Perbezaan antara semakan "Pengayaan alam sekitar"

k
tiada ringkasan suntingan
k
* Animals used for [[Animal testing|research]].
 
==TypesJenis of enrichmentpengayaan==
Any novel stimulus which evokes an animal's interest can be considered enriching, including natural and artificial objects, scents, novel foods, and different methods of preparing foods (for example, frozen in ice). [[Puzzle]]s that require an animal to solve simple problems in order to access food or other rewards are considered enrichment. An animal's environment may also be enriched by the presence of other animals of the same or different species. A stimulus can be considered enriching even if the animal's reaction to it is negative, such as with unpleasant scents, although stimuli that evoke extreme stress or fear should be avoided, as well as stimuli that can be harmful to the animal.
 
Enclosures in modern zoos are often designed with enrichment in mind. For example, the [[Denver Zoo]]'s exhibit Predator Ridge allows different African [[carnivora|carnivore]] species to rotate among several enclosures, providing the animals with a larger environment and exposing them to each others' scents.
 
==Kewajipan==
==Regulatory requirements==
===UnitedAmerika StatesSyarikat===
The 1985 amendments to the [[United States]] [[Animal Welfare Act]] amendments directed the [[United States Secretary of Agriculture|Secretary of Agriculture]] to establish regulations to provide an adequate physical environment to promote the psychological well-being of [[primate]]s<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/awabrief.htm#Q9 | title = A Quick Reference to the Requirement for Environmental Enhancement for Primates Under the Animal Welfare Act | author = Richard Crawford | date = 2007 | accessdate = 2007-11-06}}</ref> and exercise for [[dog]]s.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/awabrief.htm#Q10| title = A Quick Reference to the Requirement for the Exercise of Dogs Under the Animal Welfare Act | author = Richard L. Crawford | date = 2007 | accessdate = 2007-11-06}}</ref> Subsequent standards for nonhuman primate environmental enhancement (including provisions for social grouping and environmental enrichment) are included under Section 3.81 in the Animal Welfare Regulations (9 [[Code of Federal Regulations|CFR]]).<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/Primates2006/laws_regs.htm | title = U.S. Laws, Regulations and Guidelines for Environmental Enhancement of Nonhuman Primates | publisher = USDA, Animal Welfare Information Center | date = 2006 | accessdate = 2007-11-06}}</ref> Concepts relating to behavioral needs and environmental enrichment are also incorporated into the standards for marine, flying, and aquatic mammals.<ref>{{Citation
| last1 = Kulpa-Eddy | first1 = Jodie A.
| url = http://dels.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/46_2/pdfs/v4602kulpa-eddy.pdf | issn = 0018-9960 }}</ref>
 
==NotesCatatan==
{{reflist}}
 
==ExternalPautan linksluar==
{{commons|Category:Environmental enrichment|Environmental enrichment}}
*[http://www.awionline.org/lab_animals/biblio/laball.htm Laboratory Animal Refinement Database]
7,279

suntingan