Perbezaan antara semakan "Black Power"

9,278 bait dibuang ,  4 tahun lalu
k
{{terjemahan}}
 
Walaupun gerakan Black Power tidak menyelesaikan masalah politik yang dialami masyarakat kulit hitam pada tahun 1960-an dan 1970-an, gerakan ini telah menyumbang kepada kesedaran politik di kalangan masyarakat kulit hitam di Amerika.
Though the Black Power movement did not immediately remedy the political problems faced by African Americans in the 1960s and 1970s, the movement did contribute to the development of black politics both directly and indirectly. As a contemporary of and successor to the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Power movement created, what sociologist Herbert H. Haines refers to as a "positive [[radical flank effect]]" on political affairs of the 1960s. Though the nature of the relationship between the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power movement is contested, Haines' study of the relationship between black radicals and the mainstream civil rights movement indicates that Black Power generated a "crisis in American institutions which made the legislative agenda of 'polite, realistic, and businesslike' mainstream organizations" more appealing to politicians. In this way, it can be argued that the more strident and oppositional messages of the Black Power movement indirectly enhanced the bargaining position of more moderate activists.<ref name="Van DeBurg 1975. p. 306">Van DeBurg, William L. ''New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975'', Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1992, p. 306.</ref>
Black Power activists approached politics with vitality, variety, wit, and creativity that shaped the way future generations approached dealing with America's societal problems (McCartney 188). These activists capitalized on the nation's recent awareness of the political nature of oppression, a primary focus of the Civil Rights Movement, developing numerous political action [[caucuses]] and [[grass roots]] community associations to remedy the situation <ref name="Van DeBurg 1975. p. 306" />
 
Konvensi ''National Black Political Convention'' yang berlangsung dari 10–12 Mac 1972 merupakan peristiwa penting dalam membangkitkan kesedaran politik ini. Acara yang dianjurkan di [[Gary, Indiana]] ini unik kerana tidak dihadiri oleh seorang pun wakil daripada masyarakat kulit putih. Hal ini dikritik oleh Roy Wilkins dari pertubuhan NAACP yang memperjuangkan integrasi. Persidangan ini telah mencapai kata putus dalam beberapa perkara, antaranya, kepentingan melantik wakil-wakil kulit hitam ke Dewan Kongres, mengawal pentadbiran sekolah, insurans kesihatan nasional dan sebagainya. Walaupun agenda mereka tidak menyebabkan sebarang perubahan dasar negara pada masa itu, ia berjaya melahirkan semangat hak untuk menentukan nasib mereka sendiri.
The National Black Political Convention, held March 10–12, 1972, was a significant milestone in black politics of the Black Power era. Held in [[Gary, Indiana]], a majorly black city, the convention included a diverse group of black activists, although it completely excluded whites. The convention was criticized for its racial exclusivity by Roy Wilkins of the NAACP, a group that supported [[:Draft:A State Divided: The Integration of North Carolina|integration]]. The delegates created a National Black Political Agenda with stated goals including the election of a proportionate number of black representatives to Congress, community control of schools, national health insurance, etc. Though the convention did not result in any direct policy, the convention advanced goals of the Black Power movement and left participants buoyed by a spirit of possibility and themes of unity and self-determination. A concluding note to the convention, addressing its supposed idealism, read: "At every critical moment of our struggle in America we have had to press relentlessly against the limits of the 'realistic' to create new realities for the life of our people. This is our challenge at Gary and beyond, for a new Black politics demands new vision, new hope and new definitions of the possible. Our time has come. These things are necessary. All things are possible."<ref>[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/milestones/m13_nbpc.html "American Experience | Eyes on the Prize | Milestones"] PBS, 5 April 2009.</ref> Though such political activism may not have resulted in direct policy, they provided political models for later movements, advanced a pro-black political agenda, and brought sensitive issues to the forefront of American politics. In its confrontational and often oppositional nature, the Black Power movement started a debate within the black community and America as a nation over issues of racial progress, citizenship, and democracy, namely "the nature of American society and the place of the African American in it."<ref name=McCartney>McCartney, John T. ''Black Power Ideologies: An Essay in African-American Political Thought'', Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.</ref> The continued intensity of debate over these same social and political issues is a tribute to the impact of the Black Power movement in arousing the political awareness and passions of citizens.<ref name=McCartney />
 
===Kesan terhadap gerakan-gerakan yang lain===
Though the aims of the Black Power movement were racially specific, much of the movement's impact has been its influence on the development and strategies of later political and social movements. By igniting and sustaining debate on the nature of American society, the Black Power movement created what other multiracial and minority groups interpreted to be a viable template for the overall restructuring of society.<ref>[[Peniel E. Joseph|Joseph, Peniel E.]] ''Waiting 'til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America.'' New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2006, p. xiv.</ref> By opening up discussion on issues of democracy and equality, the Black Power movement paved the way for a diverse plurality of social justice movements, including black feminism, environmental movements, affirmative action, and gay and lesbian rights. Central to these movements were the issues of [[identity politics]] and [[structural inequality]], features emerging from the Black Power movement.<ref>Joseph, ''Waiting 'til the Midnight Hour'' (2006), p. 294.</ref> Because the Black Power movement emphasized and explored a black identity, movement activists were forced to confront issues of gender and class as well. Many activists in the Black Power movement became active in related movements. This is seen in the case of the "second wave" of women's right activism, a movement supported and orchestrated to a certain degree by women working from within the coalition ranks of the Black Power movement.<ref name=Williams92>Williams, Hettie V. ''We Shall Overcome to We Shall Overrun: The Collapse of the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power Revolt (1962-1968).'' Lanham, MA: University Press of America, 2009, p. 92.</ref> The boundaries between social movements became increasingly unclear at the end of the 1960s and into the 1970s; where the Black Power movement ends and where these other social movements begin is often unclear. "It is pertinent to note that as the movement expanded the variables of gender, class, and only compounded issues of strategy and methodology in black protest thought."<ref>Joseph, ''Waiting 'til the Midnight Hour'' (2006), p. 92.</ref>
 
===Kesan terhadap identiti Afrika-Amerika===
[[File:Ferguson, Day 4, Photo 21.png|thumb|200px|Seorang pembantah memberikan tabik 'Black Power' di [[Ferguson, Missouri]], 15 Ogos 2014]]
Due to the negative and militant reputation of such auxiliaries as that of the [[Black Panther Party]], many people felt that this movement of "insurrection" would soon serve to cause discord and disharmony through the entire U.S. Even Stokely Carmichael stated, "When you talk of Black Power, you talk of building a movement that will smash everything Western civilization has created."<ref>Stephen, Curtis. "Life of A Party", ''Crisis''; September/October 2006, Vol. 113, Issue 5, pp. 30–37, 8p.</ref>
Though Black Power at the most basic level refers to a political movement, the psychological and cultural messages of the Black Power movement, though less tangible, have had perhaps a longer-lasting impact on American society than concrete political changes. Indeed, "fixation on the 'political' hinders appreciation of the movement's cultural manifestations and unnecessarily obscures black culture's role in promoting the psychological well being of the Afro-American people,"<ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 304.</ref> states [[William L. Van Deburg]], author of A New Day in Babylon, "movement leaders never were as successful in winning power for the people as they were in convincing people that they had sufficient power within themselves to escape 'the prison of self-deprecation'" <ref>Van DeBurg, ''New Day in Babylon'' (1992), p. 306.</ref> Primarily, the liberation and empowerment experienced by African Americans occurred in the psychological realm. The movement uplifted the black community as a whole by cultivating feelings of racial solidarity and positive self-identity, often in opposition to the world of white Americans, a world that had physically and psychologically oppressed Blacks for generations. Stokely Carmichael stated that "the goal of black self-determination and black self-identity--Black Power--is recognition of the virtues in themselves as black people."<ref name=":0" /> Through the movement, blacks came to understand themselves and their culture by exploring and debating the question, "who are we?" in order to establish a unified and viable identity.<ref name="McCormack, Donald J. 1970. p.394">McCormack, Donald J. ''Black Power: Political Ideology?'' Diss. University of New York at Albany, 1970. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1984, p. 394.</ref> And "if black people are to know themselves as a vibrant, valiant people, they must know their roots."<ref name=":0" />
 
Throughout the Civil Rights Movement and black history, there has been tension between those wishing to minimize and maximize racial difference. [[W.E.B. Du Bois]] and Martin Luther King Jr. often attempted to deemphasize race in their quest for equality, while those advocating for separatism and colonization emphasized an extreme and irreconcilable difference between races. The Black Power movement largely achieved an equilibrium of "balanced and humane ethnocentrism."<ref name="McCormack, Donald J. 1970. p.394" />
The impact of the Black Power movement in generating discussion about ethnic identity and black consciousness supported the appearance and expansion of academic fields of [[American studies]], Black Studies, and African studies,<ref name=Williams92 /> and the founding of several [[List of museums focused on African Americans|museums devoted to African-American history and culture]] in this period.<ref>Andrea Alison Burns. 2008. ''"Show me my Soul.": the evolution of the Black museum movement in postwar America.'' Dissertation, University of Minnesota.</ref> In these ways the Black Power movement led to greater respect for and attention accorded to African Americans' history and culture.
 
==="Hitam itu cantik"===
6,732

suntingan