Perbezaan antara semakan "Arkeopteriks"

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{{Italic title}}{{featured article}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{speciesbox
{{speciesbox
| name = ''Archaeopteryx''
| fossil_range = Akhir Hurasik, {{fossil range|150.8|148.5}}
 
Archeopteryx ialah burung yang tertua, dengan ciri-ciri gabungan di antara reptilia dan burung. Ia mempunyai gigi dan bulu pelepah yang menyerupai burung. Fosil Archeopteryx telah digali dari sebuah kawasan berpaya di Jerman pada tahun 1860-an
 
 
== Rujukan ==
{{Reflist|30em|refs=
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<ref name="Buffetaut 85">{{cite book |last1=Buffetaut|first1=E. |authorlink1= |last2= |first2= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |editor1-link= |others= |title=The Beginnings of Birds: Proceedings of the International Archaeopteryx Conference |url= |accessdate= |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year=1985 |month= |origyear= |publisher=Eichstätt, Freunde des Jura-Museums Eichstätt |location= |language= |isbn=978-3980117807 |oclc= |doi= |id= |page= |pages=369–370 |chapter=The strangest interpretation of Archaeopteryx |chapterurl= |quote= |ref= |bibcode= |laysummary= |laydate= |separator= |postscript= |lastauthoramp=}}.</ref>
 
<ref name="BMNH 37001">British Museum of Natural History - 'BMNH 37001' - the [[Biological type|type]] specimen</ref>
 
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<ref name="Chiappe 07">{{Cite book| last = Chiappe| first = Luis M.| authorlink =| coauthors =| title = Glorified Dinosaurs | publisher = UNSW Press| year = 2007| location = Sydney| pages = 118–146| url =| doi =| isbn = 0-471-24723-5}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Christ Bond 04">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1016/j.crpv.2003.12.001 | last1 = Christensen | first1 = P | last2 = Bonde | first2 = N. | year = 2004 | title = Body plumage in Archaeopteryx: a review, and new evidence from the Berlin specimen | url = http://dinonews.net/rubriq/biblio.php#plumes_archaeopteryx_christiansen | journal = [[Comptes rendus|Comptes Rendus Palevol]] | volume = 3 | issue = 2| pages = 99–118 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Clarke&Norell2002">{{cite journal | last = Clarke | first = Julia. A. | authorlink = | coauthors = Norell, Mark. A. | year = 2002 | month = | title = The Morphology and Phylogenetic Position of Apsaravis ukhaana from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia | journal = American Museum Novitates | volume = 3387 | issue = 1 | pages = 1–46 | doi = 10.1206/0003-0082(2002)387<0001:TMAPPO>2.0.CO;2 | url = | accessdate = | quote = | issn = 0003-0082 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Darwin 1">[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F385&pageseq=399 Darwin, Origin of Species, Chapter 9, p. 367]</ref>
 
<ref name="Darwin 2">{{Cite book| last = Darwin| first = Charles| authorlink = Charles Darwin | title = On the Origin of Species| publisher = John Murray| year = 1859| location = | pages = | url = http://www.readprint.com/chapter-2217/Charles-Darwin| doi = | id = | isbn = }}. Please note Darwin's spelling: 'Archeopteryx', not 'Archaeopteryx'.</ref>
 
<ref name="Davis 1">{{cite journal |last= Davis |first=P. |coauthors=and Briggs, D. |year=1998 |title=The impact of decay and disarticulation on the preservation of fossil birds |journal=PALAIOS |volume=13 |issue=1 |pages=3–13 |url=http://palaios.sepmonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/13/1/3 |accessdate=2007-03-25 |doi=10.2307/3515277 |jstor= 3515277 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Elzanowski2002">Elżanowski A. (2002): Archaeopterygidae (Upper Jurassic of Germany). ''In:'' Chiappe, L. M., & Witmer, L. M (eds. {{Clarify|date=October 2012}}), ''Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs'': 129–159. University of California Press, Berkeley.</ref>
 
<ref name="Encarta">http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761565838/limestone_(mineral).html as at 13-08-09. [http://www.webcitation.org/5kwKbpb8j Archived] 2009-10-31.</ref>
 
<ref name="Erickson etal 2009">{{Cite journal|last=Erickson|first=Gregory M.|coauthors=Rauhut, Oliver W. M., Zhou, Zhonghe, Turner, Alan H., Inouye, Brian D. Hu, Dongyu, Norell, Mark A.|year=2009|title=Was Dinosaurian Physiology Inherited by Birds? Reconciling Slow Growth in ''Archaeopteryx''|journal=PLoS ONE|volume=4|issue=10|page= e7390|url=http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007390;jsessionid=F7E462DE00439EEA45BCC1AF96012EE0|accessdate=2009-10-25|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0007390|pmid=19816582|bibcode = 2009PLoSO...4.7390E|editor1-last=Desalle|editor1-first=Robert|pmc=2756958 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Feduc 1">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1126/science.259.5096.790 | last1 = Feduccia | first1 = A. | year = 1993 | title = Evidence from claw geometry indicating arboreal habits of ''Archaeopteryx'' | url = | journal = [[Science (journal)|Science]] | volume = 259 | issue = 5096| pages = 790–793 | pmid=17809342|bibcode = 1993Sci...259..790F }}</ref>
<ref name="Feduc 2">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1126/science.203.4384.1021 | last1 = Feduccia | first1 = A. | last2 = Tordoff | first2 = H. B. | year = 1979 | title = Feathers of Archaeopteryx: Asymmetric vanes indicate aerodynamic function | url = | journal = [[Science (journal)|Science]] | volume = 203 | issue = 4384| pages = 1021–1022 | pmid=17811125|bibcode = 1979Sci...203.1021F }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Griffiths">{{cite journal | last1 = Griffiths | first1 = P. J. | year = 1996 | title = The Isolated Archaeopteryx Feather | url = | journal = Archaeopteryx | volume = 14 | issue = | pages = 1–26 }}</ref>
 
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<ref name="Hoyle 85">{{cite journal |last=Hoyle |first=F. |authorlink=Fred Hoyle |coauthors=Wickramasinghe, N. C.; and Watkins, R. S. |year=1985 |title=''Archaeopteryx'' |journal=British Journal of Photography |volume=132 |pages=693–694 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Huxley 1">T. H. Huxley (1868). ''On the animals which are most nearly intermediate between birds and reptiles''. Geol. Mag. '''5''', 357–65; Annals & Magazine of Nat Hist '''2''', 66–75; Scientific Memoirs '''3''', 3–13.</ref>
 
<ref name="Huxley 2">T. H. Huxley (1868) ''Remarks upon Archaeopteryx lithographica''. ''Proc Roy Soc'' '''16''', 243–48; ''Sci Memoirs'' '''3''', 340-45.</ref>
 
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<ref name="ICZN 1961">{{cite journal | last1 = ICZN | first1 = | year = 1961 | title = Opinion 607, ''Archaeopteryx'' VON MEYER, 1861 (Aves); Addition to the Official list | url =http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12220667 | journal = Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature | volume = 18 | issue = 4| pages = 260–261 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="ICZN 1977">{{cite journal | last1 = ICZN | first1 = | year = 1977 | title = Opinion 1070. Conservation of ''Archaeopteryx lithographica'' VON MEYER 1861 (Aves) | url = http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12226120 | journal = Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature | volume = 33 | issue = | pages = 165–166 }}</ref>
 
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<ref name="Lindhe 50:921">2004 review by U. Lindhe Norberg, Acta Zool Sin 50:921</ref>
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<ref name="Lowe 1935">{{cite journal | last = Lowe | first = P. R. | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 1935 | month = | title = On the relationship of the Struthiones to the dinosaurs and to the rest of the avian class, with special reference to the position of ''Archaeopteryx'' | journal = Ibis | volume = 5 | issue = 2 | pages = 398–432 | url = | accessdate = | quote =| doi = 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1935.tb02979.x }}</ref>
 
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<ref name="Mayr 1">{{cite journal | last1 = Mayr | first1 = G | last2 = Pohl | first2 = B | last3 = Peters | first3 = DS. | year = 2005 | title = A well-preserved Archaeopteryx specimen with theropod features | url = | journal = [[Science (journal)|Science]] | volume = 310 | issue = 5753| pages = 1483–1486 | doi = 10.1126/science.1120331 | pmid=16322455 | bibcode=2005Sci...310.1483M}} [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;310/5753/1483/DC1 See commentary on article].</ref>
 
<ref name="Natgeo1">[http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/12/1201_051201_archaeopteryx.html National Geographic News - ''Earliest Bird Had Feet Like Dinosaur, Fossil Shows''] - Nicholas Bakalar, December 1, 2005, page 1. Retrieved 18 October 2006.</ref>
 
<ref name="Natgeo2">[http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/12/1201_051201_archaeopteryx_2.html National Geographic News - ''Earliest Bird Had Feet Like Dinosaur, Fossil Shows''] - Nicholas Bakalar, December 1, 2005, page 2. Retrieved 18 October 2006.</ref>
 
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<ref name="New Scientist 1">''Archaeopteryx'' turns out to be singular bird of a feather. ''[[New Scientist]]'' '''2443''': 17. 17 April 2004. [http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg18224432.300-archaeopteryx-turns-out-to-be-singular-bird-of-a-feather.html See commentary on article].</ref>
 
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<ref name="Ostrom 1">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1976.tb00244.x | last1 = Ostrom | first1 = J. H. | year = 1976 | title = Archaeopteryx and the origin of birds | url = | journal = [[Biological Journal of the Linnean Society|Biol. J. Linn. Soc.]] | volume = 8 | issue = 2| pages = 91–182 }}</ref>
<ref name="Ostrom 2">Ostrom, J. H. (1985). ''Introduction to Archaeopteryx''. In: Hecht, M. K. O.; Ostrom, J. H.; Viohl, G., & Wellnhofer, P. (eds. {{Clarify|date=October 2012}}) The Beginnings of Birds: Proceedings of the International Archaeopteryx Conference: 9–20. Eichstätt, Freunde des Jura-Museums Eichstätt.</ref>
 
<ref name="Ostrom 3">{{cite journal |last=Ostrom |first=J. H. |authorlink=John Ostrom |year=1976 |title=''Archaeopteryx'' and the origin of birds |journal=Biological Journal of the Linnean Society |volume=8 |pages=91–182 |doi=10.1111/j.1095-8312.1976.tb00244.x |issue=2}}</ref>
 
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<ref name="RSW 85b">{{cite journal |last=Watkins |first=R. S. |coauthors=Hoyle, F.; Wickrmasinghe, N. C.; Watkins, J.; Rabilizirov, R.; and Spetner, L. M. |year=1985 |title=''Archaeopteryx'' - a further comment |journal=British Journal of Photography |volume=132 |pages=358–359, 367 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="RSW 85c">{{cite journal |last=Watkins |first=R. S. |coauthors=Hoyle, F.; Wickrmasinghe, N. C.; Watkins, J.; Rabilizirov, R.; and Spetner, L. M. |year=1985 |title=''Archaeopteryx'' - more evidence |journal=British Journal of Photography |volume=132 |pages=468–470 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Sammler">[http://www.sueddeutsche.de/wissen/794/492155/text/6/ ''Sammler und Forscher - ein schwieriges Verhältnis''] {{de icon}}, [[Sueddeutsche Zeitung]]; published: 25 October 2009; accessed: 25 December 2009.</ref>
 
<ref name="Sensation">''Archäologischer Sensationsfund in Daiting'', {{de icon}} [[Augsburger Allgemeine]] - [[Donauwörth]] edition; published: 28 November 2009; accessed: 23 December 2009.</ref>
 
<ref name="senter 1">Senter, P. (2006). ''Scapular orientation in theropods and basal birds and the origin of flapping flight''. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. '''51''' (2): 305–313. [http://app.pan.pl/archive/published/app51/app51-305.pdf PDF full text file].</ref>
 
<ref name="Small JPL">{{cite web | title = JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 9860 Archaeopteryx (1991 PW9) | publisher = [[NASA]] | url= http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=9860 | accessdate = 2007-03-01}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Swinton">{{cite journal | last1 = Swinton | first1 = W. E. | year = 1960 | title = Opinion 1084, Proposed addition of the generic name ''Archaeopteryx'' VON MEYER, 1861 and the specific name ''Lithographica'', VON MEYER, 1861, as published in the binomen ''Archaeopteryx Lithographica'' to the official lists (Class Aves) | url =http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12220197 | journal = Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature | volume = 17 | issue = 6–8| pages = 224–226 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Thulborn 1984">{{cite journal | last = Thulborn | first = R. A. | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 1984 | month = | title = The avian relationships of ''Archaeopteryx'', and the origin of birds | journal = Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | volume = 82 | issue = 1–2 | pages = 119–158 | doi = 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1984.tb00539.x | url = | accessdate = | quote = }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Talk Origin 1">{{cite web |url=http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/archaeopteryx/forgery.html |title=On ''Archaeopteryx'', Astronomers, and Forgery |date=15 December 2007 |accessdate=17 March 2007 |last=Nedin |first=Chris | archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070315180204/http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/archaeopteryx/forgery.html| archivedate= 15 March 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
<ref name="UCal MoP">[http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/birds/archaeopteryx.html ''Archaeopteryx'': An Early Bird] - [[University of California, Berkeley]], Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 18 October 2006.</ref>
 
<ref name="UCal Chiappe">{{Cite book|title=Mesozoic birds: above the heads of dinosaurs|editor=University od California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California|author=L. M. Chiappe, L. M. Witme |page=151|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=0-520-20094-2|url=http://books.google.com/?id=2MQeh1KCp7sC|year=2002}}</ref>
 
<ref name="UCalg Long">[http://www.ucalgary.ca/news/september2006/Archaeopteryx-lithographica/ Ancient birds flew on all fours] - Nick Longrich, [[University of Calgary]]. Discusses how many wings an ''Archaeopteryx'' had and other questions.</ref>
 
<ref name="Wagner 1">A. Wagner (1861). {{lang|de|Über ein neues, angeblich mit Vogelfedern versehenes Reptil aus dem Solnhofener lithographischen Schiefer.}} ''{{lang|de|Sitzungberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-physikalische Classe}}'' 146–154.</ref>
 
<ref name="Wellnhofer">Wellnhofer, P., & Tischlinger, H. (2004). ''{{lang|de|Das "Brustbein" von Archaeopteryx bavarica Wellnhofer 1993 — eine Revision}}''. Archaeopteryx. 22: 3–15. [Article in German].</ref>
 
<ref name="weln 04">{{Cite book|title=Feathered Dragons|year=2004|chapter=The Plumage of ''Archaeopteryx''|editor=Currie PJ, Koppelhus EB, Shugar MA, Wright JL|author=P. Wellnhofer|pages=282–300|publisher=Indiana University Press|isbn=0-253-34373-9}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Wiedergefundener">[http://www.focus.de/wissen/natur/messen-wiedergefundener-archaeopteryx-ist-wohl-neue-art_aid_448677.html ''{{lang|de|Wiedergefundener Archaeopteryx ist wohl neue Art}}''] {{de icon}}. ''[[Die Zeit]]''. Accessed: 17 July 2012.</ref>
 
<ref name="Williams">{{cite web | author = Williams, Gareth | title = Minor Planet Names: Alphabetical List |publisher = [[Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory]] | url= http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/lists/MPNames.html | accessdate = 1 March 2007}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Witmer 1">{{cite journal |last1=Witmer |first1=L. M. |year=2004 |title=Palaeontology: Inside the oldest bird brain | journal = [[Nature (journal)|Nature]] |volume=430 |issue=7000 |pages= 619–620 |pmid= 15295579 |doi=10.1038/430619a|bibcode = 2004Natur.430..619W }}<!-- no abstract available --></ref>
 
<ref name="Witmer02">{{cite book |title=Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs |chapter=The debate on avian ancestry |last=Witmer |first=Lawrence M. |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor=Witmer, L.; Chiappe, L. |year=2002 |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley |isbn=0-520-20094-2 |pages=3–30 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Yalden 1">{{cite journal |author=Yalden D. W. |title=What size was ''Archaeopteryx''? |journal=Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society|volume=82 |issue=1–2|pages=177–188 |year=1984 |url=http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120801944/abstract |doi=10.1111/j.1096-3642.1984.tb00541.x}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Zweers&VandenBerge1997">{{cite journal | last = Zweers | first = G. A. | authorlink = | coauthors = Van den Berge, J. C. | year = 1997 | month = | title = Evolutionary patterns of avian trophic diversification | journal = Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems | volume = 100 | issue = | pages = 25–57 | issn = 0944-2006 | url = | accessdate = | quote = }}</ref>
 
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== Bacaan lanjut ==
* G. R. de Beer (1954). ''Archaeopteryx lithographica: a study based upon the British Museum specimen''. Trustees of the British Museum, London.
* P. Chambers (2002). ''Bones of Contention: The Fossil that Shook Science.'' John Murray, London. ISBN 0-7195-6059-4.
* A. Feduccia (1996). ''The Origin and Evolution of Birds''. Yale University Press, New Haven. ISBN 0-300-06460-8.
* [[Gerhard Heilmann|Heilmann, G.]] (1926). ''[[The Origin of Birds (book)|The Origin of Birds]]''. Witherby, London.
* T. H. Huxley. (1871). ''Manual of the anatomy of vertebrate animals''. London.
* H. von Meyer (1861). ''Archaeopteryx litographica (Vogel-Feder) und Pterodactylus von Solenhofen''. {{lang|de|Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde}}. ''1861'': 678–679, plate V. [Article in German]. [http://books.google.com/books?id=6RAFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PR1 Full text, Google Books].
* P. Shipman (1998). ''Taking Wing: Archaeopteryx and the Evolution of Bird Flight''. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London. ISBN 0-297-84156-4.
* P. Wellnhofer (2008). ''Archaeopteryx — Der Urvogel von Solnhofen'' (in German). Verlag Friedrich Pfeil, Munich. ISBN 978-3-89937-076-8.
 
== Pautan luar ==
{{Wikispecies|Archaeopteryx}}
{{commons|Archaeopteryx}}
* [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/archaeopteryx/info.html All About ''Archaeopteryx''], from [[Talk.Origins]].
* [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100510151348.htm Use of SSRL X-ray takes 'transformative glimpse'] — A look at chemicals linking birds and dinosaurs.
* [http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/birds/archaeopteryx.html ''Archaeopteryx'': An Early Bird] — University of California Museum of Paleontology.
* [http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/avians.html Are Birds Really Dinosaurs?] — University of California Museum of Paleontology.
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