Perbezaan antara semakan "Abu Ali Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham"

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r2.7.3) (Bot: Menukar sr:Ибн ал-Хаитам kepada sr:Ибн ел Хаитам; perubahan kosmetik
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k (r2.7.3) (Bot: Menukar sr:Ибн ал-Хаитам kepada sr:Ибн ел Хаитам; perubahan kosmetik)
|death_date = {{death date and age|1040|3|6|965|7|1}}<ref name=Britannica/>(430 AH)<ref>{{citation|title=Al-Mubashshir ibn Fâtik. Prolegomena to an Abortive Edition|author=[[Franz Rosenthal]]|journal=Oriens|volume=13|year=1960–1961|pages=132–158 [136–7] |publisher=[[Brill Publishers]]|jstor=1580309}}</ref> |
|death_place = [[Kaherah]], [[Mesir]], [[Khilafah Fatimiyyah]]
|residence = Basra<br />[[Kaherah]]
|citizenship =
|nationality =
 
 
[[Tokoh dunia|Tokoh]] '''{{transl|ar|ALA|Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham}}''' <br /> ([[bahasa Arab|Arab]]: أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, [[bahasa Parsi|Parsi]]: ابن هیثم, [[Latin]]: '''Alhacen''' atau <ref>Lindberg, 1996.</ref> '''Alhazen''') (dilahirkan di [[Basra]] pada 965 Masihi – dan meninggal dunia pada 1040 Masihi di [[Kaherah]]). Beliau ialah seorang [[Muslim]],<ref>http://www.amualumni.8m.com/Scientist3.htm <br />http://www.islamic-study.org/optics.htm</ref> [[ahli sains]] Muslim dan [[polymath]] yang banyak diterangkan dalam pelbagai sumber sama ada dalam bahasa Arab mahupun Parsi.<ref>{{Harv|Child|Shuter|Taylor|1992|p=70}} <br /> {{Harv|Dessel|Nehrich|Voran|1973|p=164}} <br /> {{Harv|Samuelson|Crookes|p=497}} <br /> Understanding History by John Child, Paul Shuter, David Taylor - Page 70.</ref><ref>Science and Human Destiny by Norman F. Dessel, Richard B. Nehrich, Glenn I. Voran - Page 164.<br /> The Journal of Science, and Annals of Astronomy, Biology, Geology by James Samuelson, William Crookes - Page 497.</ref><ref>{{Harv|Smith|1992}} <br /> {{Harv|Grant|2008}} <br /> {{Harv|Vernet|2008}} <br /> {{citation|url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-IbnalHay.html|contribution=Ibn al-Haytham|title=[[Columbia Encyclopedia]]|edition=Sixth|year=2007|accessdate=2008-01-23|isbn=0-7876-5075-7|author=Paul Lagasse|publisher=Columbia}}</ref><ref>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/738111/Ibn-al-Haytham] <br /> {{Harv|Dessel|Nehrich|Voran|1973|p=164}} <br /> {{Harv|Samuelson|Crookes|p=497}}</ref><ref>Science and Human Destiny by Norman F. Dessel, Richard B. Nehrich, Glenn I. Voran - Page 164.<br /> The Journal of Science, and Annals of Astronomy, Biology, Geology by James Samuelson, William Crookes - Page 497.</ref><ref>[http://www.ibnalhaytham.net/custom.em?pid=571860 Review of ''Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist''], [[Kirkus Reviews]], December 1, 2006: {{quote|a devout, brilliant polymath}} {{Harv|Hamarneh|1972}}: {{quote|A great man and a universal genius, long neglected even by his own people.}} {{Harv|Bettany|1995}}: {{quote|Ibn ai-Haytham provides us with the historical personage of a versatile universal genius.}}</ref>, Beliau juga terkenal sebagai Bapa Optik Moden. Beliau merupakan pakar fizik yang terunggul melalui sumbangan terhadap kaedah optik dan saintifik. Abu Ali Hasan telah mendapat pendidikan di Basra dan [[Baghdad]].
 
Ibn al-Haitham membuat sumbangan besar dalam bidang [optik]], dan juga bidang-bidang [[fizik]], [[Astronomi|ilmu falak]], [[matematik]], [[oftalmologi]], [[falsafah]], [[persepsi penglihatan]], dan [[kaedah saintifik]]. Beliau juga menulis ulasan berwawasan terhadap karya-karya [[Aristotle]], [[Ptolemy]], dan ahli matematik purba [[Yunani]], [[Euclid]].<ref>"''[http://books.google.com/books?id=kZcCtT1ZeaEC&pg=PA142&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false The rainbow bridge: rainbows in art, myth, and science]''". Raymond L. Lee, Alistair B. Fraser (2001). [[Penn State Press]]. p.142. ISBN 0-271-01977-8</ref>
 
Beliau sering dikenali sebagai '''Ibn al-Haitham''', dan kadangkala sebagai '''al-Basri''' (Arab: البصري), bersempena tempat kelahirannya di bandar Basra.<ref name=MacTutor/> Beliau juga dikenali dengan nama berian ''Ptolemaeus Secundus'' ("Ptolemy Kedua")<ref name="Corbin149">{{Harv|Corbin|1993|p=149}}</ref> atau nama ringkas "Si Ahli Fizik"<ref>{{Harv|Lindberg|1967|p=331}}</ref> di Eropah Zaman Pertengahan.
 
Dilahirkan di Basra, [[Iraq]], beliau tinggal di Kaherah [[Mesir]] dan meninggal dunia di sana pada umur 74 tahun.<ref name="Corbin149"/> Kerana terlalu meyakini kegunaan praktik ilmu matematiknya, beliau beranggapan dapat mengawal banjir sungai [[Sungai Nil|Nil]].<ref name=Sabra>{{Harv|Sabra|2003}}</ref> Apabila diperintah berbuat demikian oleh [[Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah]], khalifah keenam Kekhalifahan [[Khilafah Fatimiyyah|Fatimiyyah]], beliau dengan cepat menyedari bahawa tugas itu mustahil dilakukan, lantas bersara daripada bidang kejuruteraan. Oleh sebab takut nyawanya terancam, beliau berpura-pura [[gila]]<ref name=Britannica/><ref name=Encarta>{{Harv|Grant|2008}}</ref>. Akibatnya beliau dikenakan [[penahanan dalam rumah]]. Pada waktu dan selepas itulah beliau menumpukan perhatian kepada usaha-usaha saintifik sehinggalah meninggal dunia.<ref name="Corbin149"/>
Dalam bukunya ''Mizan al-Hikmah'', Ali Abu Hasan membincangkan ketumpatan atmosfera dan menghasilkan hubungan antara atmosfera dan ketinggian.
 
=== Biografi ===
 
[[FileFail:Alhazen, the Persian.gif|alt=Head of a bearded man with bushy eyebrows, wearing a turban.|thumb|Satu lagi gambar Ibn al-Haitham [[polymath]] agung Islam.]]
 
Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham dilahirkan di [[Basra]], [[Iraq]] yang pada masa itu merupakan sebuah wilayah [[Empayar Buyah]].<ref name=Britannica>{{Harv|Lorch|2008}}</ref> Tidak dapat dipastikan sama ada beliau berketurunan Arab atau Parsi.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unesco.org/science/infocus_full_oct_05.shtml |title=UNESCO Natural Sciences Portal |publisher=Unesco.org |date= |accessdate=2012-05-27}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|pmid=18546671 | doi=10.1068/p5940 | volume=37 | issue=4 | title=Ibn al-Haytham and psychophysics | year=2008 | journal=Perception | pages=636–8}}</ref> Berkemungkinan besar beliau meninggal dunia di [[Kaherah]], [[Mesir]]. Beliau dididik di Basra (sewaktu [[Zaman Kegemilangan Islam]], Basra merupakan "kunci kepada permulaan pedidikan"),<ref name=Guardian>{{Harv|Whitaker|2004}}</ref> dan di [[Baghdad]], ibu negeri [[Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah|Kekhalifahan Abbasiyyah]], yang juga menjadi pusat "kemuncak tamadun Islam".<ref name=Guardian/> Sewaktu di [[Buyid|Iran Buyah]], beliau bertugas sebagai [[pegawai awam]] dan membaca banyak karya-karya [[Teologi Islam|teologi]] dan [[Sains Islam|sains]].<ref name=MacTutor>{{Harv|O'Connor|Robertson|1999}}</ref><ref name=greatislamic>Sajjadi, Sadegh, "Alhazen", ''Great Islamic Encyclopedia'', Volume 1, Article No. 1917;</ref>
 
Satu kisah kerjayanya menceritakan yang beliau dipanggil ke Mesir oleh pemerintah [[Khilafah Fatimiyyah|Kekhalifahan Fatimiyyah]], [[Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah]], untuk mengawal pembanjiran sungai [[Sungai Nil|Nil]], suatu usaha yang memerlukan pembinaan empangan di tempat terbinanya [[Empangan Aswan]] sekarang.<ref>{{Harv|Rashed|2002b}}</ref> Selepas kerja luar menyedarkan beliau akan kemustahilan rancangannya,<ref name="Corbin149"/> dan takut akan kemarahan khalifah, beliau pura-pura gila. Ibn al-Haitham dikenakan hukuman [[penahanan dalam rumah]] dari tahun 1011 M sehinggalah kematian Khalifah al-Hakim dalam tahun 1021.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cgie.org.ir/shavad.asp?id=123&avaid=1917 |title=the Great Islamic Encyclopedia |publisher=Cgie.org.ir |date= |accessdate=2012-05-27}}</ref> Dalam waktu penahanan itu, beliau menghasilkan sebuah kitab yang amat berpengaruh, ''[[Kitab Optik (Kitab al-Manazir)|Kitab Optik]]''. Selepas dibebaskan daripada tahanan, beliau menerbit banyak lagi treatis berkaitan [[Fizik Islam|fizik]] [[Astronomi Islam|ilmu falak]] dan [[Matematik Islam|matematik]]. Beliau kemudiannya pergi ke [[Al-Andalus]]. Dalam waktu ini, beliau terus menerus menjalankan pengajian saintifik termasuk kajian tentang optik, matematik, fizik, [[Perubatan Islam|perubatan]], dan pengembangan [[kaedah saintifik]] moden yang berlandaskan [[eksperimen|ujikaji]].
 
Beberapa periwayat hidup mengatakan Ibn al-Haitham lari ke [[Syria]], kemudian pergi ke Baghdad pada usia tua, atau berada di Basra semasa beliau pura-pura gila. Walau apapun, beliau berada di Kaherah menjelang tahun 1038. Semasa beliau berada di Kaherah, beliau terhubung dengan [[Universiti Al-Azhar]], disamping "Rumah Hikmah"" bandar itu,<ref>{{Harv|Van Sertima|1992|p=382}}</ref> yang dikenali sebagai ''Dar al-`Ilm'' ([[Rumah Ilmu]]), yang merupakan perpustakaan "terpenting" selepas [[Baitul Hikmah]] di Baghdad.<ref name=MacTutor/>
 
=== Legasi ===
[[FileFail:Thesaurus opticus Titelblatt.jpg|thumb|Halaman hadapan edisi Latin buku Ibn al-Haitham bertajuk ''Thesaurus opticus'' (''[[Kitab Optik (Kitab al-Manazir)|Kitab Optik]]''), menunjukkan bagaimana [[Archimedes]] membakar kapal Rom dekat [[Syracuse, Sicily|Syracuse]] dengan menggunakan cermin parabola.]]
 
Ibn al-Haitham membuat kemajuan besar dalam bidang optik, sains fizikal dan kaedah saintifik. Usaha Ibn al-Haitham berkaitan optik dianggap sebagai penyumbang kepada penitikberatan [[eksperimen]] dalam sains. Pengaruhnya terhadap sains am dan optik khususnya disanjung tinggi, dan sesungguhnya membuka tirai kepada era baharu dalam penyelidikan optik, sama ada dalam bentuk teori mahupun amali.<ref name=Deek/>
 
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Al-Haytham}}
[[CategoryKategori:965 births]]
[[CategoryKategori:1039 deaths]]
[[CategoryKategori:Scientific method]]
[[CategoryKategori:Natural philosophers]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval Islamic astronomers]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval Iraqi astronomers]]
[[CategoryKategori:Astronomers of medieval Islam]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval Islamic mathematicians]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval Iraqi mathematicians]]
[[CategoryKategori:10th-century mathematicians]]
[[CategoryKategori:11th-century mathematicians]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval Arab philosophers]]
[[CategoryKategori:Iraqi philosophers]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval engineers]]
[[CategoryKategori:Iraqi engineers]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval Iraqi physicians]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval Persian physicians]]
[[CategoryKategori:Iranian scientists]]
[[CategoryKategori:Iraqi scientists]]
[[CategoryKategori:People from Basra]]
[[CategoryKategori:Philosophers of science]]
[[CategoryKategori:Arab scholars]]
[[CategoryKategori:Islamic philosophers]]
[[CategoryKategori:Medieval physicists]]
[[CategoryKategori:Muslim scholars]]
[[CategoryKategori:Precursors of photography]]
[[CategoryKategori:Scientists who worked on Qibla determination]]
[[CategoryKategori:Physicians of medieval Islam]]
[[CategoryKategori:Mathematicians of medieval Islam]]
[[CategoryKategori:Iraqi Shi'a Muslims]]
[[CategoryKategori:11th-century astronomers]]
 
 
[[Kategori: Ahli matematik]]
[[Kategori: Ahli astronomi]]
 
{{Link FA|ar}}
 
[[so:Ibn Haytham]]
[[ckb:ئیبن ئەلھەیسەم]]
[[sr:Ибн ал-ел Хаитам]]
[[sh:Ibn al-Haitam]]
[[fi:Ibn al-Haitham]]
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