Perbezaan antara semakan "Gelen"

247 bait dibuang ,  3 tahun lalu
tiada ringkasan suntingan
(Dicipta dengan menterjemah laman "Gallon")
 
{{Infobox unit|image=GasCan.jpg|caption=Satu bekas minyak petrol bersukatan 1 gelen Amerika dengan tanda gelen-gelen jenis Amerika ("U.S. gallon", untuk kegunaan di Amerika Syarikat), jenis imperial (untuk kegunaan di Kanada) dan liter|quantity=Isipadu|symbol=gal|units_imp1=unit SI|inunits_imp1={{convert|1|impgal|L|sigfig=7|disp=out}}|units_imp2=unit lazim AS<br>|inunits_imp2=1.200950&#x20;gal AS<br>|units_imp3=unit lazim AS<br>|inunits_imp3={{convert|1|impgal|in3|sigfig=7|disp=out}}|units_us1=unit SI<br>|inunits_us1={{convert|1|usgal|L|sigfig=7|disp=out}}|units_us2=unit imperial<br>|inunits_us2=0.8326742&#x20;gal imp<br>|units_us3=unit imperial<br>|inunits_us3={{convert|1|usgal|in3|sigfig=7|disp=out}}}}'''Gelen''' adalah [[unit ukuran]] untuk [[Isi padu|kapasiti cecair kapasiti]] dalam kedua-dua sistem ukuran lazim Amerika Syarikat dan [[Sistem Imperial|imperial British]]. Terdapat tiga saiz yang jauh berbeza dalam penggunaan: gelen imperial - digunakan di United Kingdom, [[Sistem Imperial|Kanada]], dan beberapa negara [[Caribbean]] - di mana satu ditakrifkan sebagai 4.54609 [[liter]]; gelen Amerika Syarikat yang ditakrifkan sebagai 231 inci padu (8 pain cecair A.S) atau sekitar {{Convert|231|cuin|L|3|disp=out}} seunit, yang digunakan dalam A.S dan beberapa negara [[Amerika Latin]] dan Caribbean; dan "gelen kering dry gallon ditakrifkan sebagai <span style="display:block; line-height:1em; padding:0 0.1em;">1</span><span class="visualhide">/</span><span style="display:block; line-height:1em; padding:0 0.1em; border-top:1px solid;">8</span> busyel ([[gantang]] Amerika, 4.405&nbsp;L) seunit.
 
'''Gelen''' ({{lang-en|dry gallon}}, {{lang-nl|Gallon}}) adalah [[unit ukuran]] untuk [[Isi padu|kapasiti cecair]] dalam kedua-dua sistem ukuran lazim Amerika Syarikat dan [[Sistem Imperial|imperial British]]. Terdapat tiga saiz yang jauh berbeza dalam penggunaan: gelen imperial - digunakan di United Kingdom, [[Sistem Imperial|Kanada]], dan beberapa negara [[Caribbean]] - di mana satu ditakrifkan sebagai 4.54609 [[liter]]; gelen Amerika Syarikat yang ditakrifkan sebagai 231 inci padu (8 pain cecair A.S) atau sekitar {{Convert|231|cuin|L|3|disp=out}} seunit, yang digunakan dalam A.S dan beberapa negara [[Amerika Latin]] dan Caribbean; dan "gelen kering {{lang-en|dry gallon}} ditakrifkan sebagai 1//8 busyel ("[[gantang]]" Amerika, 4.405 L) seunit.
 
Singkatan yang paling dipersetujui secara meluas untuk semua jenis gelen ini ialah '''gal'''.<ref>IEEE Std 260.1-2014</ref>
 
== Penggunaan di seluruh dunia ==
[[Fail:World_map_of_gasoline_units_.jpg|thumb|347x347px|Unit sukatan biasa petrol di setiap negara.██&nbsp;Liter██&nbsp;{{legend|#ff0000|Liter}} {{legend|#00ff00|Gelen Amerika<br>}}{{legend|#0000ff|Gelen imperial}}{{legend|#e0e0e0|Tiada data yang diberikan}}|347x347px]]
Gelen imperial masih terus digunakan sebagai unit ukuran di [[Anguilla]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Anguilla-RE-Integration-Final-Report-121019.pdf|title=Anguilla Renewable Energy Integration Project Final Report|date=19 OctoberOktober 2012|website=Anguilla RE Integration Final Report|publisher=Government of Anguilla Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications, Utilities, and Housing (MICUH)|page=104|access-date=13 OctoberOktober 2013|quote=In 2008—the most recent year where WTI crude oil averaged US$100 per barrel—ANGLEC paid an average of about US$4 per imperial gallon (IG) for diesel.}}</ref> [[Antigua dan Barbuda]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://assets.antiguaobserver.com/2011/12/BUDGET-STATEMENT-2012.pdf|title=Budget Statement for 2012|date=5 DecemberDisember 2011|website=Antigua Observer|format=PDF|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131002102212/http://assets.antiguaobserver.com/2011/12/BUDGET-STATEMENT-2012.pdf|archive-date=2 OctoberOktober 2013|dead-url=yes}}</ref> the [[Bahamas]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thenassauguardian.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12233&Itemid=87|title=The Nassau Guardian}}</ref> [[Kepulauan Virgin British]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.bvibeacon.com/2/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2487:biwater-project-draws-scrutiny&catid=491:commentary-sept-6-2012|title=Biwater project draws scrutiny|last=Webmaster}}</ref> Kepulauan [[Kepulauan Cayman|Cayman]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.compasscayman.com/caycompass/2013/05/09/Fuel-costs-driven-by-factors/|title=Fuel costs driven by factors}}</ref> [[Dominika]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://dominicanewsonline.com/news/homepage/features/photo-of-the-day/photo-of-the-day-up-and-up-it-goes/|title=PHOTO OF THE DAY: Up and up it goes|website=Dominica News Online}}</ref> [[Grenada]],<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=p1g4z5GpiBoC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17|title=Grenada: Third Review under the Three-Year Arrangement|page=17|access-date=13 OctoberOktober 2013}}</ref> [[Montserrat]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.themontserratreporter.com/gasoline-price-increases-diesel-decreases-cost-of-living-goes-up/|title=Gasoline price increases, diesel decreases, cost of living goes up - The Montserrat Reporter}}</ref> [[Myanmar]] (Burma, sebelum beralih ke liter jualan antara sebelum tahun 2014),<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.oilseedcrops.org/2014/04/05/petrol-prices-march-2014-in-yangon-myanmar/|title=Petrol Prices March 2014 in Yangon, Myanmar}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.mmtimes.com/news/fuel-prices-rise.html|title=Fuel prices on the rise - 2017}}</ref> [[Santo Kitts dan Nevis|St Kitts dan Nevis]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thestkittsnevisobserver.com/2008/09/05/news21.html|title=GAS PRICES CAPPED UNDER $18 – LOWEST SINCE JULY|publisher=The St. Kitts-Nevis Observer|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120524184004/http://thestkittsnevisobserver.com/2008/09/05/news21.html|archive-date=24 MayMei 2012|dead-url=yes}}</ref> [[Saint Lucia|St Lucia]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thevoiceslu.com/local_news/2013/july/09_07_13/Rotary.htm|title=Rotary has a new President - St. Lucia Voice News|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222145630/http://www.thevoiceslu.com/local_news/2013/july/09_07_13/Rotary.htm|archive-date=22 DecemberDisember 2015|dead-url=yes}}</ref> dan [[Saint Vincent dan Grenadines|St Vincent dan Kepulauan Grenadine]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.iwnsvg.com/2012/04/26/another-service-station-sues-sol-over-fuel-volume-discrepancy/|title=Another service station sues SOL over fuel volume discrepancy|website=iWitness News}}</ref>
██&nbsp;Gelen imperial██&nbsp;Tiada data yang diberikan<br>
]]
Gelen imperial masih terus digunakan sebagai unit ukuran di [[Anguilla]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Anguilla-RE-Integration-Final-Report-121019.pdf|title=Anguilla Renewable Energy Integration Project Final Report|date=19 October 2012|website=Anguilla RE Integration Final Report|publisher=Government of Anguilla Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications, Utilities, and Housing (MICUH)|page=104|access-date=13 October 2013|quote=In 2008—the most recent year where WTI crude oil averaged US$100 per barrel—ANGLEC paid an average of about US$4 per imperial gallon (IG) for diesel.}}</ref> [[Antigua dan Barbuda]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://assets.antiguaobserver.com/2011/12/BUDGET-STATEMENT-2012.pdf|title=Budget Statement for 2012|date=5 December 2011|website=Antigua Observer|format=PDF|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131002102212/http://assets.antiguaobserver.com/2011/12/BUDGET-STATEMENT-2012.pdf|archive-date=2 October 2013|dead-url=yes}}</ref> the [[Bahamas]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thenassauguardian.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12233&Itemid=87|title=The Nassau Guardian}}</ref> [[Kepulauan Virgin British]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.bvibeacon.com/2/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2487:biwater-project-draws-scrutiny&catid=491:commentary-sept-6-2012|title=Biwater project draws scrutiny|last=Webmaster}}</ref> Kepulauan [[Kepulauan Cayman|Cayman]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.compasscayman.com/caycompass/2013/05/09/Fuel-costs-driven-by-factors/|title=Fuel costs driven by factors}}</ref> [[Dominika]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://dominicanewsonline.com/news/homepage/features/photo-of-the-day/photo-of-the-day-up-and-up-it-goes/|title=PHOTO OF THE DAY: Up and up it goes|website=Dominica News Online}}</ref> [[Grenada]],<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=p1g4z5GpiBoC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17|title=Grenada: Third Review under the Three-Year Arrangement|page=17|access-date=13 October 2013}}</ref> [[Montserrat]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.themontserratreporter.com/gasoline-price-increases-diesel-decreases-cost-of-living-goes-up/|title=Gasoline price increases, diesel decreases, cost of living goes up - The Montserrat Reporter}}</ref> [[Myanmar]] (Burma, sebelum beralih ke liter jualan antara sebelum tahun 2014),<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.oilseedcrops.org/2014/04/05/petrol-prices-march-2014-in-yangon-myanmar/|title=Petrol Prices March 2014 in Yangon, Myanmar}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.mmtimes.com/news/fuel-prices-rise.html|title=Fuel prices on the rise - 2017}}</ref> [[Santo Kitts dan Nevis|St Kitts dan Nevis]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thestkittsnevisobserver.com/2008/09/05/news21.html|title=GAS PRICES CAPPED UNDER $18 – LOWEST SINCE JULY|publisher=The St. Kitts-Nevis Observer|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120524184004/http://thestkittsnevisobserver.com/2008/09/05/news21.html|archive-date=24 May 2012|dead-url=yes}}</ref> [[Saint Lucia|St Lucia]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thevoiceslu.com/local_news/2013/july/09_07_13/Rotary.htm|title=Rotary has a new President - St. Lucia Voice News|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222145630/http://www.thevoiceslu.com/local_news/2013/july/09_07_13/Rotary.htm|archive-date=22 December 2015|dead-url=yes}}</ref> dan [[Saint Vincent dan Grenadines|St Vincent dan Kepulauan Grenadine]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.iwnsvg.com/2012/04/26/another-service-station-sues-sol-over-fuel-volume-discrepancy/|title=Another service station sues SOL over fuel volume discrepancy|website=iWitness News}}</ref>
 
Gelen Amerika juga digunakan - selain daripada [[Amerika Syarikat|negara yang menamakannya]] - di [[Liberia]], [[Belize]], [[Colombia]], [[Republik Dominika]], [[Ecuador]], [[El Salvador]], [[Guatemala]], [[Haiti]], [[Honduras]], [[Nicaragua]], dan [[Peru]], tetapi hanya untuk penjualan petrol sahaja. Semua produk yang lain dijual di liter dan gandaannya dan submultiples.<ref name="GIZ">{{Cite web|url=http://www.giz.de/Themen/en/dokumente/giz-en-IFP2010.pdf|title=International Fuel Prices 2010/11 - 7th Edition|publisher=GTZ Transport Policy Advisory Services on behalf of the [German] Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development|page=100|access-date=16 January 2012}}</ref>
 
== Sejarah ==
Secara bersejarahnya, terdapat pelbagai saiz gelen yang telah digunakan di banyak tempat di Eropah Barat. Di kawasan-kawasan ini, ia lama kelamaannya telah digantikan dengan [[liter]] sebagai unit kapasiti.
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto;"
! colspan="8" |<big>Perbandingan jenis gelen bersejarah<br>
|-
! colspan="2" |Isipadu
! rowspan="2" |Takrifan<br>
! rowspan="2" | Isipadu songsang<br>
(gelen per <br>kaki padu)
! rowspan="2" | Approx.Dianggarkan<br>
berat air <br>([[avoirdupois|paun]] per gelen<br>
weight of<br>
@ 62&nbsp; °F)
water (pounds<br>
! colspan="3" | CylindricalAnggaran approximationsilinder
per gallon<br>
@ 62&nbsp;°F)
! colspan="3" | Cylindrical approximation
|-
! ([[inci padu]])
! ([[Liter|L]] atau [[meter padu|dm<sup>3</sup>]])
! Diameter<br>
(in)
! HeightKetinggian<br>
(in)
! RelativeKerelatifan<br>
errorRalat (%)
|-
| 216 (''uncia'' Romawi)
| ≈ {{Val|3.5396}}
| Roman ''congius'' Romawi
| 8 || 7.8
| 5 || 11 || 0.01
| 7.8
| 5
| 11
| 0.01
|-
| 224
|| ≈ 3.6707
| preserveddipelihara at thedi Guildhall, London (oldgelen UKwain winelama gallonUK)
| 7.71 || 8.09
| 9 || 3.5 || 0.6
| 8.09
| 9
| 3.5
| 0.6
|- style="background: rgb(221, 255, 221) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;"
| 231
|| {{Val|3.785411784}}
| statutestatut ofke-5 5th[[Anne ofdari QueenGreat Britain|Ratu Anne]] (UKgelen winewain gallonUK, '''standardgelen USpiawai gallonAS''')
| 7.48 || 8.33
| 7 || 6 || 0.04
| 8.33
| 7
| 6
| 0.04
|-
| 264.8
|| ≈ 4.3393
| Kuart Rumford lama (1228)
| 6.53 ||9.57
| 7.5 || 6 ||0.1
| 9.57
| 7.5
| 6
| 0.1
|-
| 265.5
|| ≈ 4.3508
| ''Exchequer'' ([[Henry VII dari England|Henry VII]]), 1497, dengan rim)
| 6.51
|| 9.59
| 13
|| 2
|| 0.01
|-
| 266.25
|| ≈ 4.3631
| Kuart Rumford (1228)
| 5 ||
| || ||
|- style="background: rgb(221, 255, 221) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;"
| 268.8025
|| {{Val|4.40488377086}}
| Winchester, statut 13 + 14 mengikut [[William III dari England|William III]] (gelen bijirin,'''gelen kering Amerika''')
| 6.43
|| 9.71
| 18.5
|| 1
|| {{Val|0.00001}}
|-
| 271
|| ≈ 4.4409
| ''Exchequer'' (1601, ''E.'') (gelen ''bijirin'' asal)
| 6.38
|| 9.79
|| 4.5
| 17
|| 0.23
|-
| 272
|| ≈ 4.4573
| gelen bijirin (1688)
| 11 ||
| || ||
|-
| 277.18
|| ≈ 4.5422
| statut 12 Anne (gelen arang) = 33<span class="visualhide">/</span>32 gelen bijirin
| 6.23 || 10
| || ||
| 10
|-
| 277.274
| Gelen imperial (1824) bertakrifan asal.
| 6.23
|| 10
| || ||
|- style="background: rgb(221, 255, 221) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;"
|≈{{val|277.419433}}
| ≈<span class="nowrap">7002277419433000000♠277.419433</span>
|| {{Valval|4.54609}}
| '''Gelen imperial piawai''' (metrik) (gelen Kanada 1964, gelen UK 1985)
| 6.23
|| 10
| 5⅔
| |11
|| 0.000 20002
|-
| ≈{{val|277.419555}}
| ≈<span class="nowrap">7002277419555000000♠277.419555</span>
|| {{Val|4.546092}}
| Gelen imperial (1895), ditakrifkan pada 1895, seperti yang tercatat pada 1963.
| 6.23
|| 10
| 9|| ||
|-
| 278
| ≈ 4.5556
| Exchequer (Henry VII, berrim tembaga)
| 6.21 || 10.04
| 10.04|| ||
|-
| 278.4
|| ≈ 4.5622
| ''Exchequer'' (pain 1601 dan 1602)
| 6.21 || 10.06
| 10.06|| ||
|-
| 280
|| ≈ 4.5884
| ''Exchequer ''(1601 quart)
| 6.17 || 10.1
| 10.1|| ||
|-
| 282
|| ≈ 4.6212
| "'Treasury'' ("Perbendaharaan", gelen bir dan ''ale'')
| 6.13 || 10.2
| 10.2|| ||
|}