Sosiologi ekonomi: Perbezaan antara semakan

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(Mencipta laman baru dengan kandungan 'Ianya berkaitrapat dengan kesudahan apa yang terjadi kepada sesuatu kelompok masyarakat dari segi sosial setelah wujudnya faktor-faktor yang terbit dari keg...')
 
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Ianya berkaitrapat dengan kesudahan apa yang terjadi kepada sesuatu kelompok masyarakat dari segi sosial setelah wujudnya faktor-faktor yang terbit dari kegiatan ekonomi sesuatu oparasi ekonomi. Faktor-faktor ekonomi ini termasuk KDNK, peluang pekerjaan, tambahan pendatan hasil dari rantaian ekonomi apabila munculnya sektor-sektor lain seperti sektor sekunder dan sektor perkhidmatan sokongan.
 
'''Sosiologi ekonomi''' adalah kajian tentang sebab sosial dan kesan pelbagai fenomena ekonomi. Bidang ini boleh dibahagikan secara luas ke dalam tempoh klasik dan kontemporari, yang dikenali sebagai "Sosiologi ekonomi baru".
 
Tempoh klasik amat tertumpu terutamanya dengan aspek moden dan aspek konstituennya yang rasionalisasi, sekularisasi, urbanisasi, stratifikasi sosial dan sebagainya. Kerana sosiologi timbul terutama sebagai reaksi terhadap kemodenan kapitalis, ekonomi memainkan peranan dalam penyelidikan sosiologi klasik. Istilah "sosiologi ekonomi" yang pertama dicipta oleh William Stanley Jevons pada tahun 1879, kemudian digunakan dalam karya-karya Émile Durkheim, Max Weber dan Georg Simmel antara 1890 dan 1920.<ref name="press.princeton.edu">{{cite web|url=http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7525.html |title=Principles of Economic Sociology by Richard Swedberg&nbsp;– An extract |accessdate=2009-12-02}}</ref> Karya Weber mengenai hubungan antara ekonomi dan agama dan budaya "kekecewaan" bagi Barat moden mungkin pendekatan yang paling ikonik yang ditetapkan dalam tempoh sosiologi ekonomi klasik.
 
Sosiologi ekonomi kontemporari mungkin merangkumi kajian semua aspek fenomena sosial ekonomi moden; Oleh itu, sosiologi ekonomi dapat dianggap sebagai bidang di persimpangan ekonomi dan sosiologi. Bidang penyelidikan yang kerap dalam sosiologi ekonomi kontemporari termasuk akibat sosial pertukaran ekonomi, makna sosial yang mereka terbabit dan interaksi sosial yang memudahkan atau menghalang mereka.<ref>Richard Swedberg (1990). Economics and Sociology: Redefining Their Boundaries: Conversations with Economists and Sociologists. Princeton University Press. {{ISBN|0-691-00376-9}}, {{ISBN|978-0-691-00376-4}} Description and chapter-preview links, pp. v-vi.</ref>
 
==Klasik==
Sosiologi ekonomi timbul sebagai pendekatan baru untuk analisis fenomena ekonomi; penekanan terutamanya mengenai peranan struktur dan institusi-institusi ekonomi dalam masyarakat, dan pengaruh masyarakat terhadap sifat struktur dan institusi ekonomi. Hubungan antara kapitalisme dan kemodenan adalah isu penting, mungkin ditunjukkan dengan baik dalam Etika Protestan dan Roh Kapitalisme (1905) Weber dan ''Falsafah Wang'' (1900) Simmel. Sosiologi ekonomi boleh dikatakan bermula dengan Demokrasi di Amerika (1835-40) tulisan Tocqueville dan Rejim Lama dan Revolusi (1856).<ref name="press.princeton.edu"/> Sejarah Materialisme Marx akan cuba untuk menunjukkan bagaimana kekuatan ekonomi mempengaruhi struktur masyarakat pada tahap asas. Pembahagian Kerja dalam Masyarakat oleh Émile Durkheim diterbitkan pada tahun 1922, manakala Ekonomi dan Masyarakat tulisan Max Weber dikeluarkan pada tahun yang sama.
 
==Kontemporari==
Sosiologi ekonomi kontemporari memberi tumpuan terutamanya kepada kesan sosial akibat pertukaran ekonomi, makna sosial yang mereka terbabit dan interaksi sosial yang mereka memudahkan atau menghalang. Tokoh berpengaruh dalam sosiologi ekonomi moden termasuk Fred L. Block, James S. Coleman, Paula England, Mark Granovetter, Harrison White, Paul DiMaggio, Joel M. Podolny, Lynette Spillman, Richard Swedberg dan Viviana Zelizer di Amerika Syarikat, serta Carlo Trigilia,<ref name=gil>{{cite journal|last=Gilding|first=Michael|title=The New Economic Sociology and Its Relevance to Australia|journal=Journal of Sociology|date=September 2005|volume=41|issue=3|url=http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-138056001/the-new-economic-sociology-and-its-relevance-to-australia|accessdate=1 September 2013}}{{Subscription required|via=Questia}}</ref> Donald Angus MacKenzie, Laurent Thévenot dan Jens Beckert di Eropah. Untuk ini boleh ditambah Amitai Etzioni, yang telah mengembangkan idea sosioekonomi,<ref>Etzioni, Amitai. 1988. The Moral Dimension: Toward a New Economics. Free Press.</ref> dan Chuck Sabel, Wolfgang Streeck dan Michael Mousseau yang berusaha dalam ekonomi / sosiologi politik tradisi.
 
Tumpuan pada analisis matematik dan pemaksimuman utiliti pada abad ke-20 telah menyebabkan beberapa orang melihat ekonomi sebagai satu disiplin yang bergerak menjauhi dari akarnya dalam sains sosial. Banyak kritikan ekonomi atau dasar ekonomi bermula dari tuduhan bahawa pemodelan abstrak kehilangan beberapa fenomena sosial utama yang perlu ditangani.
 
Sosiologi ekonomi adalah cubaan oleh ahli sosiologi untuk mentakrifkan semula istilah-istilah sosiologi yang secara tradisinya ditangani oleh ahli ekonomi. Oleh itu, ia juga merupakan jawapan kepada percubaan oleh ahli ekonomi (seperti Gary Becker) untuk membawa pendekatan ekonomi - khususnya pengoptimuman utiliti dan teori permainan - bagi menganalisis situasi sosial yang tidak jelas berkaitan dengan pengeluaran atau perdagangan. Karl Polanyi, dalam bukunya "The Great Transformation", adalah pecipta teori pertama yang membangkitkan idea "terbenam", yang bermaksud bahawa ekonomi "tertanam" dalam institusi sosial yang penting supaya pasaran tidak memusnahkan aspek-aspek lain kehidupan manusia. Konsep "tertanam" memudahkan ahli sosiologi yang mengkaji perkembangan teknologi. Mark Granovetter dan Patrick McGuire memetakan rangkaian sosial yang menentukan ekonomi industri elektrik di Amerika Syarikat.<ref>Granovetter, Mark, and McGuire, Patrick (1998) “The Making of an Industry: Electricity
in the United States.” In: M. Callon (ed.) The Laws of the Markets. Oxford:
Blackwell, 147–173.</ref> Ronen Shamir menganalisis bagaimana elektrifikasi di Mandatory Palestine memudahkan penciptaan ekonomi dua hala yang berasaskan etnik.<ref>Shamir, Ronen (2013) Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine. Stanford: Stanford University Press.</ref> Walau bagaimanapun, skeptisisme pasaran Polanyi telah dikritik kerana ia mendorong dan bukannya membatasi penghematan masyarakat.<ref>{{cite journal |ssrn=2192754 |last=Roth |first= |year=2012 |title=Leaving commonplaces on the commonplace. Cornerstones of a polyphonic market theory |journal=Journal for Critical Organization Inquiry |volume=10 |issue=3 |pages=43–52 }}</ref>
 
 
{{terjemahan}}
===New economic sociology===
A contemporary period of economic sociology, often known as ''new economic sociology'', was consolidated by the 1985 work of [[Mark Granovetter]] titled "Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness".<ref>Mark Granovetter The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 91, No. 3 (Nov., 1985), pp. 481-510 http://glennschool.osu.edu/faculty/brown/home/Org%20Theory/Readings/Granovetter1985.pdf</ref> These works elaborated the concept of [[embeddedness]], which states that economic relations between individuals or firms take place within existing social relations (and are thus structured by these relations as well as the greater social structures of which those relations are a part). [[Social network|Social network analysis]] has been the primary methodology for studying this phenomenon. Granovetter's theory of the [[Mark Granovetter#The strength of weak ties|strength of weak ties]] and [[Ronald Burt|Ronald Burt's]] concept of structural holes are two best known theoretical contributions of this field.
 
==Marxist sociology==
{{Main article|Marxist sociology}}
Modern [[Marxist]] thought has focused on the social implications of [[capitalism]] (or "[[commodity fetishism]]") and [[economic development]] within the system of economic relations that produce them. Important theorists include [[Georg Lukács]], [[Theodor Adorno]], [[Max Horkheimer]], [[Walter Benjamin]], [[Guy Debord]], [[Louis Althusser]], [[Nicos Poulantzas]], [[Ralph Miliband]], [[Jürgen Habermas]], [[Raymond Williams]], [[Fredric Jameson]], [[Antonio Negri]], and [[Stuart Hall (cultural theorist)|Stuart Hall]].{{citation needed|date=June 2017}}
 
==Socioeconomics==
{{Main article|Socioeconomics}}
Economic sociology is sometimes synonymous with [[socioeconomics]]. Socioeconomics deals with the analytical, political and moral questions arising at the intersection between economy and society from a broad interdisciplinary perspective with links beyond sociology to political economy, moral philosophy, [[institutional economics]] and history.{{citation needed|date=June 2017}}
 
==US immigration==
{{multiple issues|section=y|{{Cleanup|section|date=May 2010}}
{{undue weight section|date=June 2017}}}}
At the turn of the 20th century, ethnic whites tended to migrate to urban enclaves on the East Coast and parts of the Midwest. Mexican immigrants settled along South-west border. Chinese immigrants, prior to the Chinese exclusion act, moved and settled along the Pacific states. The regulation of immigrants ebbed and flowed according to economic demands of the labor market and home country's domestic issues. Examples include availability of mine work, railroad building, and steel production or lack of home country's ability to provide adequate career opportunities, food or security.
 
Working class and low skilled immigrants tended to cluster in the [[ethnic enclave]]s such as Chinatowns, Little Italy's and Koreatowns. This was the result of [[chain migration]], [[Immigration to the United States|US migration policy]], and the placement of availability of jobs.<ref>{{cite book|last=Schaefer|first=Richard T.|title=Race and ethnicity in the United States|year=2013|publisher=Pearson Education|location=Boston|isbn=0205216331|edition=7th}}</ref> After the [[Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965]], educated and well skilled immigrant populations did not cluster like their blue collared counterparts. This is particularly true of Indian doctors and Filipino nurses. Both groups have a large population in absolute numbers, but are not as culturally visible.<ref>{{cite book|last=Portes|first=Alejandro|title=Immigrant America : a portrait|year=2006|publisher=University of California Press|location=Berkeley|isbn=0520250419|edition=3rd ed., rev., expanded, and updated.|author2=Rumbaut, Rubén G.}}</ref>
 
In general immigrants worked for lower wages, and for longer hours, under less-regulated working conditions in dangerous or unhealthy working conditions. Low wages and minimal oversight have widened corporate profits. This is true even for skilled and educated immigrants. Asians on average tend to make more money than Whites. However, when comparing similar high status jobs, Whites still make more. This may explain continued American economic growth since 1965.
 
In regards to US migration policy, from a [[structural functionalist]] point of view, illegal immigration is tacitly approved by the government and businesses despite surges in nativism starting in the 1980s. As the American population declines, the tax base to support social welfare programs such as Medicare and Social Security shrinks as well. Therefore, government welfare programs are dependent on some level to illegal immigrants who pay into the benefits, but will not receive them in their lifetimes. Further, both their legal and illegal children maintain a positive birth to death ratio, with more individuals living in America paying taxes than those dying. Illegal immigrants and their children play a fundamental role in maintaining government revenues. However, with a functionalist interpretation, it is in the government's best interest to keep these populations suppressed. This is where the interest of government and business intersect: If the undocumented workers were to be documented, employers would be forced to increase wages and the states would offer government assistance. With the fear of deportation after a lengthy detainment from the government and cases of harassment, abuse, rape and intimidation by employers, many illegal immigrants remain quiet about their plight. The second generation immigrants typically display [[reactive ethnic identities]] in response to the suppression and abuse their parents faced, further straining already strained race relations in America.
 
Nonetheless, due to the diffused structure of the US government and nativist sentiments, mass incarcerations and deportations are on the uptick in America. This has proven to be disastrous to local economies. In the [[Postville Raid]] of 2008, 400 men, women and children were detained by ICE, one third of the town's population. This immediately resulted in the closing of a local food processing plant and immediate decrease in local economic demand. It is estimated that within a radius of twenty miles, 2,800 other jobs were lost – drivers, coffee shop owners and alike – and millions of dollars of lost.<ref>{{cite book|title=US Immigration Reform and Its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid|year=2013|author= Erik Camayd-Freixas|OL=26175863M|isbn=0230105858}}</ref> The city of Postville asked the Federal government to declare its city as 'disaster zone' given the immediate drop in economic activity. The deportation of undocumented workers had secondary effects for the immigrants' families in their native countries, whose poverty was worsened when the detained individuals could not send remittances. There is a reported case of teenage suicide when the boy had not heard from his father in months.<ref>{{cite book|last=Camayd-Freixas|first=Erik|title=U.S. immigration reform and its transnational impact : a case study of the Postville raid|year=2012|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|location=Basingstoke|isbn=0230105858|edition=First}}</ref>
 
Some corners sociological debate today focuses on new immigrants' ability to find employment and to achieve economic self-sufficiency.
 
According to George Borjas in an essay titled "The Economics of Immigration" (1994), since the 1980s the United States has attracted "lower quality" immigrants with less education and few marketable job skills. Borjas' estimates show that as high as 21 percent of immigrant households participate in social assistance programs consisting of social welfare programs like food stamps and Medicaid. Additionally, economic assimilation is slow due to immigrant's difficulty in securing adequate employment.
 
Julian Simon, in addition to other economists and policy analysts, claims that recent immigration has either had a positive or neutral effect on the economy. Simon argues that immigrants and their children add to the labor force, paying into long-term benefits such as Social Security.
 
==Academic associations==
The Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (SASE) is an international academic association whose members are involved in social studies of economy and economic processes.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://sase.org |title=The Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics |publisher=SASE |accessdate=2013-12-30}}</ref> The ''[[Socio-Economic Review]]'' was established as the official journal of SASE in 2003.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ser.oxfordjournals.org/|title=Socio-Economic Review |publisher=Oxford University Press |accessdate=2014-06-05}}</ref> The journal aims to encourage work on the relationship between society, economy, institutions and markets, moral commitments and the rational pursuit of self-interest. Most articles focus on economic action in its social and historical context, drawing from sociology, political science, economics and the management and policy sciences. According to the ''[[Journal Citation Reports]]'', the journal has a 2015 [[impact factor]] of 1.926, ranking it 56th out of 344 journals in the category "Economics", 21st out of 163 journals in the category "Political Science" and 19th out of 142 journals in the category "Sociology".<ref name=WoS>{{cite book |year=2016 |chapter=Journals Ranked by Impact: Economics, Political Science and Public Administration |title=2015 [[Journal Citation Reports]] |publisher=[[Thomson Reuters]] |edition=Social Sciences |series=[[Web of Science]]}}</ref>
 
The American Sociological Association's Economic Sociology section became a permanent Section in January 2001. According to its website, it has about 800 members.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asanet.org/asa-communities/asa-sections/all-about-sections/section-membership-history/section-membership-crossrefrence-table |title=Section membership|publisher=American Sociological Association |accessdate=2017-04-07}}</ref>
 
Another group of scholars in this area works as Research Committee in Economy and Society (RC02) within the [[International Sociological Association]].<ref>{{cite web|author=Jose I. Reguera |url=http://www.isa-sociology.org/rc02.htm |title=ISA - Research Committee on Economy and Society RC02 |publisher=Isa-sociology.org |date=2013-12-19 |accessdate=2017-04-07}}</ref>
 
Economic Sociology and Political Economy (ES/PE), founded in 2011, is an online [[scholarly society]] that gathers researchers interested in economic sociology and related topics.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asanet.org/sectionecon/documents/accounts2014winter2.pdf#page=8|title="Economic Sociology and Political Economy community", Accounts - the Newsletter of the American Sociological Association's Economic Sociology section, 15(2): 17-20, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://econsoc.mpifg.de/archive/econ_soc_16-1.pdf|title=Komlik, Oleg. 2014. "The Global Community of Economic Sociology and Political Economy." The European Economic Sociology Newsletter 16 (1): 37-38}}</ref>
 
 
==Nota==
{{reflist|30em}}
 
==Rujukan==
* [[Gary S. Becker]] and [[Kevin M. Murphy]] (2001). ''Social Economics: Market Behavior in a Social Environment'', Harvard University Press. [http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/BECSOC.html Description] and [http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/BECSOC.html?show=contents TOC.]
* Peter Hedström and Charlotta Stern (2008). "rational choice and sociology," ''[[The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics]]'', 2nd Edition. [http://www.dictionaryofeconomics.com/article?id=pde2008_R000249&q=sociology&topicid=&result_number=1 Abstract.]
* [[Albert Benschop]] (1996/2011). ''Naar een nieuwe economische sociologie'' [http://www.sociosite.net/labor/econsoc/index.php] University of Amsterdam.
* [[Richard Swedberg]] (1990). ''Economics and Sociology: Redefining Their Boundaries: Conversations with Economists and Sociologists''. Princeton University Press. {{ISBN|0-691-00376-9}}, {{ISBN|978-0-691-00376-4}} [https://books.google.com/books?id=j6V2rQEu2tUC Description] and chapter-preview links, pp. [https://books.google.com/books?id=j6V2rQEu2tUC&printsec=toc&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 v]-[https://books.google.com/books?id=j6V2rQEu2tUC&pg=PP8&lpg=PP7 vi.]
* _____ (2007). ''Principles of Economic Sociology''. Princeton. [http://press.princeton.edu/titles/7525.html Description] and ch. 1 [http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7525.html extract.] Scroll down to chapter-preview [https://books.google.com/books?id=is7NGpu93NwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22Principles+of+economic+sociology%22&source=bl&ots=EMrRS5Is3l&sig=z6cqup3WTri-uZn2fS6nS0ixi_8&hl=en&ei=xeC1S873I4WglAfiu9CSAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CB8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=&f=false links.]
* _____ (2008). "Economic sociology" ''The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics'', 2nd Edition. [http://www.dictionaryofeconomics.com/article?id=pde2008_E000227&q=economic%20sociology&topicid=&result_number=2 Abstract.]
 
==Bacaan lanjut==
* ''[[Socio-Economic Review]]''
* ''[[The American Journal of Economics and Sociology]]''
 
==Pautan luar==
* [http://econsoc.mpifg.de Economic Sociology - the European electronic newsletter]
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