Perbezaan antara semakan "Bantuan:AFA/Jerman Baku"

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<!-- {{IPA key|H:IPA-DE|H:IPAG|sort=German}} -->Carta di bawah menunjukkan bagaimana [[Abjad Fonetik Antarabangsa|Abjad Fonetik Antarabangsa (AFA)]] menggambarkan sebutan [[bahasa Jerman]] Baku dalam rencana Wikipedia. Untuk panduan dalam menambah aksara AFA ke rencana Wikipedia, lihat {{tl|IPAAFA-de}}.
 
{| style="background:none"
|
{| class="wikitable"
! colspan="4" | [[ConsonantKonsonan]]s
|-
! {{flagicon|Germany}} !! {{flagicon|Austria}} || {{flagicon|Switzerland}}
! rowspan="2" | ExamplesContoh
|-
! {{abbr|DE|GermanJerman StandardBaku GermanJerman}} !! {{abbr|AT|AustrianJerman StandardBaku GermanAustria}} !! {{abbr|CH|SwissJerman StandardBaku GermanSwitzerland}}
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|b}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''b'''ei}}
| {{lang|de|'''b'''ei}}<ref name="fortislenis">In Austrian Standard German and Swiss Standard German, the lenis obstruents {{IPA|/b, d, ɡ, z, dʒ, ʒ/}} are voiceless {{IPA|[b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊]}} and are distinguished from {{IPA|/p, t, k, s, tʃ, ʃ/}} only by articulatory strength ({{IPA|/v/}} is really voiced). The distinction is also retained word-finally. In German Standard German, voiceless {{IPA|[b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊]}} as well as {{IPA|[v̥]}} occur allophonically after fortis obstruents and, for {{IPA|/b, d, ɡ/}}, often also word-initially. See [[fortis and lenis]].</ref>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ç}}</big>
| {{lang|de|i'''ch''', dur'''ch'''; '''Ch'''ina ({{abbr|DE|German Standard German}})}}
| {{lang|de|i'''ch''', dur'''ch'''; '''Ch'''ina ({{abbr|DE|German Standard German}})}}<ref name="dorsalfricatives">{{IPAblink|ç}} and {{IPAblink|x}} belong to one phoneme traditionally transcribed {{IPA|/x/}}. The velar allophone appears after back vowels and {{IPA|/a, aː/}} and it may actually be uvular {{IPAblink|χ}}, depending on the variety and speaker. In this guide, the difference between velar and uvular allophones is ignored and both are written with {{angbr IPA|x}}.</ref>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|d}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''d'''ann}}<ref name="fortislenis"/>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|f}}</big>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɡ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''g'''ut}}<ref name="fortislenis"/>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|h}}</big>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|k}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''k'''ann, Ta'''g''',<ref name="devoicing">In German Standard German, voiced stops {{IPA|/b, d, ɡ/}} are devoiced to {{IPA|[p, t, k]}} at the end of a syllable.</ref> '''c'''remen, se'''ch'''s}}
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|l}}</big>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|p}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''P'''erson, a'''b'''}}<ref name="devoicing" />
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|pf}}</big>
| style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʁ}}</big>
| colspan="2" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''r'''eden}}
| {{lang|de|'''r'''eden}}<ref name="r-allophones">Pronunciation of {{IPA|/r/}} in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only {{IPA|[r]}}, that pronunciation is now found mainly in Switzerland, [[Bavaria]] and Austria. In other regions, the uvular pronunciation prevails, mainly as a fricative/approximant {{IPA|[ʁ]}}. In many regions except for most parts of Switzerland, the {{IPA|/r/}} in the [[syllable coda]] is vocalized to {{IPA|[ɐ̯]}} after long vowels or after all vowels (in this guide {{IPA|[ɐ̯]}} is used only after long vowels, following the pronunciation dictionaries), and {{IPA|/ər/}} is pronounced as {{IPA|[ɐ]}}.</ref>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|s}}</big>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|t}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''T'''ag, un'''d''', Sta'''dt'''}}<ref name="devoicing" />
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ts}}</big>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|v}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''w'''as}}, {{lang|de|'''V'''ase}}<ref name="fortislenis"/>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|x}}</big>
| {{lang|de|na'''ch'''}}<ref name="dorsalfricatives"/>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|z}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''S'''ie}}, {{lang|de|die'''s'''e}}<ref name="fortislenis"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʔ}}</big>
| style="text-align:center; background:gray" |
| {{lang|de|beamtet}}<br />({{IPA|[bəˈʔamtət]}})
| {{lang|de|beamtet}}<ref>The glottal stop occurs in [[German Standard German]]. It is not transcribed phrase-initially, where it is just as likely to be used in English as it is in German. Word- and phrase-internal glottal stops are transcribed. [[Austrian German|Austrian]] or [[Swiss Standard German]] do not have glottal stops ({{harvnb|Krech et al.|2009|pp=236, 262}}).</ref><br />({{IPA|[bəˈʔamtət]}})
|-
! colspan="4" | Non-nativeKonsonan consonantsbukan asli
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|dʒ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''Dsch'''ungel}}, {{lang|de|Pi'''dg'''in}}
| {{lang|de|'''Dsch'''ungel}}, {{lang|de|Pi'''dg'''in}}<ref name="fortislenis"/><ref name="postalveolarlenis">Many speakers lack the lenis {{IPA|/ʒ/}} and replace it with its fortis counterpart {{IPA|/ʃ/}} ({{harvnb|Hall|2003|p=42}}). The same applies to the corresponding lenis {{IPA|/dʒ/}}, which also tends to be replaced with its fortis counterpart {{IPA|/tʃ/}}. According to the prescriptive standard, such pronunciations are not correct.</ref>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɹ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|Sp'''r'''ay}}<ref>Used in some loanwords from English, especially by younger speakers.</ref>
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʒ}}</big>
| {{lang|de|'''G'''enie}}, {{lang|de|Entoura'''g'''e}}<ref name="fortislenis"/><ref name="postalveolarlenis"/>
|-
! colspan="4" | [[StressTekanan (linguisticslinguistik)|StressTekanan]]
|-
| colspan="3" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ˈ}}</big>
|}
 
==SeeLihat alsojuga==
* Untuk panduan dalam membubuh sebutan ke rencana Wikipedia, lihat templat {{tl|AFA}}.
* If your browser does not display IPA symbols, you probably need to install a font that includes the IPA. Good free IPA fonts include [[Gentium]] and [[Charis SIL]] (more complete); a monospaced font is [[Everson Mono]] which is complete; download links can be found on those pages.
* For a guide to adding pronunciations to Wikipedia articles, see the {{tl|IPA}} template.
* For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters]].
 
==Notes==
{{reflist}}
 
==Bibliografi==
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