Perbezaan antara semakan "Black Power"

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Throughout the Civil Rights Movement and black history, there has been tension between those wishing to minimize and maximize racial difference. [[W.E.B. Du Bois]] and Martin Luther King Jr. often attempted to deemphasize race in their quest for equality, while those advocating for separatism and colonization emphasized an extreme and irreconcilable difference between races. The Black Power movement largely achieved an equilibrium of "balanced and humane ethnocentrism."<ref name="McCormack, Donald J. 1970. p.394" />
The impact of the Black Power movement in generating discussion about ethnic identity and black consciousness supported the appearance and expansion of academic fields of [[American studies]], Black Studies, and African studies,<ref name=Williams92 /> and the founding of several [[List of museums focused on African Americans|museums devoted to African-American history and culture]] in this period.<ref>Andrea Alison Burns. 2008. ''"Show me my Soul.": the evolution of the Black museum movement in postwar America.'' Dissertation, University of Minnesota.</ref> In these ways the Black Power movement led to greater respect for and attention accorded to African Americans' history and culture.
 
===Kesan di Britain===
Black Power got a foothold in [[United Kingdom|Britain]] when Carmichael came to [[London]] in July 1967 to attend the [[Dialectics of Liberation Congress]]. As well as his address at the Congress, he also made a speech at [[Speakers' Corner]]. At that time there was no Black Power organization in Britain, although there was [[Michael X]]'s Racial Adjustment Action Society.<ref>
{{Citation
| last =Egbuna
| first = Obi
| year = 1971
| title = Destroy This Temple: the voice of Black Power in Britain
| publisher =MacGibbon & Kee
| publication-place = London
| page =16
}}</ref>
However, this was more influenced by the visit of [[Malcolm X]] in that year. Michael X also adopted [[Islam]] at this stage, whereas Black Power was not organized around any religious institution. The ''Black Power Manifesto'' was launched on 10 November 1967, published by the [[Universal Coloured People's Association]]. [[Obi Egbuna]], the spokesperson for the group, claimed they had recruited 778 members in London during the previous seven weeks.<ref>{{cite journal|last=[[Rita Marshall|Marshall]]|first=Rita|title=Black Power Men Launch Credo|journal=The Times|date=11 November 1967}}</ref> In 1968 Egbuna published ''Black Power or Death''. He was also active with [[CLR James]], [[Calvin Hernton]] and others in the [[Antiuniversity of London]],<ref>{{Citation|last=Jakobsen| first= Jakob|title = The Counter University|publisher = Antihistory.|location= London|year= 2012|pages =|url= http://antihistory.org/page/5}}</ref> set up following the Dialectics of Liberation Congress.
 
Afro-British who identified themselves as the British Black Power Movement (BBMP) formed in the 1960s. They worked with the U.S. Black Panther Party in 1967–68, and 1968–72.<ref name="ReferenceA">The Black Panthers in London, 1967 – 1972: A Diasporic Struggle Navigates the Black Atlantic.</ref> The On March 2, 1970, roughly one hundred people protested outside the U.S. embassy in Grosvenor Square, London, in support of the U.S. Black Panther founder Bobby Seale, who was on trial for murder in New Haven, Connecticut.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> They chanted "Free Bobby!" and carried posters proclaiming "Free, Free bobby Seale" and "You can kill a revolutionary but not a revolution." <ref name="ReferenceA"/> London police arrested sixteen of the protestors that day, three women and thirteen men with threatening and assaulting police officers, distributing a flier entitled "the Definition of Black Power", intending to incite a breach of the peace, and willful damage to a police raincoat. The raincoat charge was dropped by the judge, but the judge found five of the accused guilty of the remaining charges.<ref name="ReferenceA"/>
 
===Kesan di Jamaica===
A Black Power movement arose in Jamaica in the late 1960s. Though Jamaica had gained independence from the [[British Empire]] in 1962, and Prime Minister [[Hugh Shearer]] was black, many cabinet ministers (such as [[Edward Seaga]]) and business elites were white. Large segments of the black majority population were unemployed or did not earn a living wage. The [[Jamaica Labour Party]] government of [[Hugh Shearer]] banned Black Power literature such as ''[[The Autobiography of Malcolm X]]'' and the works of [[Eldridge Cleaver]] and [[Stokely Carmichael]].
 
Guyanese academic [[Walter Rodney]] was appointed as a lecturer at the [[University of the West Indies]] in January 1968, and became one of the main exponents of Black Power in Jamaica. When the Shearer government banned Rodney from re-entering the country, the [[Rodney Riots]] broke out. As a result of the Rodney affair, radical groups and publications such as ''[[Abeng (newspaper)|Abeng]]'' began to emerge, and the opposition [[People's National Party]] gained support. In the [[Jamaican general election, 1972|1972 election]], the Jamaica Labour Party was defeated by the People's National Party, and [[Michael Manley]], who had expressed support for Black Power, became Prime Minister.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Waters|first1=Anita|title=Race, Class, and Political Symbols: Rastafari and Reggae in Jamaican Politics|date=1985|publisher=Transaction Publishers|location=New Brunswick, New Jersey|isbn=0-88738-632-6}}</ref>
 
==="Hitam itu cantik"===
{{Main article|Hitam itu cantik}}
 
The cultivation of pride in the African-American race was often summarized in the phrase "[[Black is Beautiful]]." The phrase is rooted in its historical context, yet the relationship to it has changed in contemporary times. "I don't think it's 'Black is beautiful' anymore. It's 'I am beautiful and I'm black.' It's not the symbolic thing, the [[afro]], power sign… That phase is over and it succeeded. My children feel better about themselves and they know that they're black," stated a respondent in Bob Blauner's longitudinal oral history of U.S. race relations in 1986.<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 307.</ref> The outward manifestations of an appreciation and celebration of blackness abound: black dolls, natural hair, black Santas, models and celebrities that were once rare and symbolic have become commonplace.
 
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