Perbezaan antara semakan "Bantuan:AFA/Sweden"

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Carta di bawah menunjukkan bagaimana [[Abjad Fonetik Antarabangsa|Abjad Fonetik Antarabangsa (AFA)]] menggambarkan sebutan [[bahasa Sweden]] dalam rencana Wikipedia. Untuk panduan dalam membubuh aksara AFA ke rencana Wikipedia, lihat {{tl|AFA-sv}}.
 
Sebutan di Sweden adalah berpandukan kepada [[Bahasa Sweden Baku]] Tengah, sementara sebutan di Finland adalah kepada sebutan Helsinki. Rakaman dan alih susunan contoh dalam bantuan ini adalah mengikut bahasa Sweden Sweden, melainkan
The Sweden pronunciation is based primarily on Central [[Standard Swedish]], and the Finland one on Helsinki pronunciation. Recordings and example transcriptions in this help are in Sweden Swedish, unless otherwise noted.
 
See [[Swedish phonology]] and {{section link|Swedish alphabet|Sound–spelling correspondences}} for a more thorough look at the sounds of Swedish.
 
{| style="background:none;"
|
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
|+ [[ConsonantKonsonan]]s
! colspan="2" | AFA
! rowspan="2" | Contoh
|-
! {{flagicon|Sweden}}
{{abbr|SWE|Sweden SwedishSweden}}
! {{flagicon|Finland}}
{{abbr|FIN|FinlandSweden SwedishFinland}}
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|b}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɖ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|d}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-nord.ogg|''no'''rd'''''|help=no}}
| {{Audio|Sv-nord.ogg|''no'''rd'''''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex">In many of the dialects that have an [[apical consonant|apical]] [[rhotic consonant]], a recursive [[sandhi]] process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of {{IPA|/r/}} and dental consonants {{IPA|/rd/}}, {{IPA|/rl/}}, {{IPA|/rn/}}, {{IPA|/rs/}}, {{IPA|/rt/}} produce [[retroflex consonant]] realisations: {{IPAblink|ɖ}}, {{IPAblink|ɭ}}, {{IPAblink|ɳ}}, {{IPAblink|ʂ}}, {{IPAblink|ʈ}}. In dialects with a [[guttural R]], such as [[South Swedish dialects|Southern Swedish]], they are {{IPA|[ʁd]}}, {{IPA|[ʁl]}}, {{IPA|[ʁn]}}, {{IPA|[ʁs]}}, {{IPA|[ʁt]}}. In Finland Swedish, retroflexion might only occur in some varieties, especially among young speakers and in fast speech.</ref>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|f}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɧ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʃ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-sju.ogg|'''''sj'''u''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-stjärna.ogg|'''''stj'''ärna''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-skör.ogg|'''''sk'''ör''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-station.ogg|''sta'''ti'''on''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-pension.ogg|''pen'''si'''on''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-ett geni.ogg|'''''g'''eni''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-choklad.ogg|'''''ch'''oklad''|help=no}}<ref>Sweden Swedish {{IPA|/ɧ/}} varies regionally and is sometimes {{IPAblink|x|xʷ}}, {{IPAblink|ɸ|ɸˠ}}, or {{IPAblink|ʂ}}.</ref>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|j}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɭ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|l}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-ett kärl.ogg|''kä'''rl'''''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|m}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɳ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|n}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-barn.ogg|''ba'''rn'''''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ŋ}}</big>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-rov.ogg|'''''r'''ov''|help=no}}
| {{Audio|Sv-rov.ogg|'''''r'''ov''|help=no}}<ref>{{IPA|/r/}} varies considerably in different dialects: it is pronounced [[Alveolar consonant|alveolar]] or similarly (a [[trill consonant|trilled]] ''r'' when articulated clearly or in slow or formal speech; in normal speech, usually a [[flap consonant|tapped]] ''r'' or an [[alveolar approximant]]) in virtually all dialects (most consistently {{IPA|[r]}} in Finland), but in South Swedish dialects, it is [[voiced uvular trill|uvular]], similar to the Parisian French ''r''. At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative {{IPAblink|ʐ}}, similar to in English '''''g'''enre'' or ''vi'''si'''on''.</ref>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|s}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʂ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|s}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-torsdag.ogg|''to'''rs'''dag''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|t}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʈ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|t}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-parti.ogg|''pa'''rt'''i''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|v}}</big>
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
|+ RareBunyi soundsnadir
! AFA
! Contoh
|
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
|+ [[VowelVokal]]s
! colspan="2" | AFA
! rowspan="2" | Contoh
|-
! {{flagicon|Sweden}}
{{abbr|SWE|Sweden SwedishSweden}}
! {{flagicon|Swedish-speaking Finns|size=x14pxFinland}}
{{abbr|FIN|FinlandSweden SwedishFinland}}
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ä|a}}</big>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|æ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-en värk.ogg|''v'''ä'''rk''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-verk.ogg|''v'''e'''rk''|help=no}}
| {{Audio|Sv-en värk.ogg|''v'''ä'''rk''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-verk.ogg|''v'''e'''rk''|help=no}}<ref name="rhotic">Before {{IPA|/r/}}, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels {{IPA|/ɛ/}} and {{IPA|/ɛː/}} are lowered to {{IPAblink|æ}} and {{IPAblink|æː}}, whereas the rounded {{IPA|/œ/}} and {{IPA|/øː/}} are lowered to open-mid {{IPAblink|œ̫|œ}} and {{IPAblink|œ̫|œː}}. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid {{IPAblink|œ̫˔|œ˔}} and the open-mid {{IPAblink|œ̫|œ}}, with both being transcribed as {{angbr IPA|œ}}. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones {{IPAblink|ɶ}} and {{IPAblink|ɶː}}.</ref>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|æː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-ära.ogg|'''''ä'''ra''|help=no}}<ref name="rhotic"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|eː}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɔ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|o̞|o}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-moll.ogg|''m'''o'''ll''|help=no}}
| {{Audio|Sv-moll.ogg|''m'''o'''ll''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness">In Sweden, {{IPA|[{{IPA link|ɔ}}, {{IPA link|o̫|oː}}, {{IPA link|œ̫˔|œ}}, {{IPA link|œ̫|œː}}, {{IPA link|ø̫|øː}}, {{IPA link|ʏ̫|ʏ}}, {{IPA link|y̫|yː}}]}} are [[protruded vowel|protruded]] vowels, while {{IPA|[{{IPA link|ɵ̞|ɵ}}, {{IPA link|ʏ̈|ʉ}}, {{IPA link|ʏ͍|ʉː}}, {{IPA link|ʊ͍|ʊ}}, {{IPA link|u͍|uː}}]}} are [[compressed vowel|compressed]]. Instead, {{IPA|[{{IPA link|œ͍|œ}}, {{IPA link|œ͍|œː}}, {{IPA link|ø͍|ø}}, {{IPA link|ø͍|øː}}, {{IPA link|ʉ}}, {{IPA link|ʉː}}, {{IPA link|y͍|y}}, {{IPA link|y͍|yː}}]}} are compressed, while only {{IPA|[{{IPA link|o̞|o}}, {{IPA link|o̞|oː}}, {{IPA link|u̫|u}}, {{IPA link|u̫|uː}}]}} are protruded in Finland. This makes Finland Swedish {{IPA|[y]}} and {{IPA|[yː]}} sound closer to Sweden Swedish {{IPA|[ʉ]}} and {{IPA|[ʉː]}}, which are also [[fronting (phonetics)|fronted]], rather than to their respective counterparts.</ref>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|o̫|oː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-mål.ogg|''m'''å'''l''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
|-
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: center;" |<big>{{IPA link|œ̫˔|œ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ø}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-nött.ogg|''n'''ö'''tt''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|œ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-börja.ogg|''b'''ö'''rja''|help=no}}<ref name=rhotic/><ref name="roundedness"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|œ̫|œː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-öra.ogg|'''''ö'''ra''|help=no}}<ref name=rhotic/><ref name="roundedness"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ø̫|øː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-nöt.ogg|''n'''ö'''t''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɵ̞|ɵ}}</big>
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʉ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-full.ogg|''f'''u'''ll''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-musik.ogg|''m'''u'''sik''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/><ref name="shortu">{{IPAblink|ɵ̞|ɵ}} and {{IPAblink|ʏ̈|ʉ}} are the Sweden Swedish unstressed allophones of a single phoneme {{IPA|/ɵ/}} (stressed {{IPA|/ɵ/}} is always realized as {{IPA|[ɵ]}}):<br/>
* {{IPA|[ɵ]}} is used in all closed syllables (as in {{lang|sv|k'''u'''ltur}} {{Audio-IPA|Sv-kultur.ogg|[kɵlˈtʉːr]|help=no}}) but also in some open syllables, as in {{lang|sv|m'''u'''sikal}} {{IPA|[mɵsɪˈkɑːl]}}. Some cases involve resyllabification caused by retroflexion, which makes the syllable open, as in {{lang|sv|k'''u'''rtisan}} {{IPA|[kɵʈɪˈsɑːn]}};
* {{IPA|[ʉ]}} appears only in open syllables. In some cases, {{IPA|[ʉ]}} is the only possible realization, as in {{lang|sv|käng'''u'''r'''u'''}} {{IPA|[ˈɕɛ̌ŋːɡʉrʉ]}}, such as when {{IPA|/ɵ/}} appears in [[hiatus (linguistics)|hiatus]], as in {{lang|sv|d'''u'''ell}} {{IPA|[dʉˈɛlː]}};
* In other cases, {{IPA|[ɵ]}} is in free variation with {{IPA|[ʉ]}} so {{lang|sv|m'''u'''sik}} can be pronounced as {{Audio-IPA|Sv-musik.ogg|[mɵˈsiːk]|help=no}} or {{IPA|[mʉˈsiːk]}} ({{Harvcoltxt|Riad|2014|pp=28-29}}). For simplicity, only {{angbr IPA|ɵ}} will be used.</ref>
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʏ̈|ʉ}}</big>
| ''d'''u'''ell'',<br/>''käng'''u'''r'''u'''''
| ''d'''u'''ell'',<br/>''käng'''u'''r'''u'''''<ref name="roundedness"/><ref name="shortu"/><ref name="closerounded1">The distinction between compressed {{IPAblink|ʏ̈|ʉ}}<!-- Not [ɵ] but the [ʉ] allophone, which has the same (near-close) height as [ʏ]. --> and protruded {{IPAblink|ʏ̫|ʏ}} is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
 
* Sweden Swedish compressed {{IPA|[ʉ]}} sounds very close to [[German language|German]] compressed {{IPAblink|ʏ͍|ʏ}} (as in ''m'''ü'''ssen'' {{Audio-IPA|De-müssen.ogg|[ˈmʏsn̩]|help=no}});
* Sweden Swedish protruded {{IPA|[ʏ]}} sounds more similar to English unrounded {{IPAblink|ɪ}} (as in ''h'''i'''t'') than to German compressed {{IPA|[ʏ]}}, and it is very close to [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]] protruded {{IPA|[ʏ]}} (as in ''n'''y'''tt'' {{IPA-no|nʏtː|}}).</ref>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɪᵝ|ʉː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-ful.ogg|''f'''u'''l''|help=no}}
| {{Audio|Sv-ful.ogg|''f'''u'''l''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/><ref name="closerounded2">The distinction between compressed {{IPAblink|ʏ͍|ʉː}} and protruded {{IPAblink|y̫|yː}} is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
* Sweden Swedish compressed {{IPA|[ʉː]}} sounds very close to German compressed {{IPAblink|y͍|yː}} (as in '''''ü'''ben'' {{Audio-IPA|De-at-üben.ogg|[ˈyːbn̩]|help=no}});
* Sweden Swedish protruded {{IPA|[yː]}} sounds more similar to English unrounded {{IPAblink|iː}} (as in ''l'''ea'''ve'') than to German compressed {{IPA|[yː]}}, and it is very close to Norwegian protruded {{IPA|[yː]}} (as in ''l'''y'''s'' {{IPA-no|lyːs|}}).</ref>
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʊ͍|ʊ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|u}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-bott.ogg|''b'''o'''tt''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|u͍|uː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-bot.ogg|''b'''o'''t''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʏ̫|ʏ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|y}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-syll.ogg|''s'''y'''ll''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/><ref name="closerounded1"/>
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|yʷ|yː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-syl.ogg|''s'''y'''l''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/><ref name="closerounded2"/>
|}
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
|+ [[SuprasegmentalsSuprasegmental]]
! colspan="2" | AFA
! rowspan="2" | Contoh
! rowspan="2" | Keterangan
|-
! {{flagicon|Sweden}}
{{abbr|SWE|Sweden SwedishSweden}}
! {{flagicon|Swedish-speaking Finns|size=x14pxFinland}}
{{abbr|FIN|FinlandSweden SwedishFinland}}
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA|ˈ◌̌}}</big>
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA|ˈ◌}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | '''''an'''den'' <br/>{{IPA|[ˈǎnːdɛn]}}<br/>'the duck'
| tone 1 / acute accent:<ref name="finlandtonemes">Finland Swedish, as well as a few accents of Mainland Sweden, have a simple [[primary stress]] (transcribed as {{angbr IPA|ˈ}}) rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In such accents, a word like ''anden'' is always pronounced as {{IPA|[ˈɑnːden]}} regardless of its meaning. The variety of Swedish spoken on the [[Åland Islands]] usually resembles phonetically speaking the dialects of the [[Uppländska dialect|Uppland area]] rather than other Finland Swedish varieties, but the pitch accent is still largely missing.</ref><br/>
* rising-falling tone in [[Stockholm dialects|Stockholm]]: {{Audio-IPA|Sv-anden (wild duck).ogg|[ˈǎnːdɛ̂n]|help=no}}<br/>
* low-rising tone in [[Gothenburg]]: {{IPA|[ˈànːdɛ̌n]}}<br/>
* falling-low tone in [[Malmö]]: {{IPA|[ˈânːdɛ̀n]}}
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA|ˈ◌̂}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | '''''an'''den''<br/>{{IPA|[ˈânːdɛn]}}<br/>'the spirit'
| tone 2 / grave accent:<ref name="finlandtonemes"/><br/>
* falling-falling tone in Stockholm: {{Audio-IPA|Sv-anden (spirit, genie).ogg|[ˈânːdɛ̂n]|help=no}}<br/>
* falling-rising tone in Gothenburg: {{IPA|[ˈânːdɛ̌n]}}<br/>
* rising-falling tone in Malmö: {{IPA|[ˈǎnːdɛ̂n]}}
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA|ˌ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | ''[[Oxenstierna|Oxen'''stier'''na]]''<br/>{{IPA|[ˈʊ̂ksɛnˌɧæːɳa]}}
| [[secondary stress]], as in '''''in'''tonation''
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align:center;" | <big>{{IPA|ː}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | ''[[Helsinki|Helsingfo'''rs''']]''<br/>{{audio-IPA|sv-Helsingfors.ogg|[hɛlsɪŋˈfɔʂː]|help=no}}
| [[geminated consonant]]: ''fre'''sh sh'''rimp''<ref>Consonants always tend to geminate after a stressed short vowel in Sweden Swedish. In Finland, this is not always true and between vowels usually only happens when the short vowel is followed by an orthographic geminate.</ref>
|}
|}
 
==Notes==
{{reflist}}
 
==Bibliografi==
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