Perbezaan antara semakan "Gluten"

30 bait dibuang ,  2 tahun lalu
tiada ringkasan suntingan
 
'''Gluten''' (dari bahasa Latin ''[[wiktionary:gluten#Latin|gluten]]'', "gam") adalah sebuah komposit jenis-jenis protein simpanan seperti prolamin dan glutelin<ref name="FDAlabeling2007">{{Cite web|url=https://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/05n-0279-npr0001.pdf|title=Food Labeling ; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods|last=Food and Drug Administration|date=January 2007}}</ref> yang disimpan bersama-sama dengan [[kanji]] di dalam [[endosperma]] (yang menyuburkan embrio tumbuhan semasa [[Percambahan|percambahannya]]) pelbagai [[Bijirin|biji-bijian]] jenis rumput. Bahan ini ditemui pada [[Gandum (tumbuhan)|gandum]], [[Pokok Barli|barli]], [[rai]], [[oat]], spesies dan hibrid yang berkaitan dengannya (seperti ''spelt'', khorasan, ''emmer'', ''triticale'', ''kamut'' dan sebagainya)<ref name="Biesiekierski2017">{{Cite journal|last=Biesiekierski JR|year=2017|title=What is gluten?|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jgh.13703/full|journal=J Gastroenterol Hepatol|type=Review|volume=32 Suppl 1|pages=78–81|doi=10.1111/jgh.13703|pmid=28244676|quote=Similar proteins to the gliadin found in wheat exist as secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and avenins in oats and are collectively referred to as “gluten.” The gluten found in all of these grains has been identified as the component capable of triggering the immune-mediated disorder, coeliac disease.}}</ref> serta produk yang terhasil (seperti [[malt]]). Gluten dikehendaki kerana sifat kelikatannya.<ref name="LamacchiaCamarca2014">{{Cite journal|date=Jan 29, 2014|title=Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients|journal=Nutrients|type=Review|volume=6|issue=2|pages=575–90|doi=10.3390/nu6020575|pmc=3942718|pmid=24481131|quote=the distinctive feature that makes wheat unique is, precisely, the visco-elasticity of gluten. When the grain is milled and mixed with water, storage proteins form a dough, capable of retaining gas bubbles. These properties make wheat suitable for the preparation of a great diversity of food products}}</ref> Ia memberikan sifat ketegangan pada [[doh]], membantu doh [[Agen penaik|naik]] dengan bentuknya terjaga dan sering memberikan tekstur yang kenyal pada produk akhir.
 
Gluten merupakan nama kolektif bagi kumpulan prolamin yang terkandung pada gandum (gliadin), barli (hordein), rai (sekalin) dan oat ([[Oat|avenin]]). Dalam satu bahagian kecil daripada populasi umum, gluten boleh menyebabkan [[penyakit seliak]], kepekaan gluten bukan seliak, ataksia gluten dan dermatitis herpetiformis. [[Oat|Keracunan avenin oat]] pada penghidap gangguan berkaitan dengan gluten bergantung pada jenis [[kultivar]] oat dimakan kerana tindak balas imun prolamin yang toksik berbeza-beza di antara jenis oat.<ref name="PenaginiDilillo">{{Cite journal|date=Nov 18, 2013|title=Gluten-free diet in children: an approach to a nutritionally adequate and balanced diet|journal=Nutrients|type=Review|volume=5|issue=11|pages=4553–65|doi=10.3390/nu5114553|pmc=3847748|pmid=24253052}}</ref><ref name="DeSouzaDeschenes2016">{{Cite journal|year=2016|title=Pure Oats as Part of the Canadian Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease: The Need to Revisit the Issue.|journal=Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol|type=Review|volume=2016|pages=1576360|doi=10.1155/2016/1576360|pmc=4904650|pmid=27446824}}</ref><ref name="CominoMoreno2015">{{Cite journal|date=Nov 7, 2015|title=Role of oats in celiac disease|journal=World J Gastroenterol|volume=21|issue=41|pages=11825–31|doi=10.3748/wjg.v21.i41.11825|pmc=4631980|pmid=26557006|quote=It is necessary to consider that oats include many varieties, containing various amino acid sequences and showing different immunoreactivities associated with toxic prolamins. As a result, several studies have shown that the immunogenicity of oats varies depending on the cultivar consumed. Thus, it is essential to thoroughly study the variety of oats used in a food ingredient before including it in a gluten-free diet.}}</ref> Selain itu juga, banyak produk oat boleh tercemar dengan bijirin lain yang mengandungi gluten.