Sosiologi ekonomi: Perbezaan antara semakan

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==Sosioekonomi ==
Sosiologi ekonomi kadangkala sinonim dengan sosioekonomi. Socioeconomics menangani soalan-soalan analitis, politik dan moral yang timbul di persimpangan antara ekonomi dan masyarakat dari perspektif interdisipliner yang luas dengan hubungan di luar sosiologi kepada ekonomi politik, falsafah moral, ekonomi dan sejarah institusi.
 
==US immigration==
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At the turn of the 20th century, ethnic whites tended to migrate to urban enclaves on the East Coast and parts of the Midwest. Mexican immigrants settled along South-west border. Chinese immigrants, prior to the Chinese exclusion act, moved and settled along the Pacific states. The regulation of immigrants ebbed and flowed according to economic demands of the labor market and home country's domestic issues. Examples include availability of mine work, railroad building, and steel production or lack of home country's ability to provide adequate career opportunities, food or security.
 
Working class and low skilled immigrants tended to cluster in the [[ethnic enclave]]s such as Chinatowns, Little Italy's and Koreatowns. This was the result of [[chain migration]], [[Immigration to the United States|US migration policy]], and the placement of availability of jobs.<ref>{{cite book|last=Schaefer|first=Richard T.|title=Race and ethnicity in the United States|year=2013|publisher=Pearson Education|location=Boston|isbn=0205216331|edition=7th}}</ref> After the [[Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965]], educated and well skilled immigrant populations did not cluster like their blue collared counterparts. This is particularly true of Indian doctors and Filipino nurses. Both groups have a large population in absolute numbers, but are not as culturally visible.<ref>{{cite book|last=Portes|first=Alejandro|title=Immigrant America : a portrait|year=2006|publisher=University of California Press|location=Berkeley|isbn=0520250419|edition=3rd ed., rev., expanded, and updated.|author2=Rumbaut, Rubén G.}}</ref>
 
In general immigrants worked for lower wages, and for longer hours, under less-regulated working conditions in dangerous or unhealthy working conditions. Low wages and minimal oversight have widened corporate profits. This is true even for skilled and educated immigrants. Asians on average tend to make more money than Whites. However, when comparing similar high status jobs, Whites still make more. This may explain continued American economic growth since 1965.
 
In regards to US migration policy, from a [[structural functionalist]] point of view, illegal immigration is tacitly approved by the government and businesses despite surges in nativism starting in the 1980s. As the American population declines, the tax base to support social welfare programs such as Medicare and Social Security shrinks as well. Therefore, government welfare programs are dependent on some level to illegal immigrants who pay into the benefits, but will not receive them in their lifetimes. Further, both their legal and illegal children maintain a positive birth to death ratio, with more individuals living in America paying taxes than those dying. Illegal immigrants and their children play a fundamental role in maintaining government revenues. However, with a functionalist interpretation, it is in the government's best interest to keep these populations suppressed. This is where the interest of government and business intersect: If the undocumented workers were to be documented, employers would be forced to increase wages and the states would offer government assistance. With the fear of deportation after a lengthy detainment from the government and cases of harassment, abuse, rape and intimidation by employers, many illegal immigrants remain quiet about their plight. The second generation immigrants typically display [[reactive ethnic identities]] in response to the suppression and abuse their parents faced, further straining already strained race relations in America.
 
Nonetheless, due to the diffused structure of the US government and nativist sentiments, mass incarcerations and deportations are on the uptick in America. This has proven to be disastrous to local economies. In the [[Postville Raid]] of 2008, 400 men, women and children were detained by ICE, one third of the town's population. This immediately resulted in the closing of a local food processing plant and immediate decrease in local economic demand. It is estimated that within a radius of twenty miles, 2,800 other jobs were lost – drivers, coffee shop owners and alike – and millions of dollars of lost.<ref>{{cite book|title=US Immigration Reform and Its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid|year=2013|author= Erik Camayd-Freixas|OL=26175863M|isbn=0230105858}}</ref> The city of Postville asked the Federal government to declare its city as 'disaster zone' given the immediate drop in economic activity. The deportation of undocumented workers had secondary effects for the immigrants' families in their native countries, whose poverty was worsened when the detained individuals could not send remittances. There is a reported case of teenage suicide when the boy had not heard from his father in months.<ref>{{cite book|last=Camayd-Freixas|first=Erik|title=U.S. immigration reform and its transnational impact : a case study of the Postville raid|year=2012|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|location=Basingstoke|isbn=0230105858|edition=First}}</ref>
 
Some corners sociological debate today focuses on new immigrants' ability to find employment and to achieve economic self-sufficiency.
 
According to George Borjas in an essay titled "The Economics of Immigration" (1994), since the 1980s the United States has attracted "lower quality" immigrants with less education and few marketable job skills. Borjas' estimates show that as high as 21 percent of immigrant households participate in social assistance programs consisting of social welfare programs like food stamps and Medicaid. Additionally, economic assimilation is slow due to immigrant's difficulty in securing adequate employment.
 
Julian Simon, in addition to other economists and policy analysts, claims that recent immigration has either had a positive or neutral effect on the economy. Simon argues that immigrants and their children add to the labor force, paying into long-term benefits such as Social Security.
 
==Persatuan akademik==
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