Perbezaan antara semakan "Yahudi Amerika"

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'''Yahudi Amerika''', adalah warganegara [[Amerika Syarikat]] yang merupakan keturunan [[Yahudi]]. Sebahagian besar tinjauan pendapat (survey) kependudukan memperkirakan penduduk mereka adalah antara 5,2 juta <ref> NJPS 2000-01 Report[http://www.ujc.org/content_display.html?ArticleID=83252]</ref> sampai dengan 6,4 juta jiwa <ref>PR Newswire [http://sev.prnewswire.com/publishing-information-services/20061222/UNTH01421122006-1.html]</ref>. Dengan demikian pendudul masyarakat Yahudi di Amerika Syarikat dapat dianggap yang terbesar atau nombor dua terbesar di dunia setelah Israel. Masyarakat Yahudi Amerika Syarikat sebahagian besar adalah keturunan Yahudi [[Ashkenazi]] <ref>Jewish Virtual Library[http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/jewpop.html#top]</ref>, meskipun juga terdapat keturunan Yahudi [[Sefardim]] dan Yahudi [[Mizrahi]], serta beberapa suku Yahudi lainnya. Kepercayaan yang dianut juga meliputi berbagai aliran [[agama Yahudi]]; dari masyarakat-masyarakat Ultra-Ortodoks Haredi sampai ke masyarakat Yahudi yang benar-benar berfaham duniawi.
 
{{terjemahan}}
==Sejarah==
{{main|History of the Jews in the United States}}
Though Jews (overwhelmingly [[Sephardic]]){{Fact|date=January 2007}} arrived in the United States as early as the [[17th century|seventeenth century]] (until about 1830 [[History of the Jews in Charleston, South Carolina|Charleston, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America]]), Jewish immigration grew in the [[19th century|nineteenth]]. During the mid nineteenth century, many secular [[Ashkenazi Jew]]s from Germany arrived in the United States, and primarily became merchants and shop-owners. There were approximately 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, and many of them were these educated and secular German Jews, though a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained.
 
As a result of persecution in parts of [[Eastern Europe]], Jewish immigration to the United States increased dramatically in the early 1880s, with most of the new immigrants being [[Yiddish]] speakers from the poor rural populations of [[History of the Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union|Russia]] and [[History of the Jews in Poland|Eastern Europe]] (many of them came from the [[Pale of Settlement]]). Over 2,000,000 Jews arrived between the late nineteenth century and 1924, when immigration restrictions increased due to the [[National Origins Quota of 1924]] and [[Immigration Act of 1924]] (laws that largely halted immigration to the U.S. from Eastern Europe and Russia). Most settled in [[New York City]] and its immediate environs (New Jersey, etc.), establishing what became one of the world's major concentrations of Jewish population.
 
At the beginning of the twentieth century, these newly-arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small [[synagogue]]s and [[Landsmannschaften]] (associations of Jews from the same town or village). Jewish American writers of the time urged [[assimilation]] and integration with the wider American culture, and Jews quickly became part of American life. Five hundred thousand American Jews (or half of all Jewish males between 18 and 50) fought in [[World War II]], and after the war Jewish families joined the new trend of [[suburbanization]]. There, Jews became increasingly assimilated as rising [[intermarriage]] rates with non-Jews combined with a trend towards secularization. At the same time, new centers of Jewish communities formed, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960.
 
===Hak politik dan sivil ===
The German Jews were primarily Republicans. However the Yiddish speakers were either Socialists (especially if they were connected with the garment industry), or nonpolitical until the 1930s. Polls showed Jews gave 90% support to Democrats [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] and [[Harry S. Truman]] in the elections of 1940, 1944 and 1948. They gave about a third of their vote to Republican [[Dwight D. Eisenhower]] in 1952 and 1956. In 1960 Jews voted 83% for Catholic Democrat [[John F. Kennedy]]. In 1964, when the Republicans nominated a strongly conservative candidate, [[Barry Goldwater]], who was of partial Jewish descent, 90% of Jews voted for his opponent.<ref>Mark R. Levy and Michael S. Kramer, ''The Ethnic Factor'' (1973) p. 103</ref> Since 1968 Jews have voted about 70%-80% Democratic, surging to 87% for Democratic House candidates in 2006.<ref> 2006 exit polls at [http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2006/pages/results/states/US/H/00/epolls.0.html] They were 74% for John Kerry, a Catholic, in 2004.[http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2004/pages/results/states/US/P/00/epolls.0.html]</ref> After the 2006 elections there were 13 Jews in the Senate (up from 11) and 30 in the House (up from 24).<ref>See Ynet News at [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3326053,00.html]</ref>
 
Jews were leaders of movements for civil rights for all Americans, including themselves and African Americans. Seymour Siegel argues the historic struggle against prejudice faced by Jewish people led to a natural sympathy for any people confronting discrimination. This further led Jews to dialogue about the relationship they had with African Americans. Joachim Prinz, president of the American Jewish Congress, stated the following at the [[March on Washington]] on 28 August 1963: "As Jews we bring to this great demonstration, in which thousands of us proudly participate, a twofold experience &mdash; one of the spirit and one of our history"<ref>Staub (2004) p.90</ref> Yet there was dissension within Judaism about this civil rights involvement. Rabbi Bernard Wienberger exemplified this point of view, warning that "northern liberal Jews" put at risk southern Jews who faced hostility from white southerners because of their northern counterparts. Jewish responses to the civil rights movement and black relations lean toward acceptance and activism against prejudice, demonstrating the important role that this community played in race relations during the 1960s.<ref>Staub (2004)</ref>
 
Jewish Americans are the most strongly opposed to the Iraq war than any other major ethnic group, according to a recent [[Gallup Poll]]. The greater opposition to the war is not simply a result of high Democratic identification among U.S. Jews, as Jews of all political persuasions are more likely to oppose the war than non-Jews who share the same political leanings. 89% of Jewish Democrats oppose the Iraq war and only 8% support it. Among non-Jewish Democrats, 78% oppose and 20% support the war. The departures are even greater when looking at Jewish non-Democrats. 65% of non-Democratic Jews oppose the war, and 35% support it. Such is a huge turnaround in comparison to the non-Jewish non-Democratic opinion: 38% oppose and the majority (60%) support it. The widespread Jewish opposition to the war in Iraq is not a recent development as the majority of all Americans have come to oppose the war in the past two years. Even in 2003 and 2004, when more Americans favored (52%) than opposed the war (46%), more than 6 in 10 Jews (61%) were opposed to it. And in late 2002 and early 2003, U.S. Jews were divided in their views on whether to invade Iraq to remove Saddam Hussein from power (49% were in favor, 48% opposed). At that time, Americans overall favored an invasion by a 57% to 37% margin.
The role of pro-Israel groups in forming U.S. policy toward Iraq was controversial even before the invasion in March 2003. Some critics have suggested that influential Jewish advisers and groups pushed the Bush administration to go to war with Iraq in order to help Israel. The Bush administration, leaders of the Jewish community, and [[AIPAC]] members have strongly rejected those allegations.[http://www.aipac.org/Publications/AIPACPeriodicalsNearEastReport/NER011507.pdf] These data show that the average American Jew -- even those who are Republicans and may support the Bush administration on other matters -- opposes the war.[http://galluppoll.com/content/Default.aspx?ci=26677]
 
===Holocaust===
The [[Holocaust]] had a profound impact of the community in the United States, especially after 1960 as Jews tried to comprehend what happened and especially to commemorate and grapple with it going into the future. Abraham Joshua Heschel summarized this dilemma when he attempted to understand Auschwitz: "To try to answer is to commit a supreme blasphemy. Israel enables us to bear the agony of Auschwitz without radical despair, to sense a ray God's radiance in the jungles of history."<ref>Staub (2004) p.80</ref>
 
===Hal ehwal Antarabangsa===
Jews began taking a special interest in international affairs in the early twentieth century, especially regarding pogroms in Imperial Russia, and restrictions on immigration in the 1920s. They organized large-scale boycotts of German merchandize during the 1930s. They strongly supported [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]]'s domestic and foreign policies in the 1930s and 1940s, and supported the [[United Nations]]. The founding of [[Israel]] in 1948 made the Middle East a center of attention. However an internal debate followed the [[Six-Day War]]. The American Jewish community was divided over whether or not they agreed with the Israeli response; the great majority came to accept the war as necessary. A tension existed especially for leftist Jews, between their liberal ideology and Zionist backing in the midst of this conflict. This deliberation about the Six-Day War showed the depth and complexity of Jewish responses to the varied events of the 1960s.<ref>Staub (2004)</ref>
 
==Penduduk==
[[Image:Jewish_Population_2000.png|thumb|400px|Jewish population today tends to be concentrated in larger cities, Florida, and the states of the Northeast.]]
The most recent large scale population survey, released in the 2006 'American Jewish Yearbook population survey' estimates place the number of American Jews at 6.4 million, or approximately 2.1% of the total population. Significantly higher than the previous large scale survey estimate, conducted by the 2000-2001 National Jewish Population estimates, which estimated 5.2 million Jews. A recent study released by the Steinhardt Social Research Institute (SSRI) at [[Brandeis University]] presents evidence to suggest that both of these figures may be underestimations with a potential 7.0-7.4 million Americans with Jewish ancestry.<ref>http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/news_press_release,56970.shtml</ref> Jews in the U.S. settled largely in and near the major cities. The Ashkenazi Jews who are now the vast majority of American Jews settled first in the Northeast and Midwest but in recent decades increasingly in the South and West. In descending order, the metropolitan areas with the highest Jewish populations are [[New York metropolitan area|New York City]] (1,750,000), [[South Florida|Miami]] (535,000), [[Greater Los Angeles Area|Los Angeles]] (490,000), [[Delaware Valley|Philadelphia]] (285,000), [[Chicagoland|Chicago]] (265,000), [[San Francisco Bay Area|San Francisco]] (210,000), [[Greater Boston|Boston]] (208,000), and [[Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area|Baltimore-Washington]] (165,000). New York is the second largest Jewish population center in the world, after [[Tel Aviv]] in Israel. [http://www.jafi.org.il/education/100/concepts/demography/demtables.html#10]. Several other major cities have over 5% Jewish proportions like [[Cleveland, Ohio|Cleveland]], [[Baltimore, Maryland|Baltimore]], and [[St. Louis, Missouri|St. Louis]]. Miami and Los Angeles have long been major centers. Smaller, but growing numbers are found in [[Houston, Texas|Houston]], [[Dallas, Texas|Dallas]], [[Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix]], [[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]], and especially [[Atlanta, Georgia|Atlanta]] and [[Las Vegas, Nevada|Las Vegas]]. In many metropolitan areas, the majority of Jewish families live in [[suburb]]an communities.
 
The Israeli community in America is less widespread. The three significant Israeli immigrant communities in the United States are in [[Chicago]] (50,000), [[Miami, Florida|Miami]] (105,000), and [[New York City]] (162,000).
 
Immigrant [[Russian Jews]] began arriving after the [[Jackson-Vanik amendment|Jackson-Vanik laws]] of the 1970s and are heavily concentrated in [[New York City]], [[Houston]], [[Dallas]], [[San Francisco]], and many other large American cities.
 
[[Persian Jews]] began arriving to the United States in the late 1970s before the [[Islamic Revolution]] and most of them settled in [[Los Angeles]]. Most [[Bukharian Jews]] arrived after the Collapse of the Soviet Union to [[New York City]], [[Atlanta]], [[Arizona]], etc. Both the [[Persian Jews]] and the [[Bukharian Jews]] are [[Mizrahi]] and are one of the most religious groups of Jews in the United States.
 
According to the [http://www.ujc.org/content_display.html?ArticleID=83784 2001 undertaking] of the [[National Jewish Population Survey]], 4.3 million American Jews have some sort of strong connection to the Jewish community, whether religious or cultural.
 
===Assimilasi dan tukaran penduduk===
The same social and cultural characteristics of the [[United States of America]] that facilitated the extraordinary economic, political, and social success of the American Jewish community have also contributed to [[cultural assimilation|assimilation]], a controversial and significant issue in the modern American Jewish community. While not all Jews disapprove of [[intermarriage]], many members of the Jewish community have become concerned that the high rate of interfaith marriage will result in the eventual disappearance of the American Jewish community.
 
Intermarriage rates have risen from roughly 6% in 1950 to approximately 40%-50% in the year 2000.[http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_047702_religiouscul.htm][http://www.jewishla.org/news/html/populationdrop.html] Only about 33% of intermarried couples raise their children with a Jewish religious upbringing. This in combination with the comparatively low birthrate in the Jewish community has led to a 5% decline in the Jewish population of the United States in the 1990s.[http://www.jewishla.org/news/html/populationdrop.html]. In addition to this, when compared with the general American population, the American Jewish community is slightly older. [http://www.jewishla.org/news/html/populationdrop.html]
 
However, it is much more common for intermarried families to raise their children as Jewish in areas with high Jewish populations, like the greater [[New York City]] metropolitan area, [[Boston, Massachusetts|Boston]], [[Los Angeles, California|Los Angeles]], [[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Philadelphia]], [[Detroit, Michigan|Detroit]], [[Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area|Baltimore-Washington]], [[Chicago]], and [[Cleveland, Ohio|Cleveland]] (which has the highest Jewish-American population per capita for smaller, major U.S. cities). In the Boston area, 60% percent of children of intermarriages are being raised as Jews by religion; intermarriage is contributing to a net increase in the number of Jews.[http://cjp.org/getfile.asp?id=16072] Detroit stands out in particular, because the Jewish population is particularly concentrated in suburban [[Oakland County, Michigan|Oakland County]]. As well, some children raised through intermarriage rediscover and embrace their Jewish roots when they themselves marry and have children.
 
In contrast, some communities within American Jewry, such as [[Orthodox Judaism|Orthodox Jews]], have significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly. [[Daniel Pipes]] noted in an essay in 2005 that the proportion of Jewish synagogue members who were Orthodox rose from 11% in 1971 to 21% in 2000, while the overall Jewish community declined in number.&nbsp;[http://www.danielpipes.org/article/2370] This trend, however, is likely due at least as much to declining synagogue membership and practice among the non-Orthodox as to greater numbers of Orthodox.
 
==Agama==
Judaism is generally considered an [[ethnic]] identity as well as a [[religious]] one. Jewish religious practice in America is quite varied. Among the 4.3 million strongly connected American Jews, over 80% have some sort of engagement with Judaism, ranging from [[Passover Seder]]s to lighting [[Hanukkah]] candles.
 
The survey found that of the 4.3 million strongly connected Jews, 46% belong to a [[synagogue]]. Among those who belong to a synagogue, 38% are members of [[Reform Judaism|Reform]] synagogues, 33% [[Conservative Judaism|Conservative]], 22% [[Orthodox Judaism|Orthodox]], 2% [[Reconstructionist Judaism|Reconstructionist]], and 5% other types. The survey discovered that Jews in the [[Northeastern United States|Northeast]] and [[Midwest]] are generally more observant than Jews in the [[South]] or [[West]].
 
In recent years, there has been a noticeable trend of secular American Jews returning to a more religious Orthodox lifestyle, called [[Baal teshuva]], though it is not clear how widespread or demographically important this movement is.
 
==Pendidikan==
{{Cleanup|January 2007}}
American Jews are generally more educated than the American public as a whole. 55% of Jewish adults 18 years of age and older have at least a bachelor's degree, and 24% have a graduate degree. The comparable numbers for the general population are about 25% with a bachelor’s degree or higher and 6% with a graduate degree.
 
The great majority of students attend public schools, although there are Jewish day schools. Jewish cultural studies and Hebrew language instruction is also commonly offered at synagogues in the form of supplementary Hebrew schools or Sunday schools.
 
Until the 1950s, a quota system at elite colleges and universities limited the number of Jewish students. Before 1945 only a few Jewish professors were at elite universities. In 1941 anti-Semitism drove [[Milton Friedman]] from an untenured assistant professorship at the University of Wisconsin.<ref name=Friedmans> Milton Friedman and Rose D. Friedman, ''Two Lucky People: Memoirs'' (1998) p. 58 [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0226264157&id=kvf0b1pmJsMC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&vq=anti-semitism&dq=milton+friedman+lucky+people&sig=aRnNuTIZ0LmDAoBylCBHI-j03LQ online]</ref> [[Harry Levin]] became the first Jewish full professor in the Harvard English department in 1943, but the Economics department decided not to hire [[Paul Samuelson]] in 1948. Harvard hired its first Jewish biochemists in 1954.<ref>Morton Keller, ''Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University.'' (2001), pp 75, 82, 97, 212, 472.</ref> By 1986 a third of the presidents of the elite undergraduate clubs at Harvard were Jewish.<ref name="Friedmans"/>
 
==Budaya Yahudi Amerika==
{{seealso|Secular Jewish culture}}
As the last major wave of Jewish immigration to America was the two million Eastern European Jews who arrived between 1890 and 1924, Jewish secular culture in the United States has become integrated in almost every important way with American culture more broadly. Many aspects of Jewish American culture have, in turn, become part of the wider culture of the United States.
 
===Makanan===
Several staples of [[Jewish cuisine]] have been adopted into mainstream American culture; [[bagel]]s and [[lox (salmon)|lox]] (cured [[salmon]]) are examples, and to a lesser extent, [[corned beef]] and [[pastrami]]. Initially, they were adopted as part of [[New York City]]'s culture, and then spread to the rest of America. For example, [[bagel]]s have been a staple of New Yorkers - both Jewish and non-Jewish - for decades, but did not gain widespread acceptance in other parts of the country until the 1980s. Archaeologists have studied changes in the foodways of immigrant Jews in California.<ref>[http://www.sonoma.edu/asc/cypress/finalreport/part2.htm Study]; see Chapter 3, starting at page 68).</ref>
 
===Bahasa===
Although almost all American Jews are today native [[English language|English-speakers]], a variety of other languages are still spoken within some American Jewish communities, communities which are representative of the various [[Jewish ethnic divisions]] from around the world that have come together to make up America's Jewish population.
 
Many of America's [[Hasidic Judaism|Hasidic Jews]] of [[Ashkenazi Jews|Ashkenazi]] descent are raised speaking [[Yiddish language|Yiddish]]. The language was once spoken as the primary language by most of the several million European Jews who immigrated to the United States. Yiddish has had an influence on American English, and words borrowed from it include ''[[chutzpah]]'' ("effrontery", "gall"), ''[[nosh]]'' ("snack"), ''schlep'' ("drag"), and ''schmuck'' ("fool", literally "penis").
 
America's [[Persian Jews|Iranian Jewish]] community, notably the large community in and around [[Los Angeles, California|Los Angeles]] and [[Beverly Hills, California]], primarily speak [[Persian language|Persian]] in the home and synagogue. They also support their own Persian language newspapers.
 
American [[Bukharian Jews]] speak [[Bukhori]] and [[Russian]]. They have their own newspapers called the Bukharian Times and mainly live in [[Queens, New York]]. Rego Park's 108th street is called Bukharian Broadway [http://travel.nytimes.com/2006/01/18/dining/18rego.html] because of the stores and restaurants around the street that have Bukharian influences.
 
[[Classical Hebrew]] is the language of most Jewish religious literature, such as the [[Tanakh]] (Bible) and [[Siddur]] (prayerbook). [[Modern Hebrew]] is also the primary official language of the modern State of [[Israel]], which further encourages many to learn it as a second language. Some recent Israeli immigrants to America speak Hebrew as their primary language.
 
Some of the Jews in [[Miami, Florida|Miami]], the second largest Jewish community in the United States, immigrated from the countries of [[Latin America]]. Many of these [[Hispanic]] Jews speak [[Spanish language|Spanish]] in the home, and some have intermarried with the non-Jewish [[Hispanic]] population. There are a large number of synagogues in the Miami area that give services in the [[Spanish language]], as well as a [[Haitian Creole]]-language synagogue in Miami's [[Little Haiti]].
 
There are a handful of older European immigrants speak historic Sephardic languages like [[Ladino language|Ladino]].
 
===Kesusasteraan Yahudi Amerika===
{{main|Jewish American literature}}
Although American Jews have contributed greatly to American arts overall (see the following section), there remains a distinctly Jewish American literature. Generally exploring the experience of being a Jew, especially a Jew in America, and the conflicting pulls of secular society and history, the literary traditions of [[Philip Roth]], [[Saul Bellow]], [[Chaim Potok]], [[Leon Uris]], [[Herman Wouk]] and [[Bernard Malamud]] all fall in this category. Younger authors, like [[Paul Auster]], [[Michael Chabon]] and [[Jonathan Safran Foer]] continue this view of Jewish American literature, examining the Holocaust, and the meaning of being an American Jew.
 
==Yahudi Amerika Terkenal==
===Budaya masyhur===
: [[List of Jewish actors and actresses|Actors and actresses]]{{·}} [[List of Jewish American writers|Writers]]{{·}} [[List of Jewish American artists|Artists]]{{·}} [[List of Jewish American musicians|Musicians]]{{·}} [[List of Jewish American show business figures|Show business figures]]{{·}} [[List of Jewish American sportspeople|Sportspeople]]
{{seealso|Secular Jewish culture}}
Many individual Jews have made significant contributions to American popular culture. There have been many Jewish American actors and performers, ranging from early 1900s actors like [[Carmel Myers]], [[Fanny Brice]] and the first cowboy film star, [[Broncho Billy Anderson]], to classic Hollywood film stars like [[Lauren Bacall]], [[Kirk Douglas]], [[Tony Curtis]], and culminating in many currently known actors, including [[Sarah Michelle Gellar]], [[Winona Ryder]], [[Alicia Silverstone]], [[Natalie Portman]], [[Kate Hudson]], [[Scarlett Johansson]], [[Zac Efron]], [[Evan Rachel Wood]], [[Adrien Brody]], [[Lisa Kudrow]], [[Adam Sandler]], [[Bahar Soomekh]],[[Sara Paxton]], [[Jake Gyllenhaal]] and [[Maggie Gyllenhaal]], amongst others. Many of the early Hollywood moguls and pioneers were [[Jew]]ish, such as [[Samuel Goldwyn]], [[Louis B. Mayer]], [[William Fox (producer)|William Fox]], [[Jesse L. Lasky]], [[Carl Laemmle]], [[Marcus Loew]], [[Adolph Zukor]], and the original [[Warner Brothers]]. The characteristically Jewish field of American comedy includes the [[Marx Brothers]], [[Milton Berle]], [[Mel Brooks]], [[Woody Allen]], [[Joan Rivers]], and [[Gilda Radner]]. The legacy also includes songwriters as diverse as [[Irving Berlin]], [[Burt Bacharach]], [[Arlo Guthrie]], [[Ramblin' Jack Elliott]], [[Robert B. Sherman]] and [[Richard M. Sherman]] (aka "The [[Sherman Brothers]]"), [[Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller]], [[Jeff Barry]], [[Lou Reed]], and [[Paul Simon]] and writers as diverse as [[J.D. Salinger]], [[Joseph Heller]], [[E.L. Doctorow]], [[Lillian Hellman]], [[Allen Ginsberg]], [[Isaac Asimov]], and [[Harlan Ellison]], in addition to the authors listed above. On the countercultural and radical political front, Jewish hippies [[Abbie Hoffman]] and [[Jerry Rubin]], with help from Allen Ginsberg, formed the controversial [[Youth International Party]] ("Yippies"), and the four main organizers of the 1969 [[Woodstock Festival]] concert were all Jewish, as was [[Max Yasgur]], the man on whose farm the legendary concert took place. In addition, master sound mixer and producer [[Eddie Kramer]] was Jewish, as is [[Bob Dylan]], born Robert Allen Zimmerman, his first wife, [[Sara Dylan|Sara]] and sons [[Jesse Dylan|Jesse]] and [[Jakob Dylan|Jakob]]. However, [[Bob Dylan]] converted to Christianity in the late 1970's but returned to his Jewish roots in the 1980's.
 
===Kerajaan dan ketenteraan===
: [[List of Jewish American politicians|Politicians]]{{·}} [[List of Jewish Americans in the military|Military figures]]
Since 1845, a total of 29 Jews have served in the Senate, including present-day senators [[Frank Lautenberg]] (D-NJ), [[Arlen Specter]] (R-PA), [[Norm Coleman]] (R-MN), [[Russ Feingold]] and [[Herb Kohl]] (both D-WI), [[Barbara Boxer]] and [[Dianne Feinstein]] (both D-CA), [[Carl Levin]] (D-MI), [[Ron Wyden]] (D-OR), and [[Joe Lieberman]] (Independent-CT). In 2007, the number of Jews in the Senate will rise to thirteen with the additional of [[Bernie Sanders]] (I-VT) and [[Ben Cardin]] (D-MD). The number of Jews elected to the House will rise to an all time high of 30. Seven Jews have been appointed on the [[United States Supreme Court]].
 
Sixteen American Jews have been awarded the [[Medal of Honor]]. [[Judah P. Benjamin]], was a member of the [[Confederate States of America|Confederate]] cabinet.
 
The [[Manhattan Project]], America's World War II effort to develop the [[atomic bomb]], included the contributions of American Jewish physicists, many of whom were refugees from Hitler's Germany or from [[anti-semitism|anti-semitic]] persecution in other European nations: [[Robert Oppenheimer|J. Robert Oppenheimer]], [[Richard P. Feynman]], [[Wolfgang Pauli]], [[Leo Szilard]], [[Albert Einstein]], [[John von Neumann]], [[Isidor I. Rabi]], [[Edward Teller]], [[Eugene Wigner]], [[Otto Frisch]], [[Samuel Goudsmit]], [[Jerome Karle]], [[Stanisław Ulam]], [[Robert Serber]], [[Louis Slotin]], [[Walter Zinn]], [[Robert Marshak]], [[Felix Bloch]], [[Emilio G. Segrè]], [[James Franck]], [[Joseph Joffe]], [[Eugene Rabinowitch]], [[Hy Goldsmith]], [[Samuel Cohen]], [[Victor F. Weisskopf]], and [[David Bohm]]. [[Hans Bethe]] and [[Niels Bohr]] both had Jewish mothers, which also necessitated their fleeing from Nazi-occupied lands during the war.
 
===Sains, bisnes, dan academia===
: [[List of Jewish American scientists|Scientists]]{{·}} [[List of Jewish American businesspeople|Businesspeople]]{{·}} [[List of Jewish American academics|Academics]]
[[Ashkenazi]] Jews have traditionally been drawn to business and academia (see [[Secular Jewish culture#Science and Academia|Secular Jewish culture]] for some of the causes), and have made major contributions in science, economics, and the humanities. Of American [[Nobel Prize]] winners, 37% have been Jewish Americans (19 times the percentage of Jews in the population), as have been 71% of the [[John Bates Clark Medal]] winners (thirty-five times the Jewish percentage). While Jewish Americans only constitute roughly 2.5% of the U.S. population, they occupied 7.7% of board seats at U.S. corporations.<ref name="Mother Jones, the Changing Power Elite, 1998">{{cite web|url=http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/1998/03/zweigenhaft.html|title=Mother Jones, the Changing Power Elite, 1998|accessdate=2007-01-20}}</ref>
 
==Distribution of Jewish-Americans==
According to the Glenmary Research Center, which publishes Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States [http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/], the 100 counties and [[independent cities]] in 2000 with the largest Jewish communities, based by percentage of total population, were:
 
<div style="font-size:90%;">
{| style="background:transparent;"
|- valign="top"
|
{| class="toccolours" style="clear:both; border:1px solid #707070; text-align:right;" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="3"
|- style="background:#efefef; text-align:center;"
|style="background:#f9f9f9;"|
! County
! Jewish</br>population !! %<br/>of total
|-
| 1 ||align="left"| [[Rockland County, New York]]
| 90,000 || 31.4%
|----
| 2 ||align="left"| [[New York County, New York]]<ref>[[Manhattan]]</ref>
| 314,500 || 20.5%
|----
| 3 ||align="left"| [[Falls Church, Virginia]]
| 1,800 || 17.4%
|----
| 4 ||align="left"| [[Fairfax, Virginia]]
| 3,600 || 16.7%
|----
| 5 ||align="left"| [[Nassau County, New York]]
| 207,000 || 15.5%
|----
| 6 ||align="left"| [[Kings County, New York]]<ref>[[Brooklyn]]</ref>
| 379,000 || 15.4%
|----
| 7 ||align="left"| [[Palm Beach County, Florida]]
| 167,000 || 14.8%
|----
| 8 ||align="left"| [[Broward County, Florida]]
| 213,000 || 13.1%
|----
| 9 ||align="left"| [[Queens County, New York]]
| 238,000 || 10.7%
|----
| 10 ||align="left"| [[Monmouth County, New Jersey]]
| 65,000 || 10.6%
|----
| 11 ||align="left"| [[Westchester County, New York]]
| 94,000 || 10.2%
|----
| 12 ||align="left"| [[Sullivan County, New York]]
| 7,425 || 10.0%
|----
| 13 ||align="left"| [[Essex County, New Jersey]]
| 76,200 || 9.6%
|----
| 14 ||align="left"| [[Bergen County, New Jersey]]
| 83,700 || 9.5%
|----
| 15 ||align="left"| [[Montgomery County, Maryland]]
| 83,800 || 9.1%
|----
| 16 ||align="left"| [[Baltimore, Maryland]]
| 56,500 || 8.7%
|----
| 17 ||align="left"| [[Fulton County, Georgia]]
| 65,900 || 8.1%
|----
| 18 ||align="left"| [[Montgomery County, Pennsylvania]]
| 59,550 || 7.9%
|----
| 19 ||align="left"| [[Middlesex County, Massachusetts]]
| 113,700 || 7.8%
|----
| 20 ||align="left"| [[Richmond County, New York]]<ref>[[Staten Island]]</ref>
| 33,700 || 7.6%
|----
| 21 ||align="left"| [[Marin County, California]]
| 18,500 || 7.5%
|----
| 22 ||align="left"| [[Camden County, New Jersey]]
| 36,000 || 7.1%
|----
| 22 ||align="left"| [[Morris County, New Jersey]]
| 33,500 || 7.1%
|----
| 24 ||align="left"| [[Suffolk County, New York]]
| 100,000 || 7.0%
|----
| 25 ||align="left"| [[Denver County, Colorado]]
| 38,100 || 6.6%
|----
| 26 ||align="left"| [[Oakland County, Michigan]]
| 77,200 || 6.5%
|----
| 27 ||align="left"| [[San Francisco County, California]]
| 49,500 || 6.4%
|----
| 28 ||align="left"| [[Bronx County, New York]]
| 83,700 || 6.3%
|----
| 29 ||align="left"| [[Middlesex County, New Jersey]]
| 45,000 || 6.0%
|----
| 30 ||align="left"| [[Los Angeles County, California]]
| 564,700 || 5.9%
|----
| 30 ||align="left"| [[Norfolk County, Massachusetts]]
| 38,300 || 5.9%
|----
| 32 ||align="left"| [[Atlantic County, New Jersey]]
| 14,600 || 5.8%
|----
| 32 ||align="left"| [[Bucks County, Pennsylvania]]
| 34,800 || 5.8%
|----
| 32 ||align="left"| [[Union County, New Jersey]]
| 30,100 || 5.8%
|----
| 35 ||align="left"| [[Cuyahoga County, Ohio]]
| 79,000 || 5.7%
|----
| 35 ||align="left"| [[Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania]]
| 86,600 || 5.7%
|----
| 37 ||align="left"| [[Clark County, Nevada]]
| 75,000 || 5.5%
|----
| 37 ||align="left"| [[Miami-Dade County, Florida]]
| 124,000 || 5.5%
|----
| 39 ||align="left"| [[Baltimore County, Maryland]]
| 38,000 || 5.0%
|----
| 39 ||align="left"| [[Pitkin County, Colorado]]
| 750 || 5.0%
|----
| 39 ||align="left"| [[Plymouth County, Massachusetts]]
| 23,600 || 5.0%
|----
| 42 ||align="left"| [[St. Louis County, Missouri]]
| 47,100 || 4.6%
|----
| 43 ||align="left"| [[Boulder County, Colorado]]
| 13,200 || 4.5%
|----
| 43 ||align="left"| [[Washington, D.C.|Washington, District of Columbia]]
| 25,500 || 4.5%
|----
| 45 ||align="left"| [[Cook County, Illinois]]
| 234,400 || 4.4%
|----
| 45 ||align="left"| [[Fairfield County, Connecticut]]
| 38,800 || 4.4%
|----
| 45 ||align="left"| [[Orange County, New York]]
| 15,000 || 4.4%
|----
| 48 ||align="left"| [[Alexandria, Virginia]]
| 5,400 || 4.2%
|----
| 49 ||align="left"| [[Albany County, New York]]
| 12,000 || 4.1%
|----
| 49 ||align="left"| [[Alpine County, California]]
| 50 || 4.1%
|----
| 49 ||align="left"| [[Sarasota County, Florida]]
| 13,500 || 4.1%
|}
|
{| class="toccolours" style="clear:both; border:1px solid #707070; text-align:right;" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="3"
|- style="background:#efefef; text-align:center;"
|style="background:#f9f9f9;"|
! County
! Jewish</br>population !! %<br/>of total
|-
| 52 ||align="left"| [[Howard County, Maryland]]
| 10,000 || 4.0%
|----
| 53 ||align="left"| [[Lake County, Illinois]]
| 25,000 || 3.9%
|----
| 54 ||align="left"| [[Portsmouth, Virginia]]
| 3,800 || 3.8%
|----
| 55 ||align="left"| [[Somerset County, New Jersey]]
| 11,100 || 3.7%
|----
| 55 ||align="left"| [[West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana]]
| 800 || 3.7%
|----
| 57 ||align="left"| [[Rockdale County, Georgia]]
| 2,500 || 3.6%
|----
| 57 ||align="left"| [[Suffolk County, Massachusetts]]
| 24,700 || 3.6%
|----
| 59 ||align="left"| [[Bristol County, Rhode Island]]
| 1,760 || 3.5%
|----
| 59 ||align="left"| [[Custer County, Idaho]]
| 150 || 3.5%
|----
| 59 ||align="left"| [[Hartford County, Connecticut]]
| 30,000 || 3.5%
|----
| 59 ||align="left"| [[New Haven County, Connecticut]]
| 28,900 || 3.5%
|----
| 59 ||align="left"| [[Passaic County, New Jersey]]
| 17,000 || 3.5%
|----
| 59 ||align="left"| [[San Mateo County, California]]
| 24,500 || 3.5%
|----
| 59 ||align="left"| [[Schenectady County, New York]]
| 5,200 || 3.5%
|----
| 66 ||align="left"| [[Ulster County, New York]]
| 5,900 || 3.3%
|----
| 67 ||align="left"| [[Norfolk, Virginia]]
| 7,600 || 3.2%
|----
| 67 ||align="left"| [[Santa Clara County, California]]
| 54,000 || 3.2%
|----
| 69 ||align="left"| [[Burlington County, New Jersey]]
| 13,000 || 3.1%
|----
| 69 ||align="left"| [[Monroe County, New York]]
| 22,500 || 3.1%
|----
| 71 ||align="left"| [[Essex County, Massachusetts]]
| 21,700 || 3.0%
|----
| 72 ||align="left"| [[Berkshire County, Massachusetts]]
| 3,900 || 2.9%
|----
| 72 ||align="left"| [[Delaware County, Pennsylvania]]
| 15,700 || 2.9%
|----
| 72 ||align="left"| [[Monroe County, Michigan]]
| 4,200 || 2.9%
|----
| 72 ||align="left"| [[Multnomah County, Oregon]]
| 19,300 || 2.9%
|----
| 76 ||align="left"| [[Hennepin County, Minnesota]]
| 31,600 || 2.8%
|----
| 76 ||align="left"| [[Sussex County, New Jersey]]
| 4,100 || 2.8%
|----
| 78 ||align="left"| [[Allegheny County, Pennsylvania]]
| 34,600 || 2.7%
|----
| 78 ||align="left"| [[Fayette County, Georgia]]
| 2,500 || 2.7%
|----
| 78 ||align="left"| [[Hamilton County, Ohio]]
| 22,500 || 2.7%
|----
| 78 ||align="left"| [[Johnson County, Kansas]]
| 12,000 || 2.7%
|----
| 82 ||align="left"| [[Mercer County, New Jersey]]
| 9,100 || 2.6%
|----
| 82 ||align="left"| [[Nantucket County, Massachusetts]]
| 250 || 2.6%
|----
| 82 ||align="left"| [[Ozaukee County, Wisconsin]]
| 2,100 || 2.6%
|----
| 82 ||align="left"| [[Pinellas County, Florida]]
| 24,200 || 2.6%
|----
| 82 ||align="left"| [[Prince George's County, Maryland]]
| 20,700 || 2.6%
|----
| 82 ||align="left"| [[Worcester County, Massachusetts]]
| 19,500 || 2.6%
|----
| 88 ||align="left"| [[San Diego County, California]]
| 70,000 || 2.5%
|----
| 89 ||align="left"| [[New Castle County, Delaware]]
| 11,900 || 2.4%
|----
| 89 ||align="left"| [[Pima County, Arizona]]
| 20,000 || 2.4%
|----
| 91 ||align="left"| [[Alameda County, California]]
| 32,500 || 2.3%
|----
| 91 ||align="left"| [[Chester County, Pennsylvania]]
| 10,100 || 2.3%
|----
| 91 ||align="left"| [[Contra Costa County, California]]
| 22,000 || 2.3%
|----
| 91 ||align="left"| [[Cumberland County, Maine]]
| 6,000 || 2.3%
|----
| 91 ||align="left"| [[Hampden County, Massachusetts]]
| 10,600 || 2.3%
|----
| 91 ||align="left"| [[Ocean County, New Jersey]]
| 11,500 || 2.3%
|----
| 91 ||align="left"| [[Santa Cruz County, California]]
| 6,000 || 2.3%
|----
| 98 ||align="left"| [[Bristol County, Massachusetts]]
| 11,600 || 2.2%
|----
| 98 ||align="left"| [[Clay County, Georgia]]
| 75 || 2.2%
|----
| 98 ||align="left"| [[Washtenaw County, Michigan]]
| 7,000 || 2.2%
|----
 
|}
|}
</div>
 
==Major Jewish-American communities==
(Alphabetically by state and region)
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!colspan="2" style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[California]]
|-
|width="115px"| [[Northern California]]
| [[Berkeley, California|Berkeley]]{{·}} [[Marin County, California|Marin County]]{{·}} [[Oakland, California|Oakland]]{{·}} [[Pleasanton, California|Pleasanton]]{{·}} [[San Francisco, California|San Franciso]]{{·}} [[Santa Clara County, California|Santa Clara County]]{{·}} [[Walnut Creek, California|Walnut Creek]]
|-
| [[Southern California]]
| [[Agoura Hills, California|Agoura Hills]]{{·}} [[Bel Air, California|Bel Air]]{{·}} [[Beverly Hills, California|Beverly Hills]]{{·}} [[Brentwood, Los Angeles, California|Brentwood, Los Angeles]]{{·}} [[Burbank, California|Burbank]]{{·}} [[Calabasas, California|Calabasas]]{{·}} [[Coachella Valley]]{{·}} [[Fairfax District, Los Angeles, California|Fairfax District, Los Angeles]]{{·}} [[Glendale, California|Glendale]]{{·}} [[Irvine, California|Irvine]]{{·}} [[Lake Forest, California|Lake Forest]]{{·}} [[Newport Beach, California|Newport Beach]]{{·}} [[Palm Springs, California|Palm Springs]]{{·}} [[Pasadena, California|Pasadena]]{{·}} [[San Fernando Valley|San Fernando Valley (west and south)]]{{·}} [[Santa Monica, California|Santa Monica]]{{·}} [[Sun City, California|Sun City]]{{·}} [[Thousand Oaks, California|Thousand Oaks]]{{·}} [[Ventura County, California|Ventura County]]{{·}} [[West Hollywood, California|West Hollywood]]{{·}} [[Westlake Village, California|Westlake Village]]{{·}} [[West Los Angeles (region)|West Los Angeles]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Connecticut]]
|-
| [[Hamden, Connecticut|Hamden]]{{·}} [[Stamford, Connecticut|Stamford]]{{·}} [[West Hartford, Connecticut|West Hartford]]{{·}} [[Westport, Connecticut|Westport]]{{·}} [[Woodbridge, Connecticut|Woodbridge]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!colspan="2" style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Florida]]
|-
|width="115px"| [[Central Florida]]
| [[Ormond Beach, Florida|Ormond Beach]]
|-
| [[South Florida]]
| [[Aventura, Florida|Aventura]]{{·}} [[Bradenton, Florida|Bradenton]]{{·}} [[Boca Raton, Florida|Boca Raton]]{{·}} [[Boynton Beach, Florida|Boynton Beach]]{{·}} [[Delray Beach, Florida|Delray Beach]]{{·}} [[Fort Lauderdale, Florida|Fort Lauderdale]]{{·}} [[Golden Beach, Florida|Golden Beach]]{{·}} [[Lake Worth, Florida|Lake Worth]]{{·}} [[Miami Beach, Florida|Miami Beach]]{{·}} [[Miami, Florida|Miami]]{{·}} [[Sarasota, Florida|Sarasota]]{{·}} [[Sunny Isles Beach, Florida|Sunny Isles Beach]]{{·}} [[West Palm Beach, Florida|West Palm Beach]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]]
|-
| [[Atlanta, Georgia|Atlanta]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Illinois]]
|-
| [[Arlington Heights, Illinois|Arlington Heights]]{{·}} [[Buffalo Grove, Illinois|Buffalo Grove]]{{·}} [[Chicago, Illinois|Chicago]]&nbsp;([[Near North Side, Chicago|Gold Coast]]{{·}} [[Hyde Park, Chicago|Hyde Park]]{{·}} [[West Ridge, Chicago|West Rogers Park]]){{·}} [[Deerfield, Illinois|Deerfield]]{{·}} [[Des Plaines, Illinois|Des Plaines]]{{·}} [[Evanston, Illinois|Evanston]]{{·}} [[Flossmoor, Illinois|Flossmoor]]{{·}} [[Glenview, Illinois|Glenview]]{{·}} [[Highland Park, Illinois|Highland Park]]{{·}} [[Lincolnwood, Illinois|Lincolnwood]]{{·}} [[Long Grove, Illinois|Long Grove]]{{·}} [[Morton Grove, Illinois|Morton Grove]]{{·}} [[Northbrook, Illinois|Northbrook]]{{·}} [[Skokie, Illinois|Skokie]]{{·}} [[Wilmette, Illinois|Wilmette]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Maryland]]{{·}} [[District of Columbia]]
|-
| [[Baltimore, Maryland|Baltimore]]{{·}} [[Owings Mills, Maryland|Owings Mills]]{{·}} [[Pikesville, Maryland|Pikesville]]{{·}} [[Reisterstown, Maryland|Reisterstown]]{{·}} [[Aspen Hill, Maryland|Aspen Hill]]{{·}} [[Bethesda, Maryland|Bethesda]]{{·}} [[Chevy Chase, Maryland|Chevy Chase]]{{·}} [[Gaithersburg, Maryland|Gaithersburg]]{{·}} [[Kemp Mill, Maryland|Kemp Mill]]{{·}} [[Kensington, Maryland|Kensington]]{{·}} [[Olney, Maryland|Olney]]{{·}} [[Potomac, Maryland|Potomac]]{{·}} [[Rockville, Maryland|Rockville]]{{·}} [[Silver Spring, Maryland|Silver Spring]]{{·}} [[Takoma Park, Maryland|Takoma Park]]{{·}} [[Washington, D.C.]]{{·}} [[Wheaton, Maryland|Wheaton]]{{·}} [[White Oak, Maryland|White Oak]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Massachusetts]]
|-
| [[Brighton, Massachusetts|Brighton]]{{·}} [[Brookline, Massachusetts|Brookline]]{{·}} [[Lexington, Massachusetts|Lexington]]{{·}} [[Marblehead, Massachusetts|Marblehead]]{{·}} [[Newton, Massachusetts|Newton]]{{·}} [[Sharon, Massachusetts|Sharon]]{{·}} [[Wayland, Massachusetts|Wayland]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!colspan="2" style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Michigan]]
|-
| [[Ann Arbor, Michigan|Ann Arbor]]{{·}} [[Detroit, Michigan|Detroit]]&nbsp;([[Bloomfield Hills, Michigan|Bloomfield Hills]]{{·}} [[Bloomfield Township, Michigan|Bloomfield Township]]{{·}} [[West Bloomfield, Michigan|West Bloomfield]]{{·}} [[Farmington Hills, Michigan|Farmington Hills]]{{·}} [[Huntington Woods, Michigan|Huntington Woods]]{{·}} [[Oak Park, Michigan|Oak Park]]{{·}} [[Southfield, Michigan|Southfield]])
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Minnesota]]
|-
| [[Minneapolis, Minnesota|Minneapolis]]&nbsp;([[St. Louis Park, Minnesota|St. Louis Park]]{{·}} [[Minnetonka, Minnesota|Minnetonka]]){{·}} [[St. Paul, Minnesota|St. Paul]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Missouri]]
|-
| [[St. Louis, Missouri|St. Louis]]&nbsp;([[University City, Missouri|University City]]{{·}} [[Clayton, Missouri|Clayton]]{{·}} [[Ladue, Missouri|Ladue]])
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[New Jersey]]<ref name="largebut">New Jersey, New York City, Long Island and Westchester County each have large Jewish communities, but the areas listed within and without have the highest concentrations.</ref>
|-
| [[Cherry Hill, New Jersey|Cherry Hill]]{{·}} [[East Brunswick, New Jersey|East Brunswick]]{{·}} [[Edison, New Jersey|Edison]]{{·}} [[Elizabeth, New Jersey|Elizabeth]]{{·}} [[Englewood, New Jersey|Englewood]]{{·}} [[Fair Lawn, New Jersey|Fair Lawn]]{{·}} [[Highland Park, New Jersey|Highland Park]]{{·}} [[Lakewood, New Jersey|Lakewood]]{{·}} [[Livingston, New Jersey|Livingston]]{{·}} [[Manalapan Township, New Jersey|Manalapan Township]]{{·}} [[Marlboro Township, New Jersey|Marlboro Township]]{{·}} [[Millburn, New Jersey|Millburn]]{{·}} [[Morristown, New Jersey|Morristown]]{{·}} [[Newark, New Jersey|Newark]]{{·}} [[South Orange, New Jersey|South Orange]]{{·}} [[West Orange, New Jersey|West Orange]]{{·}} [[Passaic, New Jersey|Passaic]]{{·}} [[Springfield, New Jersey|Springfield]]{{·}} [[Teaneck, New Jersey|Teaneck]]{{·}} [[Tenafly, New Jersey|Tenafly]]{{·}} [[Wayne, New Jersey|Wayne]]{{·}} [[Woodcliff Lake, New Jersey|Woodcliff Lake]]{{·}} [[Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey|Englewood Cliffs]]{{·}} [[Paramus, New Jersey|Paramus]]{{·}} [[Fort Lee, New Jersey|Fort Lee]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!colspan="3" style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[New York]]
|-
|width="115px"| [[Long Island]]<ref name="largebut"/>
|colspan="2"| [[Baldwin, New York|Baldwin]]{{·}} [[Bellmore, New York|Bellmore]]{{·}} [[Dix Hills, New York|Dix Hills]]{{·}} [[East Hampton, New York|East Hampton]]{{·}} "[[Five Towns]]"{{·}} [[Great Neck, New York|Great Neck]]{{·}} [[Huntington, New York|Huntington]]{{·}} [[Jericho, New York|Jericho]]{{·}} [[Merrick, New York|Merrick]]{{·}} [[Oceanside, New York|Oceanside]]{{·}} [[Old Bethpage, New York|Old Bethpage]]{{·}} [[Plainview, New York|Plainview]]{{·}} [[Roslyn, New York|Roslyn]]{{·}} [[Port Washington, New York|Port Washington]]{{·}} [[Syosset, New York|Syosset]]
|-
|rowspan="5"| [[New York City]]<ref name="largebut"/>
|width="55px"| [[Brooklyn]]
| [[Bensonhurst, Brooklyn|Bensonhurst]]{{·}} [[Borough Park, Brooklyn|Borough Park]]{{·}} [[Brighton Beach, Brooklyn|Brighton Beach]]{{·}} [[Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn|Brooklyn Heights]]{{·}} [[Coney Island, Brooklyn|Coney Island]]{{·}} [[Crown Heights, Brooklyn|Crown Heights]]{{·}} [[Dyker Heights, Brooklyn|Dyker Heights]]{{·}} [[Midwood, Brooklyn|Midwood]]{{·}} [[Prospect-Lefferts Gardens, Brooklyn|Prospect-Lefferts Gardens]]{{·}} [[Prospect Heights, Brooklyn|Prospect Heights]]{{·}} [[Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn|Sheepshead Bay]]{{·}} [[Williamsburg, Brooklyn|Williamsburg]]
|-
| [[Bronx]]
| [[Castle Hill, Bronx|Castle Hill]]{{·}} [[City Island, Bronx|City Island]]{{·}} [[Co-op City, Bronx|Co-op City]]{{·}} [[Norwood, Bronx|Norwood]]{{·}} [[Pelham Gardens, Bronx|Pelham Gardens]]{{·}} [[Pelham Parkway, Bronx|Pelham Parkway]]{{·}} [[Riverdale, Bronx|Riverdale]]{{·}} [[Van Cortlandt Park]]{{·}} [[Woodlawn, Bronx|Woodlawn]]
|-
| [[Queens]]
| [[Forest Hills, Queens|Forest Hills]]{{·}} [[Kew Gardens, Queens|Kew Gardens]]{{·}} [[Little Neck, Queens|Little Neck]]{{·}} [[Fresh Meadows, Queens|Fresh Meadows]]{{·}} [[Rego Park, Queens|Rego Park]]
|-
| [[Manhattan]]
| [[Lower East Side, Manhattan|Lower East Side]]{{·}} [[Inwood, Manhattan|Inwood]]{{·}} [[Midtown, Manhattan|Midtown]]{{·}} [[Upper West Side, Manhattan]]
|-
| [[Staten Island]]
| [[Willowbrook, Staten Island|Willowbrook]]{{·}} [[New Springville, Staten Island|New Springville]]
|-
| [[Orange County, New York|Orange County]]
|colspan="2"| [[Kiryas Joel, New York|Kiryas Joel]]
|-
| [[Rockland County, New York|Rockland County]]
|colspan="2"| [[Kaser, New York|Kaser]]{{·}} [[Monsey, New York|Monsey]]{{·}} [[Montebello, New York|Montebello]]{{·}} [[New City, New York|New City]]{{·}} [[New Square, New York|New Square]]{{·}} [[Spring Valley, New York|Spring Valley]]{{·}} [[Suffern, New York|Suffern]]{{·}} [[Viola, New York|Viola]]{{·}} [[Wesley Hills, New York|Wesley Hills]]
|-
| [[Westchester County, New York|Westchester County]]<ref name="largebut"/>
|colspan="2"| [[Chappaqua, New York|Chappaqua]]{{·}} [[Harrison, New York|Harrison]]{{·}} [[Hartsdale, New York|Hartsdale]]{{·}} [[Larchmont, New York|Larchmont]]{{·}} [[Mamaroneck, New York|Mamaroneck]]{{·}} [[New Rochelle, New York|New Rochelle]]{{·}} [[Rye, New York|Rye]]{{·}} [[Scarsdale, New York|Scarsdale]]{{·}} [[White Plains, New York|White Plains]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[North Carolina]]
|-
| [[Cary, North Carolina|Cary]]{{·}} [[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]]{{·}} [[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]]{{·}} [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!colspan="2" style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Ohio]]
|-
|width="115px"| [[Cincinnati, Ohio|Cincinnati]]
| [[Amberley, Ohio|Amberley]]{{·}} [[Blue Ash, Ohio|Blue Ash]]{{·}} [[Reading, Ohio|Reading]]
|-
| [[Cleveland, Ohio|Cleveland]]
| [[Beachwood, Ohio|Beachwood]]{{·}} [[Cleveland Heights, Ohio|Cleveland Heights]]{{·}} [[Lyndhurst, Ohio|Lyndhurst]]{{·}} [[Moreland Hills, Ohio|Moreland Hills]]{{·}} [[Orange, Ohio|Orange]]{{·}} [[Pepper Pike, Ohio|Pepper Pike]]{{·}} [[Shaker Heights, Ohio|Shaker Heights]]{{·}} [[Solon, Ohio|Solon]]{{·}} [[South Euclid, Ohio|South Euclid]]{{·}} [[University Heights, Ohio|University Heights]]
|-
| [[Columbus, Ohio|Columbus]]
| [[Bexley, Ohio|Bexley]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!colspan="2" style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Pennsylvania]]
|-
|width="115px"| [[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Philadelphia]]
| [[Cheltenham Township, Pennsylvania|Cheltenham Township]]&nbsp;([[Elkins Park, Pennsylvania|Elkins Park]]){{·}} [[Overbrook, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Overbrook]]{{·}} [[Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania|Lower Merion Township]]&nbsp;([[Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania|Bala Cynwyd]]{{·}} [[Gladwyne, Pennsylvania|Gladwyne]]{{·}} [[Merion, Pennsylvania|Merion]]{{·}} [[Wynnewood, Pennsylvania|Wynnewood]]){{·}} [[Narberth, Pennsylvania|Narberth]]{{·}} [[Oxford Circle, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Oxford Circle]]{{·}} [[Rhawnhurst, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Rhawnhurst]]{{·}} [[Richboro, Pennsylvania|Richboro]]{{·}} [[Spring House, Pennsylvania|Spring House]]{{·}} [[Upper Dublin Township, Pennsylvania|Upper Dublin Township]]&nbsp;([[Abington Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania|Abington Township]]{{·}} [[Dresher, Pennsylvania|Dresher]]{{·}} [[Fort Washington, Pennsylvania|Fort Washington]]){{·}} [[West Chester, Pennsylvania|West Chester]]
|-
| [[Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania|Pittsburgh]]
| [[Squirrel Hill]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!colspan="2" style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Texas]]
|-
|width="115px"| [[Dallas, Texas|Dallas]]
| [[North Dallas]] ([[Preston Hollow, Dallas, Texas|Preston Hollow]], [[Devonshire, Dallas, Texas|Devonshire]], [[Melshire Estates, Dallas, Texas|Melshire Estates]], [[Bluff View, Dallas, Texas|Bluff View]], [[Greenway Parks, Dallas, Texas|Greenway Parks]], [[Turtle Creek, Dallas, Texas|Turtle Creek]], [[Bent Tree, Dallas, Texas|Bent Tree]], [[Far North Dallas, Dallas, Texas|Far North Dallas]]){{·}} [[Plano, Texas|Plano]]
|-
| [[Houston, Texas|Houston]]
| [[Meyerland, Houston, Texas|Meyerland]]{{·}} [[Memorial, Houston, Texas|Memorial]]{{·}} [[Maplewood, Houston, Texas|Maplewood]]{{·}} [[Braeburn, Houston, Texas|Braeburn]]{{·}} [[Inwood Forest, Houston, Texas|Inwood Forest]]{{·}} [[Addicks, Houston, Texas|Addicks]]{{·}} [[Cypress, Texas|Cypress]]{{·}} [[Jersey Village, Texas|Jersey Village]]{{·}} [[Piney Point Village]]{{·}} [[Bunker Hill Village]]{{·}} [[Hedwig Village]]{{·}} [[Hilshire Village]]{{·}} [[Hunters Creek Village]]{{·}} [[West University Place, Texas|West University Place]]{{·}} [[Sugar Land, Texas|Sugar Land]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Virginia]]
|-
| [[Alexandria, Virginia|Alexandria]]{{·}} [[Fairfax, Virginia|Fairfax]]{{·}} [[Falls Church, Virginia|Falls Church]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Washington]]
|-
| [[Bellevue, Washington|Bellevue]]{{·}} [[Mercer Island, Washington|Mercer Island]]{{·}} [[Seattle, Washington|Seattle]]
|}
 
{| width="100%" class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;"
!style="text-align:left; font-size:105%;"| [[Wisconsin]]
|-
| [[Bayside, Wisconsin|Bayside]]{{·}} [[Glendale, Wisconsin|Glendale]]{{·}} [[Fox Point, Wisconsin|Fox Point]]{{·}} [[Mequon, Wisconsin|Mequon]]{{·}} [[Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin|Whitefish Bay]] (All in metro [[Milwaukee]])
|}
 
==Lihat pula==
* [[Yahudi]]
* [[Sejarah Yahudi di Amerika Syarikat]]
* [[Daftar Yahudi Amerika]]
* [[Budaya Yahudi Duniawi]]
* [[Model minority]]
 
== Notes and references ==
<div class="references-small"><references/></div>
 
==Bibliography==
* Antler, Joyce., ed. ''Talking Back: Images of Jewish Women in American Popular Culture.'' 1998.
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==Rujukan==
Pengguna awanama