Perbezaan antara semakan "Emiliano Zapata"

310 bait dibuang ,  5 tahun lalu
terjemah
k (Bot: Memindahkan 56 pautan interwiki, kini disediakan oleh Wikidata di d:q41718)
(terjemah)
[[Fail:Emiliano Zapata, 1914.jpg|thumb|upright|Emiliano Zapata, 1914]]
'''Emiliano Zapata Salazar''' ([[{{IPA-es|emi'liano saˈpata}}; 8 Ogos]] [[1879]] – [[10 April]] [[1919]]) ialah seorang tokoh utama dalam [[Revolusi Mexico]] yang tercetus pada tahun [[1910]], dan yang pada mulanya ditujukan kepada pemerintahan [[diktator]] [[Porfirio Díaz]]. Beliau membentuk dan mengetuai [[Angkatan Tentera Pembebasan Selatan]], sebuah pasukan pemberontak yang penting di negeri [[Morelos]].
 
Zapata dilahirkan di pekan luar bandar [[Anenecuilco]] di Morelos. Ketika itu, masyarakat petani di Morelos semakin ditekan oleh golongan kecil tuan tanah yang memonopoli sumber tanah dan air bagi penanaman tebu dengan sokongan Porfirio Díaz. Zapata turut serta awal dalam gerakan politik menentang Diaz dan ''hacendados'' pemilik tanah, dan ketika revolusi meletus pada 1910 beliau menjadi pemimpin utama pemberontakan petani di Morelos. Dengan kerjasama beberapa pemimpin petani lain, beliau membentuk [[Tentera Pembebasan Selatan]] dan kemudian menjadi ketua mutlak. Angkatan Zapata membantu menjatuhkan Díaz, tetapi apabila ketua revolusi [[Francisco I. Madero]] menjadi presiden beliau tidak mengakui peranan Zapatistas (kumpulan Zapata), mengecam mereka sebagai penjahat biasa. Zapata menyebarluaskan [[Rancangan Ayala]] yang menyeru reformasi tanah besar-besaran, mengagihkan semula tanah kepada petani. Madero menghantar pasukan untuk menghancurkan Zapatistas di Morelos. Para jeneral Madero menggunakan dasar bumi hangus, membakar kampung dan mengeluarkan penduduknya, dan mengerah yang lelaki memasuki tentera atau dihantar ke kem buruh paksa di selatan Mexico. Ini menguatkan kedudukan Zapata di kalangan petani dan Zapata berjaya menghalau angkatan Madero dan [[Victoriano Huerta]] keluar Morelos. Huerta membunuh Madero dan mengambil alih kuasa, tetapi satu gabungan pendukung perlembagaan pimpinan [[Venustiano Carranza]], [[Álvaro Obregón]] dan [[Francisco Villa]] menggulingkan beliau dengan sokongan askar Zapata. Carranza, juga tidak sukakan Zapata, melantik dirinya sebagai ketua Mexico, tetapi Villa bersekutu dengan Zapata menentang Carranza dan Obregón. Kecewa dengan persekutuan ini, Zapata menumpukan tenaganya kepada membina semula masyarakat di Morelos yang dikuasainya, memulakan reformasi tanah Rancangan Ayala. Apabila Carranza menyatukan kuasanya dan memujuk Villa, Zapata memulakan pertempuran gerila terhadap Carrancistas (kumpulan Carranza), yang lalu menyerang Morelos, sekali lagi menggunakan taktik bumi hangus bagi menyingkirkan pemberontak Zapatista. Zapata berjaya menguasai semula Morelos pada 1917 dan mengawal sebahagian besarnya sehingga terbunuh dalam satu serangan hendap pada 1919. Selepas kematiannya, para jeneral Zapatista bersepakat dengan Obregón menentang Carranza dan berjaya mendapat jawatan penting di Morelos selepas kejatuhan Carranza. Mereka melaksanakan banyak reformasi tanah yang dirancang oleh Zapata.
<!----
This perception requires closer scrutiny. Though a leader of peons, Zapata was not a peon himself. His father, Gabriel, was a small property owner and Emiliano grew up not in a choza (hut) but in a comfortable abode-and-stone house. Neither he nor his brother, Eufemio, ever had to work as day laborers on one of the big haciendas. At the outbreak of the Revolution he was a renowned horse trainer and had even been asked to manage the Mexico City stables of a wealthy Morelos sugar planter.
 
Where others might have been tempted to use this skill as a passport to social advancement, Zapata did not. Though a man of limited formal education, Zapata had a strong and well-developed political consciousness. Members of his family had fought against Spain in the Independence War and on the Liberal side in the in the War of Reform and against the French Intervention. As a young boy, Emiliano devoured stories told by older family members of their campaigns against the Reactionaries and the Imperialists. Knowing that Zapata would never sell them out, citizens of his home town of Anenecuilco elected him president of a council to defend their interests in September 1909, the year preceding the Revolution.
 
So Zapata was no stranger to ideological commitment, however shaky may have been his knowledge of Hegel and Voltaire. Though he enthusiastically joined Francisco Madero's rebellion against the old dictator Porfirio Diaz, by late fall of 1911, Zapata was completely disillusioned by what he saw as Madero's footdragging on land reform. On November 27 of that year he published the Plan de Ayala, still considered the most radical reform program in Mexican history. Written by a village schoolteacher named Otilio Montafio, it is described by historian and Zapata biographer John Womack as "garbled and rambling, without a hint of metropolitan grace." Wordy, repetitious and full of misspellings, it was considered a joke by Zapata's more sophisticated enemies in Mexico City. So much so that Madero gave Enrique Bonilla, editor of Mexico City's Diario del Hogar, enthusiastic permission to print the Plan. "Yes," said Madero, "publish it so everybody will know how crazy Zapata is."
 
This was a grave error. For all its stylistic defects, the Zapata-Montafio document contained provisions mandating a degree of social change that had never appeared in any other Mexican manifesto. Among other radical measures, the Plan de Ayala called for not only restoration to pueblos of lands they had lost through illegal expropriation but also for classification of landlords who opposed the Zapatista movement as "monopolises" whose property could be seized. Equally unprecedented were proposals for pensions to widows and orphans of those killed in the revolution and a provision that foes of Zapata under arms be classified not as war prisoners but as "traitors" subject to the death penalty.
 
This all took place before the urban intellectuals began flocking to the Zapatista movement. The Plan de Ayala was proclaimed at the end of 1911; the city radicals, migration began in May 1914. At the time, Mexico was under control of General Victoriano Huerta, the able but alcoholic and despotic professional soldier who overthrew Madero in 1913 and is widely believed to have masterminded his assassination.
 
Zapata's lack of formal education was amply counterbalanced by native shrewdness and intense ideological commitment. So the myth of sophisticated city intellectuals exploiting a peasant revolutionary is as threadbare as it is facile. As much as the eggheads who introduced exotic historical names into his communiques used Zapata, he used them.
---->
 
== Lihat juga ==
{{wikiquote}}
65,389

suntingan