Perbezaan antara semakan "Presiden Argentina"

(→‎Ciri-ciri jawatan: Buang bahasa Inggeris dulu... nanti saya akan tambah terjemahan)
== Sejarah jawatan Ketua Negara ==
=== Kerajaan pra-autonomi ===
The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when the territory of the country was separated, by the [[King of Spain|Spanish King]] decision, from the existing [[Viceroyalty of Peru]], creating the new [[Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata]]. The Head of State continued to be the [[monarch|King]], but it was represented locally by the designated [[Viceroy]]. These Viceroys where seldom natural-born in the country, so this period if considered of colonial dependence to Spain.
=== Kerajaan autonomi awal ===
With the Revolution in [[Buenos Aires]] on [[May 25]], [[1810]], the first [[Autonomous entity|autonomous government]], was formed by locals and was known as the ''[[Primera Junta]]''. It was later known as the ''[[Junta Grande]]'' when representatives from the provinces joined it. These early attempts of self-government where succeeded by two [[triumvirate]]s, and, although the first ''juntas'' had their President, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State (as [[independence]] had not yet been declared), and the executive power was not still in the hands of a single person.
This power began to be vested on one man when the figure of Director was created in the 1813 National Assembly. The different Directors became Head of State after Independence was declared in 1816, but they were not yet the head of a [[presidential system]].
=== Perlembagaan 1819 ===
In 1819 the Congress assembled that had declared Independence, composed a Constitution. It established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, which was vested with presidential powers. This constitution was of unitarian style, and gave the Supreme Director the additional power of appointing the [[Governor]]s of the [[province]]s. This constitution, however, because of political circumstances, never came into force, and central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a [[federation]] of provinces.
=== Perlembagaan 1826 ===
A new constitutional drafting attempt was made in 1826. This constitution was the first to create the figure of President, although this office retained the unitarian powers described in the 1819 attempt. This constitution came into force, resulting in the election of the first President, [[Bernardino Rivadavia]]. Due to problems related to the [[Argentina-Brazil War]], Rivadavia resigned after a short time, and the office was dissolved shortly after.
=== Perang saudara ===
A civil war between ''[[unitarios]]'' (unitarians, i. e. Buenos Aires centralists) and ''[[federales (Argentina)|federales]]'' (federalists) ensued in the following decades. In this period, there was no central authority, and the closest figure to that was the Chairman of Foreign Relations, a title often vested on the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires. The last to bear this title was [[Juan Manuel de Rosas]], who in the last years of his governorship was elected as Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining the effective rule of the rest of the country.
=== Perlembagaan 1853 ===
In 1852 Rosas was deposed, and a constitutional convention was summoned. This new constitution, still in force to this date, established a national federal government, with the office of the President as is known today. The term was fixed to six years, with no possibility of reelection. The first elected President in this fashion was [[Justo José de Urquiza]]. Amid a brief dissolution of the office in 1860, the succession of Presidents ran smoothly into the 20th century, until it was interrupted by several [[coup d'état]]s, creating a line of elected presidents mixed with ''de facto'' ones.
=== Presiden tentera ===
Beginning in 1930, and later in 1943, 1955, 1963, 1966 and 1976, different military coups deposed the current President, elected by constitutional means. In the cases of 1966 and 1976, federal government was undertaken by a [[military junta]], where power was shared by the chiefs of the three armed forces. In 1963, government wasn't undertaken by the military, but by the President of the Senate, and in the other cases, and also after the dissolution of the ''Juntas'' previously mentioned, a military chief assumed under the title of President.
It is subject of debate whether these military presidents can be titled Presidents at all, as it raises issues about the legitimacy of their respective governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents [[Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri]] and [[Jorge Rafael Videla]] were explicitly ''not'' legitimate presidents. They, and their interim successors were denied the right to a presidential [[pension]] after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, however, remains more uncertain.
== Statistik ==