kerusi kanak-kanak yang duduk dihadapannya. Bapa kanak-kanak itu terpaksa diiringi keluar oleh pihak polis tempatatan.<ref>{{cite web|title=Bowie theater fight, father escorted from theater|url=|accessdate=24 June 2011}}</ref>
Pada Februari 2011, selepas sebuah tayangan filem ''[[Black Swan (filem)|Black Swan]]'' di [[Latvia]], seorang lelaki ditembak mati kerana memakan popcornnya dengan bunyi terlalu kuat.<ref>{{cite news|title=Man shot dead for eating popcorn too loudly during ''Black Swan''|url=|accessdate=19 July 2011 | location=London|work=The Daily Telegraph|date=February 21, 2011}}</ref>
Pada 18 Julai, 2008, sebuah tayangan filem ''[[The Dark Knight (filem)|The Dark Knight]]'' terpaksa ditangguhkan kira-kira sejam kerana berlaku banyak pergaduhan terhadap menyimpan tempat duduk. Rusuhan hampir berlaku dan polis terpaksa dipanggil masuk.<ref>{{cite news|title=Near riot at Cradle of aviation over Batman |url=}}</ref>
Pada 20 Julai 2012, semasa tayangan tengah malam filem [[The Dark Knight Rises]] di Aurora, Colorado, seorang penembak membunuh 12 orang dan mencederakan 59 orang.
==Business practice controversies==
*''Pengiklanan'' – Many filmgoers complain about [[Television advertisement|commercial advertising short]]s, arguing that their absence would be one of the main advantages of going to a movie theater. Para pengkritik lain seperti [[Roger Ebert]] telah expressed concerns bahawa iklan-iklan tersebut, termasuk bilangan [[treler (filem)|treler filem]] yang melampau, mungkin menyebabkan tekanan untuk memendekkan panjang filem untuk membantu jadual tayangan. So far, the theatre companies have typically been highly resistant to these complaints, dengan alasan keperluan untung sampingan. Some chains like Famous Players and AMC Theatres have compromised with the commercials restricted to being shown before the scheduled start time for the trailers and the feature film. Individual theaters within a chain also sometimes adopt this policy.
*''Presentation'' – Another major recent concern is that the dramatic improvements in [[Sound reinforcement system|stereo sound systems]] have led to cinemas playing the soundtracks of presented films at unacceptably high volume levels. Biasanya, treler filem ditayangkan dengan kekuatan bunyi yang amat tinggi, presumably to overcome the sounds of a busy crowd. Keamatan bunyi tidak diturunkan bagi pawagam yang hampir kosong, dan sesetengah penonton menggunapakai penyumbat telinga semasa penayangan treler. Ke Volume is normally adjusted based on the projectionist's judgment of a high or low attendance. The film is usually shown at a lower volume level than the trailers. Bagi menjawab aduan para penonton, seorang pengurus sebuah pawagam Cinemark di California menerangkan bahawa studiolah yang menentukan kekuatan bunyi treler, bukannya pawagam.
*''Kegiatan cetak rompak'' – In recent years, cinemas have started to show warnings, before the movie starts, against using [[camera]]s and [[camcorder]]s during the movie ([[Cam (bootleg)|camming]]). These warnings threaten customers with being removed from the cinema and arrested by the police. This example was shown at cinemas in the [[United Kingdom]]:
:: ''You are not permitted to use any camera or recording equipment in this cinema. This will be treated as an attempt to breach copyright. Any person doing so can be ejected and such articles may be confiscated by the police. We ask the audience to be vigilant against any such activity and report any matters arousing suspicion to cinema staff. Thank you.''
:: ''Anda tidak dibenarkan menggunakan kamera atau apa-apa perkakas rakaman dalam pawagam ini. Perbuatan ini akan diambil kira sebagai percubaan melanggar hak cipta. Sesiapa yang berbuat demikian boleh diusir dan perkakasan sedemikian mungkin dirampas pihak polis. Kami meminta para penonton supaya awas terhadap apa-apa kegiatan merakam dan melaporkan apa-apa hal mencurigakan kepada kakitangan pawagam. Terima kasih.''
:Sesetengah pawagam (termasuk mereka dengan stadium IMAX) mempunyai pengesan pada pintu untuk mengesan penyeludup perkakas rakaman. At particularly anticipated showings, theatres may employ [[night vision]] equipment to detect a working camera during a screening. In some jurisdictions this is illegal unless the practice has been announced to the public in advance.
*''Crowd control'' – As movie theaters have grown into multiplexes and megaplexes, [[crowd control]] has become a major concern. An overcrowded megaplex can be rather unpleasant, and in an emergency can be extremely dangerous (indeed, "[[shouting fire in a crowded theater]]" is the standard example in American English of how to cause unnecessary panic). Therefore, all major theater chains have implemented crowd control measures. The most well-known measure is the ubiquitous '''holdout line''' which prevents ticket holders for the next showing of that weekend's most popular movie from entering the building until their particular auditorium has been cleared out and cleaned. Since the 1980s, some theater chains (especially AMC Theatres) have developed a policy of co-locating their theaters in [[shopping mall|shopping center]]s (as opposed to the old practice of building stand-alone theaters). They deliberately build lobbies and corridors that cannot hold as many people as the auditoriums, thus making holdout lines necessary. In turn, pemegang tiket mungkin tergoda untuk membeli-belah atau makan semasa stuck outside in the holdout line. However, given the fact that rent is based on floor area, the practice of having a smaller lobby is somewhat understandable.
*''Pemulangan wang'' – Kebanyakan syarikat pawagam memberi pulangan wang jika terdapat masalah teknikal seperti [[gangguan bekalan elektrik]] yang menghalang penonton daripada melihat tayangan filem. Pemulangan wang mungkin diberi semasa minit-minit pertama tayangan, sekiranya seseorang penonton itu berubah fikiran atau tidak menyukai filem.
==Movie theaters and chains==
{{Main|List of cinema and movie theater chains}}
==Lihat juga==
*[[Lembaga Klasifikasi Filem British]]
*[[Lembaga Penapisan Filem Malaysia]]
*[[Tayangan filem]]
*[[Fictional film]]
*[[Pawagam rumah]]
*[[Inflatable movie screen]]
*[[Senarai format filem]]
*[[Persatuan Wayang Gambar Amerika]]
*[[Movie palace]]
*[[Multiplex (movie theater)|Multiplex movie theater]]
*[[Nickelodeon (pawagam)|Nickelodeon movie theater]]
*[[Surround sound]] dan [[THX]]
==Pautan luar==
* [] - Best movie guide for movie theaters in the middle east
* [ Mitchel and Moe Mark and a History of Buffalo's Vitascope Theater, World's First Purpose-Built Movie Theater]
* [ Cinema Treasures] – Database of movie theaters around the world
* [ Cinematour] - Database of movie theatres around the world
* [ Enright's Theatres of Canada] – Theatres of Canada
* [ I Remember JFK: The Downtown Movie Theater]
* [ Theatre Historical Society of America] – official site
* [ Archives of Ontario]{{Dead link|date=December 2009}} Various historical photos of movie theatres in Ontario (Canada), along with brief history.
* [ Film indir]
* [ The Open-Air Cinemas of Greece]
*[;adv=yes;group=;groupequals=;page=0;parentid=;query=Number%3A359894%20|%20Number%3A349744%20|%20Number%3A359893%20|%20Number%3A359778%20|%20Number%3A360070%20|%20Number%3A359843%20|%20Number%3A359821%20|%20Number%3A358966%20|%20Number%3A356463%20|%20Number%3A353586%20|%20Number%3A359805%20|%20Number%3A359263%20|%20Number%3A359590%20|%20Number%3A359801%20|%20Number%3A359838%20|%20Number%3A351659%20|%20Number%3A359576%20|%20Number%3A359788%20|%20Number%3A359271%20|%20Number%3A358858;querytype=;resCount=10 Australian Theatres at the National Film and Sound Archive]
* [ Eyewitness To History: Air Conditioning Goes to the Movies, 1925]
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