Perbezaan antara semakan "Sejarah fizik"

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Pada zaman purba, tindakan-tindakan dan sifat-sifat dunia biasanya diterangkan melalui tindakan [[Dewa|dewa-dewa]]. Akhirnya, penjelasan yang mengagak-agak telah dicadangkan; bagaimanapun kebanyakannya kini didapati salah, tetapi ini hanya merupakan sebahagian daripada sifat-sifat usaha penjelasan sistematik, dan teori-teori [[mekanik kuantum]] dan [[teori kerelatifan|kerelatifan]] yang moden juga dianggap hanya sebagai "teori-teori yang masih belum dibuktikan salah". Teori-teori fizik pada zaman purba biasanya dikemukakan dari segi [[falsafah]], dan jarang ditentusahkan melalui ujian [[uji kaji]] yang sistematik.
 
===Sumbangan India===
 
{{See|Sains dan teknologi di India kuno}}
{{BI|History of physics}}
===Indian contributions===
{{See|Science and technology in ancient India}}
In [[Lothal]] (c. 2400 BC), the ancient [[port city]] of the [[Indus Valley Civilization|Harappan civilization]], shell objects served as [[compass|compasses]] to measure the angles of the 8&ndash;12 fold divisions of the horizon and sky in multiples of 40&ndash;360 degrees, and the positions of stars. <ref name="time1"> {{cite web|url=http://www.adj.si/Main/MejnikiVAstronomiji |title=Astronomsko društvo JAVORNIK |accessdate=2007-01-12 |date=2006-06-27 }}</ref> In the late [[Vedic civilization|Vedic era]] (c. [[9th century BC|9th]]&ndash;[[6th century BC]]), the [[Astronomer|astronomer]] [[Yajnavalkya]], in his ''[[Shatapatha Brahmana]]'', referred to an early concept of [[heliocentrism]] with the Earth being round and the Sun being the "centre of spheres". He measured the distances of the Moon and the Sun from the Earth as 108 times the diameters of these heavenly bodies, which were close to the modern values of 110.6 for the Moon and 107.6 for the Sun.<ref name='time2'> {{cite web|url=http://indicethos.org/Astronomy/ |accessdate=2007-01-12 |last=Vepa |first=Kosla |title=Indic Studies Foundation }}</ref> <!-- Note a better source could be found, as this infomation is pretty far down in this timeline. -->
 
A particularly important Indian contribution was the [[Hindu-Arabic numerals]]. Modern physics can hardly be imagined without a system of arithmetic in which simple calculation is easy enough to make large calculations even possible. The modern [[Positional notation|positional]] [[numeral system]] (the [[Hindu-Arabic numeral system]]) and the number [[0 (number)|zero]] were first developed in India, along with the [[trigonometric function]]s of sine and cosine. These mathematical developments, along with the Indian developments in physics, were adopted by the [[Islam]]ic [[Caliph]]ate, from where they spread to Europe and other parts of the world.
 
===ChineseSumbangan contributionsCina===
{{See|ScienceSains anddan technologyteknologi indi China}}
In 1115 BC, the [[Zhonghua minzu|Chinese]] invented the first geared mechanism, the [[South Pointing Chariot]], which was also the first to use a [[differential gear]].<ref name="china1"> {{cite web|url=http://www.odts.de/southptr/needham/index.htm |title=Ruts in Written History |accessdate=2007-01-13 }}</ref> <!-- There has to be a better source then this, but this was the best that I could find. Their should be a source somewhere that describes more fully what this is. -->
 
The ''Mo Ching'' (allegedly written by [[Mo Tzu]]) written around the [[3rd century BC]] stated an early version of [[Newton's laws of motion|Newton's first law of motion]]:
 
"''The cessation of motion is due to the opposing force&nbsp;... If there is no opposing force&nbsp;... the motion will never stop. This is as true as that an ox is not a horse.''"<ref name='china2'> {{cite web|url=http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi2080.htm |title=No. 2080: THE SURVIVAL OF INVENTION |accessdate=2007-01-13 |last=Lienhard |first=John H. }}</ref>
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===Sumbangan Yunani dan Keyunanian===
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===Greek and Hellenistic contributions===
Western physics began with eminent [[Ancient Greece|Greek]] [[pre-Socratic]] philosophers such as [[Thales]], [[Anaximander]], possibly [[Pythagoras]], [[Heraclitus]], [[Anaxagoras]], [[Empedocles]] and [[Philolaus]], many of whom were involved in various schools. For example, Anaximander and Thales belonged to the [[Milesian school]].
 
 
Regrettably, this period of inquiry into the nature of the world was eventually stifled by a tendency to accept the ideas of eminent philosophers, rather than to question and test those ideas. [[Pythagoras]] himself is said to have tried to suppress knowledge of the existence of [[irrational numbers]], discovered by his own school, because they did not fit his number mysticism. For one thousand years following the destruction of the [[Library of Alexandria]], [[Ptolemy]]'s (not to be confused with the [[Egyptian Ptolemies]]) model of an Earth-centred universe in which the [[planet]]s are assumed to each move in a small circle, called an [[epicycle]], which in turn moves along a larger circle called a [[deferent]], was accepted as absolute truth.
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===Sumbangan Parsi dan Islam===
{{See|[[Sains Islam]], [[Daftar ahli sains dan cendekiawan Iran]]}}
Al-Haytham juga memperdebatkan dengan tepat bahawa manusia boleh nampak objek-objek hanya kerana sinar-sinar cahaya matahari telah dimantulkan oleh objek-objek itu ke dalam mata. Beliau juga mempercayai bahawa arus-arus zarah halus bergerak pada garis yang lurus, dan memahami bahawa cahaya harus bergerak dengan kelajuan yang amat tinggi tetapi terhingga. Al-Haytham juga memahami bahawa pembiasan adalah disebabkan oleh halaju cahaya yang berbeza di dalam bahan-bahan yang berbeza. Beliau juga mengkaji cermin-cermin [[sfera]] dan [[parabola]], dan memahami bagaimana pembiasan [[kanta]] membenarkan imej-imej difokuskan serta dibesarkan. Al-Haytham juga berupaya mempergunakan matematik untuk menerangkan mengapa sebuah cermin sfera akan mewujudkan [[aberasi]].
 
Perkembangan-perkembangan lain yang mustahak dalam sains Islam termasuk perkembangan sains penyedutan yang ketat, [[isnad]] atau "sokongan", serta perkembangan [[ijtihad]], iaitu kaedah penyelidikan yang saintifik untuk membuktikan tuntutan-tuntutan yang salah dan yang juga boleh dipergunakan secara am untuk banyak jenis soalan. Kemajuan yang ketara dalam bidang perkaedahan telah dicapai, khususnya dengan menggunakan uji-uji kajian untuk membezakan antara teori-teori saintifik yang bersaingan dalam sebuah orientasi empirik yang umum.
{{BI|History of physics}}
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===Sumbangan Eropah Zaman Pertengahan===
Other important developments in Islamic science included the development of a strict science of citation, the isnad or "backing", and the development of a scientific method of open inquiry to disprove claims, the ijtihad, which could be generally applied to many types of questions. Significant progress in methodology was made, in particular using experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation.
 
===Medieval European contributions===
In the [[12th century]], the birth of [[medieval university]] and the rediscovery of the works of ancient philosophers through contact with the [[Arab]]s, during the process of [[Reconquista]] and the [[Crusades]], started an intellectual revitalization of Europe.
 
In the 14th century Europe was rocked by the [[Black Death]] which led to much social upheaval. In spite of this pause, the [[15th century]] saw the artistic flourishing of the [[Renaissance]]. The rediscovery of ancient texts was improved when many [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] scholars had to seek refuge in the West after the [[fall of Constantinople]] in [[1453]]. Meanwhile, the invention of [[printing]] was to democratize learning and allow a faster propagation of new ideas. All that paved the way to the [[Scientific Revolution]], which may also be understood as a resumption of the process of scientific change halted around the middle of the 14th century.
 
== ModernFizik physicsmoden ==
[[Image:Table_of_Mechanicks,_Cyclopaedia,_Volume_2.jpg|thumb|right|300px|''Table of Mechanicks'', 1728 ''[[Cyclopaedia]]''.]]
 
It started with only a few researchers, evolving into an enterprise which continues to the present day. Starting with astronomy, the principles of natural philosophy crystallized into fundamental [[law of physics|laws of physics]] which were enunciated and improved in the succeeding centuries. By the 19th century, the sciences had segmented into multiple fields with specialized researchers and the field of physics, although logically pre-eminent, no longer could claim sole ownership of the entire field of scientific research.
 
=== 16th centuryAbad ke-16===
In the [[16th century]] [[Nicolaus Copernicus]] revived [[Aristarchus of Samos|Aristarchus']] [[heliocentric]] model of the [[solar system]] in Europe (which survived primarily in a passing mention in ''[[The Sand Reckoner]]'' of [[Archimedes]]). When this model was published at the end of his life, it was with a preface by [[Andreas Osiander]] that piously represented it as only a mathematical convenience for calculating the positions of planets, and not an account of the true nature of the planetary orbits.
 
In England [[William Gilbert]] (1544-1603) studied [[magnetism]] and published a seminal work, ''[[De Magnete]]'' (1600), in which he thoroughly presented his numerous experimental results.
 
=== 17thAbad centuryke-17 ===
In the early [[17th century]] [[Johannes Kepler]] formulated a model of the solar system based upon the five [[Platonic solid]]s, in an attempt to explain why the orbits of the planets had the relative sizes they did. His access to extremely accurate astronomical observations by [[Tycho Brahe]] enabled him to determine that his model was inconsistent with the observed orbits. After a heroic seven-year effort to more accurately model the motion
of the planet [[Mars (planet)|Mars]] (during which he laid the foundations of modern [[integral calculus]]) he concluded that the planets follow not circular orbits, but [[ellipse|elliptical]] orbits with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. This breakthrough overturned a millennium of dogma based on [[Ptolemy]]'s idea of "perfect" circular orbits for the "perfect" heavenly bodies. Kepler then went on to formulate his [[Laws of Kepler|three laws of planetary motion]]. He also proposed the first known model of planetary motion in which a force emanating from the Sun deflects the planets from their "natural" motion, causing them to follow curved orbits.
In [[1687]], [[Isaac Newton]] published the ''[[Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica|Principia Mathematica]],'' detailing two comprehensive and successful physical theories: [[Newton's laws of motion]], from which arise [[classical mechanics]]; and [[gravity|Newton's Law of Gravitation]], which describes the [[fundamental force]] of [[gravity]]. Both theories agreed well with experiment. The Law of Gravitation initiated the field of [[astrophysics]], which describes [[astronomy|astronomical]] phenomena using physical theories.
 
=== 18th centuryAbad ke-18===
From the [[18th century]] onwards, [[thermodynamics|thermodynamic]] concepts were developed by [[Robert Boyle]], [[Thomas Young (scientist)|Thomas Young]], and many others, concurrently with the development of the steam engine, onward into the next century.{{cn}} In [[1733]], [[Daniel Bernoulli]] used statistical arguments with classical mechanics to derive thermodynamic results, initiating the field of [[statistical mechanics]]. [[Benjamin Thompson]] demonstrated the conversion of unlimited mechanical work into heat.{{cn}}
 
In about [[1788]], Joseph Louis Lagrange elaborated an important new formulation of mechanics using the [[calculus of variations]], the [[principle of least action]] and the [[Euler-Lagrange]] equations.{{cn}}
 
=== 19thAbad centuryke-19 ===
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=== 19th century ===
In a letter to the [[Royal Society]] in [[1800]], [[Alessandro Volta]] described his invention of the [[Battery (electricity)|electric battery]], thus providing for the first time the means to generate a constant electric current, and opening up a new field of physics for investigation.{{cn}}
 
In [[1897]], [[J.J. Thomson]] and [[Philipp Lenard]] studied [[cathode ray tube|cathode rays]]. Thomson deduced that they were composed of negatively charged particles, which he called "''corpuscles''", later realized to be [[electrons]]. Lenard showed that the particles ejected in the [[photoelectric effect]] were the same as those in cathode rays, and that their energy was independent of the intensity of the light, but was greater for short wavelengths of the incident light.{{cn}}
 
=== 20th centuryAbad ke-20 The Dawn ofhingga Modernbermulanya PhysicsFizik Moden===
The beginning of the [[20th century]] brought the start of a revolution in physics.
 
 
A number of new efforts to understand the physical world arose in the last half of the twentiety century that generated widespread interest: [[fractals]] and [[scaling]], [[self-organized criticality]], [[complexity]] and [[chaos]], [[power laws]] and [[noise]], [[Telecommunications network|networks]], [[non-equilibrium thermodynamics]], [[Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile|sandpiles]], [[nanotechnology]], [[cellular automata]] and the [[anthropic principle]] were only a few of these important topics.
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==Lihat juga==
{{portal|Fizik}}
* [[Fizik]]
* [[Sejarah sains dan teknologi]]
* [[Sejarah sains]]
* [[Sejarah astronomi]]
* [[Sejarah optik]]
* [[FizikSejarah sains]]
* [[Sejarah sains dan teknologi]]
 
==Rujukan==
Pengguna awanama