Perbezaan antara semakan "Van"

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[[File:VW Crafter IMG 0772.jpg|right|thumb|Volkswagen Crafter]]
 
'''Van''' merupakan sejenis kenderaan jalan yang digunakan untuk mengangkut barang atau orang. Bergantung kepada jenis van, ia mungkin lebih besar atau lebih kecil berbanding trak dan SUV, dan lebih besar daripada kereta biasa. Terdapat sedikit perbezaan dalam skop perkataan di kalangan negara yang berbahasa Inggeris. Van terkecil, van mikro, digunakan untuk mengangkut sama ada barangan atau penumpang dalam kuantiti yang kecil. MPV mini, MPV padat, dan MPV kesemuanya adalah van kecil yang biasanya digunakan untuk mengangkut penumpang dalam jumlah kecil. Van yang lebih besar dengan kerusi penumpang digunakan untuk keperluan institusi, seperti mengangkut pelajar. Van lebih besar dengan hanya kerusi depan dipasang sering digunakan untuk tujuan perniagaan, untuk membawa barangan dan peralatan. Van yang dilengkapi khas juga digunakan oleh stesen televisyen sebagai studio mudah alih. Perkhidmatan pos dan syarikat kurier menggunakan van bersaiz besar untuk menyampaikan bungkusan.
Van adalah sebuah kenderaan besar untuk mengisi barang keperluan. Van juga adalah boleh menghantar murid ke sekolah seperti [[bas]].
 
==Asal perkataan dan kegunaan==
[[File:Roger Fenton's waggon.jpg|thumb|right|Van penggambaran Roger Fenton, [[Crimea]], 1855]]
Maksud van sebagai sejenis kenderaan muncul dari penguncupan perkataan karavan. Rekod terawal perkataan van sebagai kenderaan dalam bahasa Inggeris adalah pada pertengahan abad ke-19 yang bermaksud gerobak yang tertutup untuk mengangkut barang (rekod paling awal dilaporkan 1829). Karavan dengan makna yang sama mempunyai rekod sejak 1670-an. Karavan, yang bermaksud satu gerabak, telah muncul sebagai lanjutan atau herotan perkataan karavan yang bermaksud konvoi beberapa gerabak. <ref>[https://archive.org/stream/oedxbarch#page/n51/mode/1up "Van #3" @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160921131333/http://archive.org/stream/oedxbarch |date=21 September 2016 }}, year 1928. See also [https://archive.org/stream/oed02arch#page/105/mode/1up "Caravan" @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160809142919/http://archive.org/stream/oed02arch |date=9 August 2016 }}, year 1893. Note: The word van as a vehicle, being a contraction of caravan, has no historical relation with the word van as a contraction of [[vanguard]].</ref>
 
Perkataan ''van'' memiliki makna berbeza sedikit, tetapi bertindih, dalam bentuk bahasa Inggeris yang berbeza. Sungguhpun perkataan ini sentiasa digunakan bagi van kargo berkotak, penggunaan lain terdapat secara lebih besar atau kurang di negara-negara berbahasa Inggeris yang berlainan.
 
===Australia===
[[File:2018 Kia Carnival (YP MY19) S van (2018-10-01) 01.jpg|right|thumb|Van mini di Australia]]
Di [[Inggeris Australian]], istilan ''van'' biasanya digunakan bai van mini, bas mini penumpang, atau van panel Australian sebagaimana yang dihasilkan oleh syarikat seperti[[Holden]] dan Ford Australia pada waktu berbeza.
 
Van bersaiz penuh bagi kegunaan komersial juga digelar ''van''; bagaimanapun, kenderaan penumpang dang muatan melebihi 7 atau 8 tempat duduk lebih berkemungkinan dikenali sebagai ''bas mini''.
 
Akhirnya terdapat istilah ''van'' yang kadang kala boleh digunakan saling bertukar dengan ''karavan'', yang di Amerika Syarikat digunakan bagi merujuk pada trailer pengembara.
 
Istilah British ''pengangkut penumpang'' juga digunakan dalam Inggeris Australian bagi menggambarkan van penumpang. Penggunaan Amerika bagi ''van'' bererti tralier kotak kargo atau semi-trailer yang jarang digunakan, jika ada, di Australia.
 
===India===
Di India, van adalah salah satu mod pengangkutan yang paling biasa dan sering digunakan untuk mengangkut kanak-kanak sekolah ke dan dari sekolah, biasanya ketika ibu bapa, terutama ibu bapa bekerja, sering terlalu sibuk untuk mengambil anak-anak mereka dari sekolah atau ketika bas sekolah penuh dan tidak mampu menampung kanak-kanak lain.<ref>{{cite news|title=School van operators take kids for a ride|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/chunk-ht-ui-gurgaonsurvey-gurgaonfirst/school-van-operators-take-kids-for-a-ride/article1-1057290.aspx|accessdate=27 July 2015|publisher=Hindustan Times|date=24 July 2015|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150916191906/http://www.hindustantimes.com/chunk-ht-ui-gurgaonsurvey-gurgaonfirst/school-van-operators-take-kids-for-a-ride/article1-1057290.aspx|archivedate=16 September 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
===Jepun===
[[File:Suzuki Alto Juna rear.jpg|thumb|[[Suzuki Alto]] Van - note baggage rails in rear side windows]]
Van Jepun terawal termasuk van [[Kurogane Baby]], [[Mazda Bongo]] dan [[Toyota LiteAce]]. Jepun juga menghasilkan banyak van berdasarkan model hadapan rata Amerika, tetapi juga mini-van yang bagi pasaran Amerika pada umumnya berkembang menjadi faktor bentuk pacuan roda hadapan roda panjang yang dipelopori oleh Nissan Prairie dan Mitsubishi Chariot. Van mikro, van yang memenuhi peraturan kereta kei, sangat popular untuk perniagaan kecil. Istilah ini juga digunakan untuk menggambarkan station wagons bersaiz penuh (kereta penumpang hadapan kepingan logam, tempat duduk belakang lipat rata, tingkap di sekeliling) dan juga hatchback dengan pakej trim asas yang dimaksudkan untuk kegunaan komersil. Ini kadang-kadang disebut sebagai "Van Ringan" ( Bahasa Jepun : ラ イ ト バ ン ).
 
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===United Kingdom===
In [[British English]], the word van refers to vehicles that carry goods only, on both roads and rails. What would be called a [[minivan]] in American English is called a ''people-carrier'' or ''MPV'', or multi-purpose vehicle, and larger passenger vehicles are called a [[minibus]]. The [[Telegraph (newspaper)|''Telegraph'']] newspaper introduced the idea of "[[White Van Man]]", a typical [[working class]] man or small business owner who would have a white [[Ford Transit]], [[Mercedes-Benz Sprinter]], or similar panel van. Today the phrase "man and van" refers to light removal firms normally operated by a sole business owner transporting anything from the contents of a whole house to just a few boxes. The word "van" also refers to railway [[covered goods wagons]], called "boxcars" in the [[United States]].
 
===United States===
[[File:94-97RamVan.JPG|right|thumb|Full-size [[Dodge Ram Van]] in the United States]]
In the United States, a ''van'' can also refer to a box-shaped trailer or [[semi-trailer]] used to carry goods. In this case there is a differentiation between a "dry van", used to carry most goods, and a [[refrigeration|refrigerated]] van, or ''reefer'', used for cold goods. A railway car used to carry baggage is also called a ''van''.
 
A vehicle referred to as a '''[[full-size van]]''' is usually a large, boxy vehicle that has a platform and powertrain similar to their [[light truck]] counterparts. These vans may be sold with the space behind the front seats empty for transporting of goods ('''cargo van'''), or furnished for passenger use by either the manufacturer ('''wagon''') or another company for more personal comforts, such as entertainment systems ('''[[conversion van]]'''). Full-size vans often have a very short hood (bonnet), with the engine block moved to within the passenger cabin.
 
A [[cutaway van chassis]] is a variation of the full size van which was developed for use by many [[second stage manufacturer]]s. Such a unit generally has a van front end, and driver controls in a cab body which extends only to a point aft of the driver and passenger seats, where the rest of the van body is cutoff (leading to the terminology "cutaway"). From that point aft, usually only the chassis frame rails and running gear extend to the rear when the unit is shipped as an "incomplete vehicle". A second stage manufacturer, commonly known as a bodybuilder, will complete the vehicle for uses such as [[recreational vehicle]]s, small [[school bus]]es, minibuses, type III [[ambulance]]s, and delivery trucks. A large portion of cutaway van chassis are equipped with dual rear wheels. Some second stage manufacturers also add a third weight-bearing single wheel "tag axle" for larger minibus models.
 
The term ''van'' may also refer to a '''[[minivan]]'''. However, minivans are usually distinguished by their smaller size and traditionally [[front wheel drive]] powertrain, although many now are being equipped with [[four wheel drive]]. Minivans typically offer seven or eight passenger [[seating capacity]] (similar to the smallest full-sized vans), and better fuel economy than full-sized vans, at the expense of power, cargo space, and towing capacity. In addition, many new minivans have dual side sliding doors.
 
==Examples==
The precursor to American Vans would be the [[Sedan delivery|Sedan deliveries]] of the 1930s to late-1950s. The first generation of American vans were the 1960s [[compact van]]s, which were patterned in size after the [[Volkswagen Type 2|Volkswagen Bus]]. The [[Chevrolet Greenbrier|Corvair]]-based entry even imitated the rear-mounted, air-cooled engine design. The [[Ford Falcon (North America)|Ford Falcon]]-based [[Ford E-Series#First generation (1961–1967)|first-generation Econoline]] had a flat nose, with the engine mounted between and behind the front seats. The [[Dodge A100]] had a similar layout and could accommodate a [[V8 engine]]. Chevrolet also switched to this layout. The Ford, Dodge and Corvair vans were also produced as pickup trucks.
 
The ''standard'' or ''full size'' vans appeared with Ford's innovation of moving the engine forward under a short hood and using pickup truck components and taillights. The engine cockpit housing is often called a ''dog house''. Over time, they evolved longer noses and sleeker shapes. The [[Dodge Sportsman]] was available with an extension to the rear of its long wheelbase model to create a 15-passenger van. Vehicles have been sold as both cargo and passenger models to the general public, as well as in [[cutaway van chassis]] versions for [[second stage manufacturer]]s to make box vans, ambulances, campers, and other vehicles. Second stage manufacturers also modify the original manufacturer's body to create custom vans for the general public.
 
In the 1970s, songs like "[[Chevy Van (song)|Chevy Van]]", written and performed by [[Sammy Johns]], and nicknames like "sin bin" or "screw canoe" became part of the culture as owners transformed them into rolling bedrooms and lounges. Conversion vans became a large market with plusher accommodations than factory seats.
 
Dodge ended production of their full-size vans in June 2002 (as 2003 models), and replaced it with the German originated [[Dodge Sprinter]], which is based on a narrower, more fuel-efficient European design pattern with a {{convert|150|hp|abbr=on}} diesel turbo I5. Typical versions of the Sprinter are taller than other unmodified vans (tall enough to stand in), with a more slanted (aerodynamic) profile in front. They have been adopted primarily for delivery and lightweight Class-C van cab motor home applications.
 
==Use==
[[File:2009-03-10 Van equipped for professional carpet cleaning.jpg|thumb|right|A van equipped with professional carpet cleaning tools in [[Durham, North Carolina]]]]
In urban areas of the United States full-size vans have been used as ''commuter vans'' since 1971, when Dodge introduced a van that could transport up to 15 passengers. Commuter vans are used as an alternative to [[carpool]]ing and other ride sharing arrangements.
 
Many mobile businesses use a van to carry almost their entire business to various places where they work. For example, those who come to homes or places of business to perform various services, installations, or repairs. Vans are also used to shuttle people and their luggage between [[hotel]]s and [[airport]]s, to transport [[commuter]]s between [[parking]] lots and their places of work, and along established routes as minibuses. Vans are also used to transport elderly and mobility-impaired worshipers to and from church services or to transport youth groups for outings to amusement parks, picnics, and visiting other churches. Vans are also used by schools to drive sports teams to [[intramural]] games. Vans have been used by touring music groups to haul equipment and people to music venues around the country.
 
===Step Van===
{{Main|Multi-stop truck}}
[[File:Fedex-truck-Chicago.jpg|right|thumb|A [[Federal Express]] step van]]
Another type of van, peculiar to North America, is the ''[[step van]],'' so-called because of the ease with which one can step in and out of it. Widely used by delivery services, courier companies and the parcel division of the US Postal Service and Canada Post, they are often seen driven with the door open, especially in big cities. Step vans have more boxy shapes and higher rooftops than other vans, and are rarely employed for carrying passengers.
 
=== Full-size van ===
A '''full-size van''' is a [[marketing]] term used in [[North America]] for a [[van]] larger than a [[minivan]], that is characterized by a large, boxy appearance, a short hood, and very heavy cargo/passenger-hauling capacity. In recent times, they consistently feature a [[powertrain]] of a [[V8 engine]], [[automatic transmission]], and [[rear-wheel drive]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fordvehicles.com/trucks/eseries/features/specs/|title=Ford - Cars, SUVs, Trucks & Crossovers &#124; Ford Vehicles &#124; The Official Site of Ford Vehicles &#124; Ford.com|publisher=Ford Vehicles|date=|accessdate=2011-11-20|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090228202122/http://www.fordvehicles.com/trucks/eseries/features/specs/|archivedate=2009-02-28|df=}}</ref>
 
They largely replaced the [[compact van]]s, which were introduced in the early 1960s to compete with the [[Volkswagen Type 2]], based on their [[compact car]] components.
 
The first full-size van was the 1969 [[Ford E-Series|Ford Econoline]], which used components from the [[Ford F-Series]] [[pickup truck|pickup]]s. [[General Motors]] and the [[Dodge Ram Van]] would follow suit with designs with the engines placed even farther forward, and succeeding generations of the Econoline would also introduce longer hoods.
 
The American market is entirely dominated nowadays by the [[Mercedes-Benz Sprinter]], [[Ford E-Series]], [[Nissan NV (North America)|Nissan NV]], [[Ford Transit]] and [[Chevrolet Express|Chevrolet Express/GMC Savana]].
 
===Rollover safety===
The van body is taller than the cab and bed of the pickup that uses the same style frame and powertrain resulting in the basic van having a higher [[center of gravity]] than a similarly loaded pickup from which it is derived. The suspension is also higher because of the design weight capacity for 15 passengers of between {{convert|150|lb|abbr=on}} and {{convert|200|lb|abbr=on}}, thus a vehicle may be over one ton of passengers alone. The seats in the passenger version raise the load, passengers, above the floor, further raising the center of gravity (and often shifting it rearward). The bench seats allow passengers to slide if [[safety belt]]s are not used. In the United States it is common for only the front seat passengers to use their [[safety belt]]s, perhaps because belted passengers feel they can still lean and shift a large amount. The U.S. [[National Highway Traffic Safety Administration]] (NHTSA) has determined that belted passengers are about four times more likely to survive in rollover crashes.
 
Safety can be greatly improved by understanding the unique characteristics of 12- and 15-passenger vans and by following guidelines developed for their drivers, according to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). A summary of this information is available at "Reducing The Risk of Rollover Crashes in 15-Passenger Vans".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/studies/15PassVans/index.htm|title=Passenger Van Safety|publisher=nhtsa.dot.gov|date=|accessdate=8 May 2012|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090724152125/http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/studies/15PassVans/Index.htm|archivedate=24 July 2009|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Recommendations include carrying 10 or fewer passengers (preferably towards the front of the van) because that greatly reduces the risk of rollover crashes, and it suggests that repeated operation by the same drivers tends to enhance their ability to handle these vehicles more safely over time.
Additionally, heavy items should not be added to the roof rack of a van as that raises the center of gravity of a generally top-heavy vehicle.
 
Tire pressure for 12- and 15-passenger vans is another operating issue that is often overlooked, as these vans are designed to have a higher pressure in the rear tires in order to carry the heavier load safely.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://brightfleet.com/whitepapers/15-passenger-van-safety-white-paper/ |title=15-Passenger Van Safety Whitepaper |publisher=brightfleet.com |date=September 2013 |accessdate=10 January 2014 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140111020432/http://brightfleet.com/whitepapers/15-passenger-van-safety-white-paper/ |archivedate=11 January 2014 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Vehicle manufacturers tire pressure requirements are on each vehicle's information label, usually located in the doorjamb of the driver's-side door. Underinflated tires can overheat when driven at speed and under heavy loads, causing tire failure and leading to a roll-over.
 
Car rental companies have also started adding stickers to warn renters about the difference in handling while compared to standard cars.
 
===Peralatan keselamatan===
Kebanyakan van komersil dilengkapi dengan halangan kargo di belakang kerusi depan (atau kerusi belakang, jika dipasang) untuk mengelakkan kecederaan yang disebabkan oleh kargo tidak terikat sekiranya berlaku pemberhentian mendadak, perlanggaran atau terbalik. Halangan kargo di van kadang-kadang dipasang dengan pintu yang membenarkan pemandu melepasi petak kargo kenderaan.
 
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==Rujukan==
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