Perbezaan antara semakan "Anak panah"

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(Mencipta laman baru dengan kandungan 'pada suatu hari')
 
[[Image:Two arrows.jpg|300px|thumb|Sasaran panah tradisi dan replika panah zaman pertengahan.]]
pada suatu hari
[[Image:DFRArrow.jpg|thumb|Panah moden dengan pelepah dan lekuk plastik.]]
 
Anak '''panah''' adalah batang projektil yang dilancarkan dengan busur. Ia mendahului sejarah bertulis dan adalah perkara biasa bagi kebanyakan budaya.
 
Anak panah biasanya terdiri daripada aci dengan mata panah dipasang kepada hujung hadapan, dengan pelepah dan lekuk pada hujung bertentangan.
 
==History==
{{main|History of archery}}
The oldest evidence of stone-tipped projectiles, which may or may not have been propelled by a bow (c.f. [[atlatl]]), dating to c. 64,000 years ago, were found in [[Sibudu Cave]], [[South Africa]].<ref> [[Lyn Wadley]] from the [[University of the Witwatersrand]] (2010); [http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11086110 BBC: Oldest evidence of arrows found]</ref>
The oldest evidence of the use of bows to shoot arrows dates to about 10,000 years ago; it is based on pinewood arrows found in the Ahrensburg valley north of [[Hamburg]]. They had shallow grooves on the base, indicating that they were shot from a bow.<ref>McEwen E, Bergman R, Miller C. Early bow design and construction. Scientific American 1991 vol. 264 pp76-82.</ref> The oldest bow so far recovered is about 8,000 years old, found in the [[Holmegård]] swamp in Denmark.
Archery seems to have arrived in the Americas with the [[Arctic small tool tradition]], about 4,500 years ago.
 
== Size ==
[[Image:arrow.svg|300px|thumb|Schematic of an arrow with many parts.]]
Arrow sizes vary greatly across cultures, ranging from eighteen inches to five feet (45&nbsp;cm to 150&nbsp;cm).<ref name="stone-glossary-arrow">[[George Cameron Stone|Stone, George Cameron]] (1934). ''A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration, and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times'', Mineola: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-40726-8</ref> However, most modern arrows are {{convert|75|cm|in}} to {{convert|96|cm|in}}; most war arrows from [[Mary Rose|an English ship sunk in 1545]] were {{convert|76|cm|in}}.<ref>[http://www.maryrose.org/ship/bows2.htm Anon: The Mary Rose; Armament p.7]</ref> Very short arrows have been used, shot through a guide attached either to the bow (an "overdraw") or to the archer's wrist (the Turkish "siper").<ref>Turkish Archery and the Composite Bow. Paul E. Klopsteg ISBN 1-56416-093-9 ISBN 978-1564160935</ref> These may fly farther than heavier arrows, and an enemy without suitable equipment may find himself unable to return them.
 
[[Image:Shoshonemanstraighteningarrow.png|thumb|left|A [[Shoshone]] man using a [[shaft straightener]] in traditional arrow construction.]]
 
=== Shaft ===
[[Image:Easton Carbon One 900.png|thumb|A sideprofile of an Easton Carbon One arrow with a spine of 900, taken with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The arrow is a bond of two carbon tubes, an inner and an outer tube (black wires). In between both carbon layers, an other fiber is used (white fiber). This second fiber is an Mg-Al-Si-fiber. The "white" fiber is twisted around the inner carbon tube. The fibers of the carbon tubes are not twisted, to ensure a maximum of possible mechanical tension of the arrow. The Mg-Al-Si-fiber enhances the flexibility of the arrow. The diameter of a single carbon fiber is approx. 7 µm.]]
The shaft is the primary structural element of the arrow, to which the other components are attached. Traditional arrow shafts are made from lightweight [[wood]], [[bamboo]] or [[Phragmites|reeds]], while modern shafts may be made from [[aluminium]], [[carbon fibre reinforced plastic]], or a combination of materials. Such shafts are typically made from an [[aluminium]] core wrapped with a [[carbon fibre]] outer.
 
The [[stiffness]] of the shaft is known as its spine, referring to how little the shaft bends when compressed. Hence, an arrow which bends less is said to have more spine. In order to strike consistently, a group of arrows must be similarly spined. "Center-shot" bows, in which the arrow passes through the central vertical axis of the bow riser, may obtain consistent results from arrows with a wide range of spines. However, most traditional bows are not center-shot and the arrow has to deflect around the handle in the [[archer's paradox]]; such bows tend to give most consistent results with a narrower range of arrow spine that allows the arrow to deflect correctly around the bow. Higher draw-weight bows will generally require stiffer arrows, with more spine (less flexibility) to give the correct amount of flex when shot.
 
==== GPI rating ====
The weight of an arrow shaft can be expressed in GPI (Grains Per Inch).<ref>GPI explained by [http://www.huntersfriend.com/carbon_arrows/whatsthis3.htm an arrow vendor] (referred to from [http://www.huntersfriend.com/carbon_arrows/hunting_arrows_main_custom_all_specifications.htm their listing of carbon arrows])</ref> The length of a shaft in [[inch]]es multiplied by its GPI rating gives the weight of the shaft in [[grain (unit)|grains]]. For example, a shaft that is 30 inches long and has a GPI of 9.5 weighs 285 grains, or about 18.468 [[gram]]s. This does not include the other elements of a finished arrow, so a complete arrow will be heavier than the shaft alone.
 
==== Footed arrows ====
Sometimes a shaft will be made of two different types of wood fastened together, resulting in what is known as a footed arrow. Known by some as the finest of wood arrows,<ref name="Langston">{{cite book |last=Langston |first=Gene |title=The Traditional Bowyer's Bible - Volume Three |year=1994 |publisher=The Lyons Press |location=Guilford |isbn=1-58574-087-X |chapter=Custom Shafts }}</ref> footed arrows were used both by early Europeans and [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native Americans]]. Footed arrows will typically consist of a short length of [[hardwood]] near the head of the arrow, with the remainder of the shaft consisting of [[softwood]]. By reinforcing the area most likely to break, the arrow is more likely to survive impact, while maintaining overall flexibility and lighter weight.
 
==Nota==
{{reflist}}
 
==Pautan luar==
{{Commons category|Arrows}}
*[http://www.oplin.org/point/ What's the Point?: Identifying Flint Artifacts (OPLIN)]
*[http://www.tradgang.com/ashby/ Dr. Ashby's reports on broadhead penetration]
*[http://library.thinkquest.org/27344/typebows.htm Types of Bows and Arrows]
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