Perbezaan antara semakan "Klemens von Metternich"

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(Dicipta dengan menterjemah laman "Klemens von Metternich")
 
 
Metternich dipuji dan dikeji atas beberapa dasar yang dilaksanannya. Penyokongnya mengatakan bahawa dia mengetuai ke atas "Sistem Kongress", dimana diplomasi antarabangsa membantu mencegah peperangan besar di Eropah. Kualitinya sebagai diplomat dipandang tinggi sehingga ada yang menyatakan pencapaiannya sebagai cahaya yang turun atas meja rundingannya. Keputusannya untuk menentang perluasan Rusia dilihat sebagai antara yang terbaik. Pengkritik menggambarkan dia seperti seorang yang mempunyai pemikiran syak-wasangka, prinsip-prinsip koservatif yang melampau dan tak dapat dijangka tindakannya. Mereka berpendapat dia dapat melakukan banyak perubahan untuk menjamin masa depan Austria dimana sebaliknya berlaku. Pada 1817, usul untuk pembaharuan pentadbiran telah ditolak dan penentangannya terhadap nasionalisme Jerman dipersalahkan kerana penyatuan Jerman di bawah pengaruh Prussia dan bukannya Austria. Sejarawan lain berpendapat bahawa beliau mempunyai kuasa yang lebih rendah dari apa yang dikatakan dan dasar beliau hanya dilaksanakan bersesuaian dengan pandangan maharaja.{{Reflist|30em}}
 
==Nota==
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==Rujukan==
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==Bibliografi==
* {{EB1911|wstitle=Metternich-Winneburg, Clemens Wenzel Lothar}}
* {{cite book|last=Bertier de Sauvigny|first=Guillaume de|others=Ryde, Peter (trans.)|title=Metternich and his times|publisher=Darton, Longman and Todd|location=London|year=1962|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Cecil|first=Algernon|title=Metternich|year=1947|publisher=Eyre and Spottiswoode|location=London|edition=3rd|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|first=Franklin L.|last=Ford|title=Europe, 1780–1830|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=pDbwSQAACAAJ|year=1971|publisher=Longman|location=Hong Kong|isbn=978-0-582-48346-0|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|first=Franz|last=Herre|title=Metternich: Staatsmann des Friedens|year=1997|publisher=Bechtermünz Verlag|location=Augsburg|isbn=3-86047-813-3|ref=harv}} (in German)
* {{cite book|last=Jarrett|first=Mark|title=The Congress of Vienna and its Legacy: War and Great Power Diplomacy after Napoleon|publisher=I. B. Tauris & Company, Ltd.|year=2013|location=London|isbn=978-1780761169}}
* {{cite book|last=Kissinger|first=Henry|authorlink=Henry Kissinger|title=[[A World Restored|A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of the Peace, 1812–1822]]|location=London|publisher=Weidenfeld & Nicolson|edition=1999 reprint|year=1954|isbn=978-0-297-64395-1|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Musulin|first=Stella|title=Vienna in the Age of Metternich|publisher=Faber and Faber|location=London|year=1975|isbn=0-571-09858-4|ref=harv}}
* Nadeau, Ryan (2016). [http://cupola.gettysburg.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1148&context=ghj "Creating a Statesman: The Early Life of Prince Clemens von Metternich and its Effect on his Political Philosophy." ''The Gettysburg Historical Journal'' '''15''' (1).] [[International Standard Serial Number|ISSN]] [https://www.worldcat.org/title/gettysburg-historical-journal/oclc/830314384 2327–3917].
* {{cite book|first=Robin|last=Okey|title=The Habsburg monarchy, c. 1765–1918|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G1WUQgAACAAJ|year=2001|publisher=Macmillan|isbn=978-0-333-39654-4|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Palmer|first=Alan|authorlink=Alan Palmer|title=Metternich: Councillor of Europe|edition=1997 reprint|isbn=978-1-85799-868-9|publisher=Orion|location=London|year=1972|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Sked|first=Alan|title=Metternich and Austria: An Evaluation|location=Basingstoke, England|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|year=2008|isbn=978-1-4039-9114-0|ref=harv}}
* {{cite journal|title=Metternich|first=Alan|last=Sked|journal=History Today|volume=33|ref=harv|issue=6|year=1983}}
* {{cite book|last=Hamilton-Williams|first=David|title=Waterloo New Perspectives: the Great Battle Reappraised|publisher=Wiley|year=1996|isbn=0-471-05225-6|ref=harv}}
* {{cite web|title=Clemens Lothar Wenzel, Prince Metternich (1773–1859)|url=http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/404948|publisher=Royal Collection|year=2013|accessdate=22 September 2013|ref={{harvid|Royal Collection|2013}}}}
* {{cite book|last=Zamoyski|first=Adam|authorlink=Adam Zamoyski|title=Rites of Peace: The fall of Napoleon & the Congress of Vienna|year=2007|isbn=0-00-712375-2|ref=harv}}.
* {{cite book|last=May|first=Arthur J.|title=The Age of Metterchich 1814–1848|year=1933|publisher=Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.;}}
 
==Pautan luar==
{{Commons category|Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich}}
{{Wikisource1911Enc|Metternich-Winneburg, Clemens Wenzel Lothar}}
* [https://archive.org/stream/catholicpolitica00menc#page/140/mode/2up Metternich's Political Profession of Faith]
* [http://www.h-net.org/~habsweb/sourcetexts/censor.htm Metternich on censorship]
* [http://www.kynzvart.cz/ Castle Kynžvart (Königswart) in Western Bohemia] – Metternich's residence with collections, now open to the public
 
[[Kategori:Kelahiran 1773]]
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