Perbezaan antara semakan "Black Power"

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{{Main article|Black Arts Movement}}
 
The Black Arts Movement or (BAM,) foundedatau inGerakan HarlemSeni byKulit writerHitam andditubuhkan activistdi Hrlem oleh aktivis dan penulis, [[Amiri Baraka]] (born Everett LeRoy Jones), candan bedilihat seensebagai ascabang thekesenian artistic branch of thefahaman Black Power movement.<ref>[http://www.umich.edu/~eng499/orgs/barts.html The Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/19991112000000/http://www.umich.edu/~eng499/orgs/barts.html |date=November 12, 1999 }}</ref> ThisGerakan movementini inspiredberjaya blackmemberikan peopleinspirasi tokepada establishorang ownershipkulit ofhitam publishinguntuk housesmenubuhkan syarikat penerbitan mereka sendiri, magazinesmajalah, journalsjurnal anddan artjuga institutionsinstitusi-institusi seni. Other wellPenulis-knownpenulis writersterkenal whoyang wereterlibat involveddalam withgerakan thisini movement includedtermasuk [[Nikki Giovanni]]; Don L. Lee, later known as [[Haki Madhubuti]];, [[Sonia Sanchez]];, dan [[Maya Angelou]]; [[Dudley Randall]]; [[Sterling Plumpp]]; [[Larry Neal]]; [[Ted Joans]]; [[Ahmos Zu-Bolton]]; and [[Etheridge Knight]]. Several blackSyarikat-ownedsyarikat publishingpenerbitan housesyang andterkenal publications sprang from the BAM, including Madhubuti'stermasuk [[Third World Press]], [[Broadside Press]], Zu-Bolton'sdan [[Energy Black South Press]], and the periodicals ''[[Callaloo (magazine)|Callaloo]]'' and ''[[Yardbird Reader]]''. Although not strictly involved with the Movement, other notable African-American writers such as novelists [[Ishmael Reed]] and [[Toni Morrison]] and poet [[Gwendolyn Brooks]] can be considered to share some of its artistic and thematic concerns.
 
Gerakan BAM berura-ura untuk menggabung jalin seni dan politik untuk membantu "membebaskan orang kulit hitam".<ref>Joseph, ''Waiting 'til the Midnight Hour'' (2006), p. 256.</ref> Tema yang sering diketengahkan dalam seni gerakan ini termasuk kesatuan bangsa, pemerkasaan orang kulit hitam dan kebebasan.<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 280.</ref>
BAM sought "to link, in a highly conscious manner, art and politics in order to assist in the liberation of black people", and produced an increase in the quantity and visibility of African-American artistic production.<ref>Joseph, ''Waiting 'til the Midnight Hour'' (2006), p. 256.</ref> Though many elements of the Black Arts movement are separate from the Black Power movement, many goals, themes, and activists overlapped. Literature, drama, and music of Blacks "served as an oppositional and defensive mechanism through which creative artists could confirm their identity while articulating their own unique impressions of social reality."<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 249.</ref> In addition to acting as highly visible and unifying representations of "blackness," the artistic products of the Black Power movement also utilized themes of black empowerment and liberation.<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 280.</ref> For instance, black recording artists not only transmitted messages of racial unity through their music, they also became significant role models for a younger generation of African Americans.<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 208.</ref> Updated protest songs not only bemoaned oppression and societal wrongs, but utilized adversity as a reference point and tool to lead others to activism. Some Black Power era artists conducted brief mini-courses in the techniques of empowerment. In the tradition of cultural nationalists, these artists taught that in order to alter social conditions, Blacks first had to change the way they viewed themselves; they had to break free of white norms and strive to be more natural, a common theme of African-American art and music.<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 213.</ref> Musicians such as [[the Temptations]] sang lyrics such as "I have one single desire, just like you / So move over, son, 'cause I'm comin' through" in their song "Message From a Black Man," they expressed the revolutionary sentiments of the Black Power movement.<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 212.</ref>
 
Pensyair dan novelis, Ishmael Reed, mengatakan:
Ishmael Reed, who is considered neither a movement apologist nor advocate, said: "I wasn't invited to participate because I was considered an integrationist" but he went on to explain the positive aspects of the Black Arts Movement and the Black Power movement:
 
<blockquote>ISaya thinkberasa whatapa Blackyang Artsgerakan didini wastelah inspirelakukan aialah wholeuntuk lotmembangkitkan ofsemangat Blackmenulis peopledi tokalangan writeorang kulit hitam. MoreoverSelain itu, theretidak wouldakan beadanya nokerencaman multiculturalismbudaya movementtanpa withoutgerakan Black Artsini. Latinos,Orang AsianLatino Americans,dan andAsia-Amerika othersmula allberani saymenulis theysetelah beganlahirnya writinggerakan asini apada resulttahun of1960-an. theMasyarakat examplekulit ofhitam themenjadi 1960s. Blackscontoh gavebahawa theseseorang exampleitu thattidak youperlu donberasimilasi''.''t have toSeseorang [[Culturalitu assimilation|assimilate]].hanya Youperlu couldmelakukan dohalnya yoursendiri ownsambil thing, get into yourmeneroka ownlatar backgroundbelakang, your own historysejarah, yourtradisi owndan traditionbudayanya. andSaya your own culture.berasa Icabarannya thinkialah theuntuk challengemendaulatkan isbudaya forsendiri culturaldan sovereigntyGerakan andSeni BlackKulit ArtsHitam struckmenjadi aperintis blowdalam forhal thatini.<ref>[http://aalbc.com/authors/blackartsmovement.htm Black Arts Movement]</ref></blockquote>
 
ByGerakan breakingini intoberjaya amelahirkan fieldramai typicallyartis reservedyang forterkenal. whiteMenurut Americans,William artistsL. ofVan theDeburg, era ''Black Power'' eraini expandedtelah opportunitiesmembuka forpeluang currentyang Africanseluas-luasnya Americans.untuk "Today'smasyarakat writerskulit andhitam performers,"untuk writesberkecimpung Williamdalam L.industri Vankesenian Deburg,yang "recognizeselama thatini they owe a great deal to Black Power'sdipegang explosionoleh ofmasyarakat culturalkulit orthodoxyputih."<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 308.</ref>
 
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