Perbezaan antara semakan "Bantuan:AFA/Jerman Baku"

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{| class="wikitable"
! colspan="54" | [[Consonant]]s
|-
! {{flagicon|Germany}} !! {{flagicon|Austria}} || {{flagicon|Switzerland}}
! rowspan="2" | Examples !! rowspan="2" |English approximation
|-
! {{abbr|DE|German Standard German}} !! {{abbr|AT|Austrian Standard German}} !! {{abbr|CH|Swiss Standard German}}
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|b}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''b'''ei}}<ref name="fortislenis">In Austrian Standard German and Swiss Standard German, the lenis obstruents {{IPA|/b, d, ɡ, z, dʒ, ʒ/}} are voiceless {{IPA|[b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊]}} and are distinguished from {{IPA|/p, t, k, s, tʃ, ʃ/}} only by articulatory strength ({{IPA|/v/}} is really voiced). The distinction is also retained word-finally. In German Standard German, voiceless {{IPA|[b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊]}} as well as {{IPA|[v̥]}} occur allophonically after fortis obstruents and, for {{IPA|/b, d, ɡ/}}, often also word-initially. See [[fortis and lenis]].</ref>
| '''b'''all
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ç}}</big>
| {{lang|de|i'''ch''', dur'''ch'''; '''Ch'''ina ({{abbr|DE|German Standard German}})}}<ref name="dorsalfricatives">{{IPAblink|ç}} and {{IPAblink|x}} belong to one phoneme traditionally transcribed {{IPA|/x/}}. The velar allophone appears after back vowels and {{IPA|/a, aː/}} and it may actually be uvular {{IPAblink|χ}}, depending on the variety and speaker. In this guide, the difference between velar and uvular allophones is ignored and both are written with {{angbr IPA|x}}.</ref>
| '''h'''ue
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|d}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''d'''ann}}<ref name="fortislenis"/>
| '''d'''one
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|f}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''f'''ür, '''v'''on, '''Ph'''änomen}}
| '''f'''uss
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɡ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''g'''ut}}<ref name="fortislenis"/>
| '''g'''uest
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|h}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''h'''at}}
| '''h'''ut
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|j}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''J'''ahr, '''Y'''o-'''Y'''o}}
| '''y'''ard
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|k}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''k'''ann, Ta'''g''',<ref name="devoicing">In German Standard German, voiced stops {{IPA|/b, d, ɡ/}} are devoiced to {{IPA|[p, t, k]}} at the end of a syllable.</ref> '''c'''remen, se'''ch'''s}}
| '''c'''old
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|l}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''L'''eben}}
| '''l'''ast
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|l̩}}</big>
| {{lang|de|Mant'''el'''}}
| bott'''le'''
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|m}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''M'''ann}}
| '''m'''ust
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|m̩}}</big>
| {{lang|de|groß'''em'''}}
| rhyth'''m'''
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|n}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''N'''ame}}
| '''n'''ot
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|n̩}}</big>
| {{lang|de|beid'''en'''}}
| sudd'''en'''
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ŋ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|la'''ng'''}}
| lo'''ng'''
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|p}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''P'''erson, a'''b'''}}<ref name="devoicing" />
| '''p'''uck
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|pf}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''Pf'''effer}}
| cu'''pf'''ul
|-
| style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʁ}}</big>
| colspan="2" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''r'''eden}}<ref name="r-allophones">Pronunciation of {{IPA|/r/}} in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only {{IPA|[r]}}, that pronunciation is now found mainly in Switzerland, [[Bavaria]] and Austria. In other regions, the uvular pronunciation prevails, mainly as a fricative/approximant {{IPA|[ʁ]}}. In many regions except for most parts of Switzerland, the {{IPA|/r/}} in the [[syllable coda]] is vocalized to {{IPA|[ɐ̯]}} after long vowels or after all vowels (in this guide {{IPA|[ɐ̯]}} is used only after long vowels, following the pronunciation dictionaries), and {{IPA|/ər/}} is pronounced as {{IPA|[ɐ]}}.</ref>
| {{abbr|DE|German Standard German}}: ''French'' '''r'''ouge<br/> {{abbr|AT|Austrian Standard German}}, {{abbr|CH|Swiss Standard German}}: ''[[Scottish English|Scottish]]'' '''r'''ed
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|s}}</big>
| {{lang|de|la'''ss'''en}}, {{lang|de|Hau'''s'''}}, {{lang|de|gro'''ß'''}}
| fa'''s'''t
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʃ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''sch'''on, '''S'''tadt, '''s'''pitz, '''Ch'''ampagner, '''Sk'''i}}
| '''sh'''all
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|t}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''T'''ag, un'''d''', Sta'''dt'''}}<ref name="devoicing" />
| '''t'''all
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ts}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''Z'''eit, Pla'''tz''', Po'''ts'''dam, '''C'''elle}}
| ca'''ts'''
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|tʃ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|Ma'''tsch''', '''C'''ello}}
| ma'''tch'''
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|v}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''w'''as}}, {{lang|de|'''V'''ase}}<ref name="fortislenis"/>
| '''v'''anish
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|x}}</big>
| {{lang|de|na'''ch'''}}<ref name="dorsalfricatives"/>
| ''[[Scottish English|Scottish]]'' lo'''ch'''
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|z}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''S'''ie}}, {{lang|de|die'''s'''e}}<ref name="fortislenis"/>
| '''z'''ebra
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʔ}}</big>
| style="text-align:center; background:gray" |
| {{lang|de|beamtet}}<ref>The glottal stop occurs in [[German Standard German]]. It is not transcribed phrase-initially, where it is just as likely to be used in English as it is in German. Word- and phrase-internal glottal stops are transcribed. [[Austrian German|Austrian]] or [[Swiss Standard German]] do not have glottal stops ({{harvnb|Krech et al.|2009|pp=236, 262}}).</ref><br />({{IPA|[bəˈʔamtət]}})
| ''uh'''-'''oh!''
|-
! colspan="54" | Non-native consonants
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|dʒ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''Dsch'''ungel}}, {{lang|de|Pi'''dg'''in}}<ref name="fortislenis"/><ref name="postalveolarlenis">Many speakers lack the lenis {{IPA|/ʒ/}} and replace it with its fortis counterpart {{IPA|/ʃ/}} ({{harvnb|Hall|2003|p=42}}). The same applies to the corresponding lenis {{IPA|/dʒ/}}, which also tends to be replaced with its fortis counterpart {{IPA|/tʃ/}}. According to the prescriptive standard, such pronunciations are not correct.</ref>
| '''j'''ungle
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɹ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|Sp'''r'''ay}}<ref>Used in some loanwords from English, especially by younger speakers.</ref>
| '''r'''ice
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʒ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''G'''enie}}, {{lang|de|Entoura'''g'''e}}<ref name="fortislenis"/><ref name="postalveolarlenis"/>
| plea'''s'''ure
|-
! colspan="54" | [[Stress (linguistics)|Stress]]
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ˈ}}</big>
| rowspan="2" | {{lang|de|'''Bahn'''hof'''stra'''ße}}<br />({{IPA|[ˈbaːnhoːfˌʃtʁaːsə]}})
| rowspan="2" | as in ''battleship'' {{IPAc-en|ˈ|b|æ|t|əl|ˌ|ʃ|ɪ|p}}
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ˌ}}</big>
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