Perbezaan antara semakan "Ararat"

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| first_ascent = 1829<br />[[Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot|Dr. Friedrich Parrot]] dan<br />[[Khachatur Abovian]]<ref name="Ararat Expedition">[http://www.araratexpedition.com/info/early-american-expedition-of-mount-ararat.php Early American Expedition Of Mount Ararat]</ref>
}}
'''Gunung Ararat''' ([[Bahasabahasa Turki|Turki]]: Ağrı Dağı; [[Bahasabahasa Armenia|Armenia]]: Արարատ) atau juga dikenali sebagai '''Gunung Masis''' (Մասիս {{IPA-hy|maˈsis|}};).{{sfn|Bryce|1877|p=[https://archive.org/stream/transcaucasiaara00bryciala#page/198/mode/2up 198]}} merupakan sebuah [[gunung berapi]] [[Gunung berapi pendam|pendam]] yang bersalji di negara [[Turki]]. Ia mempunyai dua buah puncak gunung iaitu '''Ararat Besar''' dan '''Ararat Kecil'''. Ararat Besar adalah puncak tertinggi di Turki dan keseluruhan [[Tanah Tinggi Armenia]] dengan ketinggian {{convert|5137|m|ft}} manakala ketinggian bagi Ararat Kecil pula adalah {{convert|3896|m|ft}}.
 
Garis pusat [[massif]] Ararat adalah {{convert|40|km|mi}}. Sempadan Iran–Turki terletak di sedikit timur dari Ararat Kecil. Di kawasan itu, Konvensyen Tehran 1932 telah diadakan dimana perubahan sempadan antara dua negara yang memihak kepada Turki itu telah dibuat. Dengan perjanjian tersebut, Turki dibenarkan untuk menduduki kawasan rusuk timur Ararat Kecil.<ref>[http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS028.pdf "IBS No. 28 - Iran (IR) & Turkey (TU) 1964"] (PDF), law.fsu.edu.</ref>
 
Gunung Ararat dalam tradisi Kristian–Yahudi mempunyai kaitan dengan "[[Pergunungan Ararat]]" di mana menurut [[kitab Kejadian]], [[Bahtera Nabi Nuh|bahtera]] [[Nabi Nuh|Nuh]] berlabuh di situ selepas mengharungi banjir hebat melanda tanahnya. Gunung ini juga memainkan peranan penting dalam tradisi dan nasionalisme Armenia terutamanya sebagai puncak tumpuan utama asal-usul [[Orang Armenia|bangsa Armenia]] serta rangkuman suatu [[Armenia Raya]], Ia juga boleh dilihat pada [[Jata Armenia|jata negara tersebut]].
 
== Geografi ==
Gunung ini juga memainkan peranan penting dalam tradisi dan nasionalisme Armenia. Ia juga boleh dilihat pada lambang negara Armenia.
=== Geologi ===
Gunung ini merupakan sejenis [[stratovolkano]] poligenik dengan tapak berkeluasan {{convert|1100|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} jarak sejauh dari satu hujung ke satu hujung yang lain. pencairan [[salji]] [[Puncak ais|puncak]]<nowiki/>nya boleh menyebabkan puncaknya menurun hingga serendah {{convert|5125|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}.<ref>According to Petter E. Bjørstad, Head of Informatics Department at the [[University of Bergen]] (Norway). {{cite web|url=http://www.ii.uib.no/~petter/mountains/5000mtn/Ararat/ararat-trip.html|title=Ararat Trip Report|date=August 2007|website=ii.uib.no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171011161358/http://www.ii.uib.no/~petter/mountains/5000mtn/Ararat/ararat-trip.html|archivedate=11 October 2017|quote=I measured the summit elevation, averaging more than 300 samples in my GPS, it settled on 5132 meter, 5 meter lower than the often quoted 5137 figure. This clearly shows that the 5165 meter elevation that many sources use is wrong. The summit is a snow ridge with no visible rock anywhere. Thus, the precise elevation will change with the seasons and could definitely be influenced by climate change (global warming). Later GPS measurements in Iran suggested that the GPS data may be about 10 meter too high also in this part of the world. This would in fact point in the direction of a true Ararat elevation around 5125 meter.}}</ref> Ia lebih tepatnya mempunyai dua puncak utama:
 
* Ararat Besar
* Ararat Kecil
 
Kedua-dua puncak ini berjauhan {{convert|13|km|mi|sp=us}} oleh suatu rekahan besar memanjang dari arah utara ke selatan hasil [[Sesaran|penyesaran]] mengesan ke permukaan bumi.
 
== Hubungan dengan manusia ==
 
=== Kisah bahtera Nuh ===
[[File:Aivazovsky_-_Descent_of_Noah_from_Ararat.jpg|link=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aivazovsky_-_Descent_of_Noah_from_Ararat.jpg|thumb|''Noyn idznowm e' Araratits'' karya [[Ivan Aivazovsky]] (1889, Galeri Negara Armenia) menggambarkan keluarga Nuh merentasi [[Dataran Ararat|dataran kaki]] gunung Ararat yang dibelakangi mereka.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gallery.am/hy/database-egov/item/296/|title=Նոյն իջնում է Արարատից (1889) [Descent of Noah from Ararat (1889)]|publisher=[[National Gallery of Armenia]]|language=hy|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924020550/http://www.gallery.am/hy/database-egov/item/296/|archive-date=2015-09-24|access-date=2015-11-03}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980DEEDA1F3EF937A15751C0A9649D8B63|title=The Key to Armenia's Survival|last=Conway Morris|first=Roderick|date=24 February 2012|access-date=11 February 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170307050226/https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980DEEDA1F3EF937A15751C0A9649D8B63|archive-date=7 March 2017|work=[[The New York Times]]|url-status=live}}</ref>]]
Bahtera nabi Nuh diceritakan mendarat di suatu "[[pergunungan Ararat]]" ({{lang-he-n|הָרֵי אֲרָרָט}}, ''hare ararat'') menurut ayat ke-4 bab ke-8 [[Kitab Kejadian]] {{Bibleverse|Genesis|8:4|KJV}}.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Morgenstern|first1=Julian|date=1941|title=Psalm 48|journal=[[Hebrew Union College Annual]]|volume=16|pages=1–95|jstor=23502992|quote=Note the plural, ''hare 'Ararat''; not "Mt. Ararat," as traditionally translated and interpreted, but rather "(one of) the mountains of Ararat," i. e. of Urartu or Armenia.}}</ref> Para sejarawan dan cendekiawan Injiliyahsepakat bahawa ia lebih merujuk kepada kawasan [[Urartu]], yang lebih luas semasa ia disalinkan,{{efn|*Richard James Fischer: "The Genesis text, using the plural 'mountains' (or hills), identifies no particular mountain, but points generally toward Armenia ('Ararat' being identical with the Assyrian 'Urartu') which is broadly embraces [sic] that region."<ref name="Fischer"/>
*{{cite book|editor1-last=Exell|editor1-first=Joseph S.|editor2-last=Spence-Jones|editor2-first=Henry Donald Maurice|title=The Pulpit Commentary|chapter=Genesis|quote=It is agreed by all{{clarify|date=September 2019}} that the term Ararat describes a region.|title-link=Pulpit Commentary}} [https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tpc.html view online]
*{{cite book|editor1-last=Dummelow|editor1-first=John|title=John Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible|date=1909|chapter=Genesis|quote=Ararat is the Assyrian 'Urardhu,' the country round Lake Van, in what is now called Armenia… and perhaps it is a general expression for the hilly country which lay to the N. of Assyria. Mt. Masis, now called Mt. Ararat (a peak 17,000 ft. high), is not meant here.}} [https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcb/genesis-8.html view online]
*Bill T. Arnold: "Since the ancient kingdom of Ararat/Urartu was much more extensive geographically than this isolated location in Armenia, modern attempts to find remaints of Noah's ark here are misguided."{{sfn|Arnold|2008|p=105}}
*[[Vahan Kurkjian]]: "It has long been the notion among many Christians that Noah's Ark came to rest as the Flood subsided upon the great peak known as Mount Ararat; this assumption is based upon an erroneous reading of the 4th verse of the VIIIth chapter of Genesis. That verse does not say that the Ark landed upon Mount Ararat, but upon 'the mountains of Ararat.' Now, Ararat was the Hebrew version of the name, not of the mountain but of the country around it, the old Armenian homeland, whose name at other times and in other tongues appears variously as Erirath, Urartu, etc."<ref>{{cite book|last=Kurkjian|first=Vahan|authorlink=Vahan Kurkjian|title=A History of Armenia|date=1964|orig-year=1958|publisher=Armenian General Benevolent Union of America|location=New York|url=http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Asia/Armenia/_Texts/KURARM/1*.html|p=2}}</ref>}} namun ia masih tidak lekang daripada kepercayaan semasa masyarakat Armenia walau sedikitpun.
 
=== Mitos bangsa Armenia ===
[[Fail:Y. Tadevosyan. Mounth Ararat from Ejmiadzin.jpg|thumb|''Ararat from Ejmiatsin'' oleh [[Yeghishe Tadevosyan]], lukisan catan. 1895.]]
Menurut ''[[Patmut'yun Hayots]]'' dikaryakan [[Movses Khorenatsi]], adanya suatu penceritaan mengenai asal-usul [[orang Armenia]] kononnya selepas [[Nabi Nuh]] dan keluarganya selamat menetap di kawasan gunung itu selepas terselamat dari banjir besar. Baginda diceritakan mempunyai banyak cucu cicit, salah satunya [[Hayk]] anak [[Yafet]] yang berjaya menentang [[Nimrud|Raja Nimrud]] dan kembali memulakan hidup baru di kaki gunung tersebut; oleh sebab inilah gunung ini dianggap suatu [[Gunung suci|gunung suci.]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Exploring the Caucasus in the 21st Century: Essays on Culture, History and Politics in a Dynamic Context|date=2010|publisher=Amsterdam University Press|isbn=9789089641830|editor1-last=Companjen|editor1-first=Françoise|pages=12–13|editor2-last=Marácz|editor2-first=László Károly|editor3-last=Versteegh|editor3-first=Lia}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Eastern Turkey|last1=Darke|first1=Diana|date=2014|publisher=Bradt Travel Guides|isbn=978-1-84162-490-7|page=317|quote=...of course Mount Ararat is for Armenians their holy mountain...}}
 
* {{cite book|title=Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Volume II|title-link=Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary|date=1890|language=ru|contribution=Арарат|quote=Арарат давно считался священной горой у армян...}} [[:ru:s:ЭСБЕ/Арарат, горы|on Russian Wikisource]]</ref> bagi bangsa Armenia yang menganggap diri sudah lama berada di sini.{{sfn|Khorenatsi|1978|p=85}}{{sfn|Panossian|2006|p=51}}
 
Kepercayaan ini berlanjutan dalam pemikiran [[nasionalisme romantik]] masyarakat ini pada abad ke-19 di mana ia menjadi lambang tanah air orang Armenia yang didambakan. Malah, ia kemudian menjadi simbol kesengsaraan dialami saudara mara sebangsa di [[Armenia Barat|kawasan Barat]] yang dihalau semasa [[Genosid Armenia|pembunuhan beramai-ramai]] dilakukan zaman [[Empayar Uthmaniyah|Uthmaniyah]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Crossing Borders – Confronting History: Intercultural Adjustment in the Post-Cold War World|last=Johnson|first=Jerry L.|date=2000|publisher=University Press of America|isbn=978-0-7618-1536-5|location=Lanham, Maryland|pages=6–7|quote=Armenians view Mount Ararat as both a symbol of the Genocide and loss of hallowed land.}}</ref> serta penuntutan tanah milik mereka yang terampas ketika itu.{{sfn|Adriaans|2011|p=40}}
 
== Nota ==