Wilayah Constanța: Perbezaan antara semakan

tiada ringkasan suntingan
(Mencipta laman baru dengan kandungan '{{Infobox Settlement | official_name = Constanța | settlement_type = County | image_skyline ...')
 
Tiada ringkasan suntingan
{{Infobox Settlement
| official_name = Constanța
| settlement_type = [[Counties of Romania|County]]
| image_skyline =
| image_caption =
| image_flag =
| flag_link =
| image_shield = Actual_Constanta_county_CoA.png
| shield_link = Coat of arms of Constanța County
| image_map = Constanta in Romania.svg
| map_caption =
| coordinates_region = RO
| subdivision_type = Country
| subdivision_name = {{ROU}}
| subdivision_type1 = Development region<sup>1</sup>
| subdivision_name1 = [[Sud-Est (development region)|Sud-Est]]
| subdivision_type2 = Historic region
| subdivision_name2 = [[Dobrogea]]
| subdivision_type3 = Capital city (''Reședință de județ'')
| subdivision_name3 = [[Constanța]]
| government_footnotes =
| government_type = County Board
| leader_party = Social Democratic Party
| leader_title = President of the County Board
| leader_name = Nicuşor Constantinescu
| leader_title1 = Prefect<sup>2</sup>
| leader_name1 = ''vacant''<ref>{{ro icon}} [[Mediafax]], [http://www.mediafax.ro/politic/guvernul-a-dispus-eliberarea-din-functie-a-prefectilor-judetelor-constanta-si-ialomita-9568421/ The Romanian Government Dismissed the Prefects of Constanța and Ialomița Counties], accessed on April 24, 2012</ref>
| established_title =
| established_date =
| area_magnitude =
| area_total_km2 = 7071
| area_rank = [[List of Romanian counties by area|8th in Romania]]
| area_land_km2 =
| area_water_km2 =
| area_total_sq_mi =
| area_land_sq_mi =
| area_water_sq_mi =
| area_water_percent =
| area_urban_km2 =
| area_urban_sq_mi =
| area_metro_km2 =
| area_metro_sq_mi =
| elevation_footnotes =
| elevation_m =
| elevation_ft =
| latd = 44.27
| longd = 28.31
| coordinates_display = inline,title
| population_as_of = 2011 census<ref name="INSSER">{{cite web | url = http://www.constanta.insse.ro/phpfiles/COMUNICAT_RPL_CONSTANTA.pdf | title = Constanta County at the 2011 census | date = February 02, 2012 | accessdate = February 16, 2012 | publisher = [[National Institute of Statistics (Romania)|INSSE]] | language = Romanian}}</ref>
| population_footnotes =
| population_total = {{decrease}}630679
| population_rank = [[List of Romanian counties by population|6th in Romania]]
| population_density_km2 = 101
| population_density_sq_mi =
| population_metro =
| population_density_metro_km2 =
| population_density_metro_sq_mi =
| population_urban =
| population_density_urban_km2 =
| population_density_urban_sq_mi =
| population_note =
| timezone = [[Eastern European Time|EET]]
| utc_offset = +2
| timezone_DST = [[Eastern European Summer Time|EEST]]
| utc_offset_DST = +3
| postal_code_type = [[List of postal codes in Romania|Postal Code]]
| postal_code = 90wxyz<sup>3</sup>
| area_code = [[Romania telephone area codes|+40 x41]]<sup>4</sup>
| blank_name = [[Romanian car number plates|Car Plates]]
| blank_info = CT<sup>5</sup>
| blank1_name = GDP
| blank1_info = US$ 7.91&nbsp;billion (''2008'')
| blank2_name = GDP/[[capita]]
| blank2_info = US$ 11,051 (''2008'')
| footnotes = <sup>1</sup>The development regions of [[Romania]] have no administrative role. They were formed just to attract funds from the [[European Union]]<br><sup>2</sup> as of 2007, the Prefect is not a politician, but a public functionary. He or she is not allowed to be a member of a political party and is forbidden from political activity in the first six months after the resignation (or exclusion) from the public functionary corps<br><sup>3</sup>w, x, y, and z are digits that indicate the city, the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address<br><sup>4</sup>x is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, [[Romtelecom]], and 3 for the other ground telephone networks<br><sup>5</sup>used on both the plates of the vehicles that operate only in the county limits (like utility vehicles, [[All-terrain vehicle|ATV]]s, etc.), and the ones used outside the county
| website = [http://www.cjc.ro County Board]<br>[http://www.prefectura-ct.ro County Prefecture]
}}
'''Constanța''' ({{IPA-ro|konˈstant͡sa}}) is the name of a county ([[judeţ]]) in the [[Dobrogea]] region of [[Romania]]. Its capital city is also named [[Constanța]].
 
==Demographics==
In 2011, it had a population of 630,679 and the population density was 89.19/km². The degree of urbanization is much higher (about 75%) than the Romanian average. In recent years the population trend is:
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Year
! County population<ref>National Institute of Statistics, ''[http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/RPL2002INS/vol1/tabele/t01.pdf "Populaţia la recensămintele din anii 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 şi 2002"]''</ref><ref name="INSSER"/>
|-
| 1948
| 311,062
|-
| 1956
|{{increase}} 369,940
|-
| 1966
|{{increase}} 465,752
|-
| 1977
|{{increase}} 608,817
|-
| 1992
|{{increase}} 748,769
|-
| 1996
|{{decrease}} 747,122
|-
| 2000
|{{decrease}} 746,988
|-
| 2002
|{{decrease}} 715,151
|-
| 2011
|{{decrease}} 630,679
|}
 
The majority of the population are [[Romanians]]. There are important communities of [[Turkish people|Turks]] and [[Tatars]], remnants of the time of [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] rule. Currently the region is the centre of the [[Islam in Romania|Muslim minority in Romania]]. A great number of [[Aromanians]] have migrated to [[Dobrogea]] in the last century, and they consider themselves a cultural minority rather than an ethnic minority. There are also [[Roma (Romani subgroup)|Romas]].
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Ethnicity
! 1880<ref>Robert Stănciugel and Liliana Monica Bălaşa, ''Dobrogea în Secolele VII-XIX. Evoluţie istorică'', Bucharest, 2005; pg. 202</ref>
! 2002<ref>[http://www.recensamant.ro/pagini/tabele/t40a.pdf 2002 official census results]</ref>
! 2011<ref name="INSSER"/>
|-
| All
| 64,902
| 715,151
| 630,679
|-
| Romanian
| 14,884 (23%)
| 652,777 (91%)
| 567,779 (90%)
|-
| Turkish
| 14,947 (23%)
| 24,246 (3.4%)
| 21,014 (3.3%)
|-
| Tatar
| 22,854 (35%)
| 23,230 (3.2%)
| 19,720 (3.1%)
|-
| Bulgarian
| 7,919 (12%)
| 74 (0.01%)
| N/A
|-
| Greek
| 2,607 (4%)
| 590 (0.08%)
| N/A
|-
| Roma/Gypsy
| <100 (<0.1%)
| 6,023 (0.84%)
| 8,401 (1.33%)
|}
 
==Geography==
*[[Călăraşi County]] and [[Ialomiţa County]] are to the west.
*[[Tulcea County]] and [[Brăila County]] are to the north.
*[[Bulgaria]] ([[Dobrich Province]] and [[Silistra Province]]) are to the south.
 
==Economy==
{{Romanian counties map}}
The predominant industries in the county are:
* Chemicals and petrochemicals
* Food and beverages
* Textiles
* Ship building
* Construction materials
* Mechanical components
* Paper
 
Agriculture is an important part in the county's economy, with Constanţa being the county with the largest irrigation systems in the country (more than 4,300&nbsp;km² before 1989, now greatly reduced), cereals being the most important products. Also, the county is famous for its [[Romanian wine|wines]] from the [[Murfatlar]] region.
 
At [[Cernavodă]] there is a [[Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant|nuclear power plant]] with two [[nuclear reactors|reactors]], each of the [[CANDU]] type of Canadian design. The plant covers over 15% of the country's power demand.
 
The [[Port of Constanţa]] is the largest port in [[Romania]] and one of the most important on the [[Black Sea]]. It is linked with the [[Danube]] by the [[Danube-Black Sea Canal]] – the widest and deepest navigable channel in Europe, although it is not used to its full potential.
 
==Tourism==
The [[Black Sea]] littoral is the preferred destination for the summer holidays in [[Romania]]. The resorts are:
* [[Năvodari]]
* [[Mamaia]]
* [[Eforie]] (North and South)
* [[Costineşti]]
* [[Olimp, Romania|Olimp]]
* [[Neptun, Romania|Neptun]]
* [[Jupiter, Romania|Jupiter]]
* [[Cap Aurora]]
* [[Venus, Constanţa|Venus]]
* [[Saturn, Romania|Saturn]]
* [[Mangalia]]
* [[2 Mai]]
* [[Vama Veche]]
 
Also worth visiting are:
* The city of [[Constanţa]]
* The mausoleum from [[Adamclisi]]
* The [[Portiţa, Sinoe|Portiţa]] area
 
==Politics==
The current president of Constanţa County Board is [[Nicuşor Constantinescu]] (Social Democratic Party).
 
The Constanţa County Board, elected in the [[Romanian local election, 2008|2008 local government elections]], is made up of 36 counselors, with the following party composition:
 
{| cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" border="1" class="wikitable"
! style="background:#ccc" | &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
! style="background:#ccc" | Party
! style="background:#ccc" | Seats
! style="background:#ccc" colspan="20" | Current County Council
|-
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| [[Social Democratic Party (Romania)|Social Democratic Party]]
| style="text-align: right" | '''20'''
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PSD}} | &nbsp;
|-
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| [[Democratic Liberal Party (Romania)|Democratic Liberal Party]]
| style="text-align: right" | '''9'''
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PD}} | &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
|-
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PNL}} | &nbsp;
| [[National Liberal Party (Romania)|National Liberal Party]]
| style="text-align: right" | '''7'''
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PNL}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PNL}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PNL}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PNL}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PNL}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PNL}} | &nbsp;
| {{Romanian politics/party colours/PNL}} | &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
| &nbsp;
|}
 
==Administrative divisions==
{{seealso|Constanţa metropolitan area}}
Constanţa County has 3 municipalities, 9 towns and 58 communes:
*Municipalities
**[[Constanţa]] – capital city; population: 254,693 (as of 2011)
**[[Mangalia]]
**[[Medgidia]]
{{col-begin}}
{{col-3}}
*Towns
**[[Băneasa, Constanţa|Băneasa]]
**[[Cernavodă]]
**[[Eforie]]
{{col-3}}
**[[Hârşova]]
**[[Murfatlar]]
**[[Năvodari]]
{{col-3}}
**[[Negru Vodă, Constanţa|Negru Vodă]]
**[[Ovidiu]]
**[[Techirghiol]]
{{col-end}}
{{col-begin}}
{{col-6}}
*Communes
**[[23 August, Constanţa|23 August]]
**[[Adamclisi]]
**[[Agigea]]
**[[Albeşti, Constanţa|Albeşti]]
**[[Aliman]]
**[[Amzacea]]
**[[Bărăganu]]
**[[Castelu]]
**[[Cerchezu]]
**[[Chirnogeni]]
{{col-6}}
**[[Ciobanu]]
**[[Ciocârlia, Constanţa|Ciocârlia]]
**[[Cobadin]]
**[[Cogealac]]
**[[Comana, Constanţa|Comana]]
**[[Corbu, Constanţa|Corbu]]
**[[Costineşti]]
**[[Crucea, Constanţa|Crucea]]
**[[Cumpăna]]
**[[Cuza Vodă, Constanţa|Cuza Vodă]]
{{col-6}}
**[[Deleni, Constanţa|Deleni]]
**[[Dobromir]]
**[[Dumbrăveni, Constanţa|Dumbrăveni]]
**[[Fântânele, Constanţa|Fântânele]]
**[[Gârliciu]]
**[[Ghindăreşti]]
**[[Grădina]]
**[[Horia, Constanţa|Horia]]
**[[Independenţa, Constanţa|Independenţa]]
**[[Ion Corvin, Constanţa|Ion Corvin]]
{{col-6}}
**[[Istria, Constanţa|Istria]]
**[[Limanu]]
**[[Lipniţa]]
**[[Lumina, Constanţa|Lumina]]
**[[Mereni, Constanţa|Mereni]]
**[[Mihai Viteazu, Constanţa|Mihai Viteazu]]
**[[Mihail Kogălniceanu, Constanţa|Mihail Kogălniceanu]]
**[[Mircea Vodă, Constanţa|Mircea Vodă]]
**[[Nicolae Bălcescu, Constanţa|Nicolae Bălcescu]]
**[[Oltina]]
{{col-6}}
**[[Ostrov, Constanţa|Ostrov]]
**[[Pantelimon, Constanţa|Pantelimon]]
**[[Pecineaga]]
**[[Peştera]]
**[[Poarta Albă]]
**[[Rasova]]
**[[Saligny, Constanţa|Saligny]]
**[[Saraiu]]
**[[Săcele, Constanţa|Săcele]]
{{col-6}}
**[[Seimeni, Constanţa|Seimeni]]
**[[Siliştea, Constanţa|Siliştea]]
**[[Târguşor]]
**[[Topalu]]
**[[Topraisar]]
**[[Tortoman]]
**[[Tuzla, Constanţa|Tuzla]]
**[[Valu lui Traian]]
**[[Vulturu, Constanţa|Vulturu]]
{{col-end}}
 
==Historical county==
{{Infobox Settlement
| official_name = Judeţul Constanța