Burung Seliah: Perbezaan antara semakan

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'''Burung Seliah''' (''Lanius cristatus'') merupakan burung dalam keluarga [[shrike]] yang terdapat kebanyakannya di Asia. Ia berkait rapat dengan (''L. collurio'') dan (''L. isabellinus''). SebgaimanaIa shrikesmerupakan yangsalah lain,satu iadaripada memilikispesies ciriyang jelasdigambarkan "Topengoleh Perompak"[[William melaluiFarquhar]] matanya. danyang terdapat kebiasaanya di habitat[[Tanah semak terbuka, di mana ia bertenggek di puncak semak berduri menunggu mangsaMelayu]]. <!----Several populations of this widespread species form distinctive subspecies which breed in temperate ref>[[Asia]] and migrate to their winter quarters in tropical Asiahttp://books.google.com.my/books?id=gKfkbf9fPUYC&pg=PA204&dq=%22Burung+Kuang+Pongsu%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=SdC7Ue6LDI7rrQeDs4DYDg&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Burung%20Kuang%20Pongsu%22&f=false TheyNatural areHistory sometimesDrawings: foundThe asComplete vagrantsWilliam inFarquhar [[Europe]]Collection and: [[NorthMalay America]]...]</ref>
 
Sebagaimana shrikes yang lain, ia memiliki ciri jelas "Topeng Perompak" melalui matanya. dan terdapat kebiasaanya di habitat semak terbuka, di mana ia bertenggek di puncak semak berduri menunggu mangsa. Beberapa populasi spesies tersebar luas ini membentuk spesies kecil tersendiri yang membiak di Asia Serdahana dan berpindah pada musim sejuk ke Asia Tropika. Mereka kadang-kala dijumpai sesat di Europe dan Amerika Utara.
==Description==
 
[[File:Brown Shrike (Lanius cristatus)- Immature in Kolkata I IMG 6072.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Immature ([[Kolkata]], [[India]])]]
==Gambaran==
This shrike is mainly brown on the upper parts and the tail is rounded. The black mask can be paler in winter and has a white brow over it. The underside is creamy with rufous flanks and belly. The wings are brown and lack any white "mirror" patches. Females tend to have fine scalloping on the underside and the mask is dark brown and not as well marked as in the male. The distinction is not easy to use in the field but has been tested with breeding birds in Japan where the female can be identified from the presence of a brood patch.<ref>{{cite journal|title=A sexual difference in plumage of Brown Shrike subspecies, Lanius cristatus superciliosus|author=Takagi, M|year=1996| journal=J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol.| volume=28|pages=103–105}}</ref> The use of multiple measurements allows discrimination of the sex of about 90% of the birds.<ref>{{cite journal|journal=Jap. J. Ornithol.|volume=45|pages=187–190|year=1996|title=Sexual Size Dimorphism and Sex Determination of a Brown Shrike subspecies, Lanius cristatus superciliosus|author=Takagi, Masaoki|url=https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjo1986/45/3/45_3_187/_pdf}}</ref> Subspecies ''lucionensis'' has a grey crown shading into the brown upperparts and the rump appears more rufous than the rest of the upperback.<ref name=pcr>{{cite book|author=Rasmussen, PC & JC Anderton|year=2005|title=Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Volume 2|publisher=Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions|pages=349–350}}</ref> The tail is more brownish and not as reddish as in the [[Red-backed Shrike]].<ref name=hbk>{{cite book|author=Ali, S & SD Ripley| title= Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 5|edition=2| pages=98–100|publisher=Oxford University Press|place=New Delhi}}</ref> Younger birds of ''lucionensis'' have brown crown and lacks the grey on the head. Supspecies ''superciliosus'' has a broad white supercilium and richer reddish crown. The tail is redder and tipped in white.<ref name=phil>{{cite book| title= A manual of Philippine birds. Part 1| author=McGregor, RC| year=1909| publisher= Bureau of Printing, Manila| pages= 596–599|url= http://www.archive.org/stream/manualofphilippi00mcgr#page/596/mode/1up}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=Worfolk, Tim |year=2000|title= Identification of red-backed, isabelline and brown shrikes|journal=Dutch Birding|volume=22|issue=6|pages=323–362|url=http://www.dutchbirding.nl/content/journal/pdf/2000-6.pdf}}</ref>
[[File:Brown Shrike (Lanius cristatus)- Immature in Kolkata I IMG 6072.jpg|thumb|left|upright|ImmatureBurung muda di ([[Kolkata]], [[India]])]]
Shrike ini bisanya perang di bahagian atas dan ekor bulat. Topeng hitam mungkin pucat pada musim sejuk dan mempunyai garis putih atasnya. Bahagian perut putih dengan sisi dan perut rufous.
 
This shrike is mainly brown on the upper parts and the tail is rounded. The black mask can be paler in winter and has a white brow over it. The underside is creamy with rufous flanks and belly.<!---- The wings are brown and lack any white "mirror" patches. Females tend to have fine scalloping on the underside and the mask is dark brown and not as well marked as in the male. The distinction is not easy to use in the field but has been tested with breeding birds in Japan where the female can be identified from the presence of a brood patch.<ref>{{cite journal|title=A sexual difference in plumage of Brown Shrike subspecies, Lanius cristatus superciliosus|author=Takagi, M|year=1996| journal=J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol.| volume=28|pages=103–105}}</ref> The use of multiple measurements allows discrimination of the sex of about 90% of the birds.<ref>{{cite journal|journal=Jap. J. Ornithol.|volume=45|pages=187–190|year=1996|title=Sexual Size Dimorphism and Sex Determination of a Brown Shrike subspecies, Lanius cristatus superciliosus|author=Takagi, Masaoki|url=https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjo1986/45/3/45_3_187/_pdf}}</ref> Subspecies ''lucionensis'' has a grey crown shading into the brown upperparts and the rump appears more rufous than the rest of the upperback.<ref name=pcr>{{cite book|author=Rasmussen, PC & JC Anderton|year=2005|title=Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Volume 2|publisher=Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions|pages=349–350}}</ref> The tail is more brownish and not as reddish as in the [[Red-backed Shrike]].<ref name=hbk>{{cite book|author=Ali, S & SD Ripley| title= Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 5|edition=2| pages=98–100|publisher=Oxford University Press|place=New Delhi}}</ref> Younger birds of ''lucionensis'' have brown crown and lacks the grey on the head. Supspecies ''superciliosus'' has a broad white supercilium and richer reddish crown. The tail is redder and tipped in white.<ref name=phil>{{cite book| title= A manual of Philippine birds. Part 1| author=McGregor, RC| year=1909| publisher= Bureau of Printing, Manila| pages= 596–599|url= http://www.archive.org/stream/manualofphilippi00mcgr#page/596/mode/1up}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=Worfolk, Tim |year=2000|title= Identification of red-backed, isabelline and brown shrikes|journal=Dutch Birding|volume=22|issue=6|pages=323–362|url=http://www.dutchbirding.nl/content/journal/pdf/2000-6.pdf}}</ref>
 
A number of confusing forms are known from central Asia where the populations of ''cristatus'', ''isabellinus'' and ''collurio'' overlap. The taxonomy has been in a state of flux and some forms such as ''phoenicuroides'' formerly considered as subspecies of ''L. cristatus'' have been moved to the species ''L. isabellinus''.<ref name=pcr/><ref>{{cite journal|author=Mauersberger, G & L A Portenko |year=1971|chapter=Lanius collurio L., Lanius isabellinus Hemprich u. Ehrenberg und Lanius cristatus L.|url=http://www.staff.uni-mainz.de/martens/atlas/03_lanius_collurio.pdf|title=Atlas der Verbreitung palaearktischer Vögel|publisher=Akademie-verlag, Berlin}}</ref> Subspecies ''lucionensis'' has been recorded interbreeding with ''superciliosus'' in Ishikawa, Japan<ref>{{cite journal|title=A case of hybridization in Brown Shrike subspecies, Lanius cristatus lucionensis and L.c.supercillosus in Kanazawa|author=Ishizuka, T |journal=Strix |volume=9|pages=71–75|url=http://www.wbsj.org/nature/public/strix/09/Strix09_08.pdf}}</ref> while ''superciliosus'' has interbred with ''Lanius tigrinus'' in central Japan.<ref>{{cite journal| title= Interspecific Pair of a Male Brown and a Female Thick-billed Shrike, Lanius cristatus superciliosus and L. tigrinus, and Their Hybrids at Nobeyama Plateau in Central Japan|author=Imanishi, S; Yoshimitsu Shigeta and Toshiyuki Yoshino |journal=J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol.| volume=38| pages=90–96| year=2007 |url= https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jyio/38/2/38_2_90/_pdf}}</ref>
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