Perbezaan antara semakan "Tipu Sultan"

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[[Napoleon|Napoleon Bonaparte]], seorang panglima [[Republik Perancis Pertama|Perancis]] telah memohon satu pakatan dengan Tipu Sultan. Kedua-dua Tipu Sultan dan bapa beliau telah menggunakan tentera yang dilatih oleh Perancis dengan sokongan Perancis untuk melawan British,<ref>{{cite web |last1=Macquarie |first1=University |title=French Rocks |url=https://www.mq.edu.au/macquarie-archive/seringapatam/images/frenchrocks/ |accessdate=15 July 2019}}</ref><ref>Kaushik Roy, ''War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849'', (Routledge, 2011), 77.</ref> dan dalam pergelutan Mysore dengan kuasa-kuasa berjiran dengannya, seperti [[empayar Maratha|Maratha]], [[Sira, India|Sira]], dan para pemerintah di [[Malabar (Kerala Utara)|Malabar]], [[daerah Kodagu|Kodagu]], [[kerajaan beraja Keladi Nayaka|Bednore]], [[wilayah Carnatic|Carnatic]], dan [[Travancore]]. Bapa Tipu, Hyder Ali, menaiki takhta apabila berjaya menawan Mysore,{{citation needed|date=January 2020}} dan Tipu mengantikan beliau sebagai pemerintah Mysore setelah kematian bapa beliau pada tahun 1782. Beliau mendapat kemenangan-kemenangan penting ke atas British dalam [[Perang Anglo-Mysore Kedua]] dan merundingkan [[Perjanjian Mangalore]] 1784 dengan British selepas kematian bapa beliau akibat kanser pada bulan Disember 1782 semasa Perang Anglo-Mysore Kedua.
 
Konflik Tipu's conflictsdengan withjiran-jiran hisbeliau neighbours included thetermasuk [[Maratha–MysorePerang WarMaratha–Mysore]] whichyang endedmana withberakhir the signing of thedengan [[Perjanjian Gajendragarh#Treaty of Gajendragad|Treaty of Gajendragad]].<ref name="mohibbul">{{citation|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hkbJ6xA1_jEC&pg=PA105|title=History of Tipu Sultan|author=Mohibbul Hasan|pages=105–107|isbn=9788187879572|year=2005}}</ref> ThePerjanjian treatyini required thatmemerlukan Tipu Sultan payuntuk membayar 4.8 millionjuta rupees assebagai apampasan one-timesekali warbayar costuntuk tokos theperang kepada Marathas, anddan ansumbangan annualtahunan tribute ofsebanyak 1.2 millionjuta rupees in additionselain totambahan returningmemulangkan allkesemua thewilayah territoryyang capturedditawan byoleh Hyder Ali.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=bxsa3jtHoCEC&pg=PA175&dq=tipu+48+lacs+maratha|title=Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj|last=Naravane|first=M. S.|date=2006|publisher=APH Publishing|isbn=9788131300343|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Y-kanqrtVhYC&lpg=PA59&dq=gajendragad+1787&pg=PA54#v=onepage|title=Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785-96|last=Sen|first=Sailendra Nath|date=1995|publisher=Popular Prakashan|isbn=9788171547890|language=en}}</ref>
 
Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British [[East India Company]], sparking conflict with his [[Battle of the Nedumkotta|attack]] on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the [[Third Anglo-Mysore War]], he was forced into the [[Treaty of Seringapatam]], losing a number of previously conquered territories, including Malabar and [[Mangalore]]. He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the [[Ottoman Empire]], [[Durrani Empire|Afghanistan]], and [[French First Republic|France]], in an attempt to rally opposition to the British.
 
In theSemasa [[FourthPerang Anglo-Mysore WarKeempat]], thetentera imperial forcesdaripada ofSyarikat theHindia Timur British Easttelah Indiadibantu Company were supported by theoleh [[Maratha]]s. TheyMereka defeatedberjaya mengalahkan Tipu, anddan hebeliau wastelah killedterbunuh onpada 4 MayMei 1799 whilesemasa [[Siege ofPengepungan Seringapatam (1799)|defendingmempertahankan hiskubu fortbeliau ofdi Seringapatam]].
 
In post-colonial [[Indian subcontinent]], he is applauded as a secular<ref name="Tipu Sultan pp. 3572">Hasan 1971, ''History of Tipu Sultan'', pp. 357–8</ref><ref name="chetty2">A. Subbaraya Chetty "Tipu's endowments to Hindus and Hindu institutions" in Habib (Ed.) ''Confronting Colonialism''</ref><ref name="mehta"/><ref name="padiga3"/><ref name="Youngindia12">{{cite journal |title=A Monument of Hindu Muslim Unity |journal=Young India |date=23 January 1930 |volume=12 |issue=4 |page=31 |url=https://archive.org/details/HindSwaraj.YoungIndia.Portal.vol12/page/n30 |accessdate=28 March 2020}}</ref> ruler who fought against [[British colonialism]],<ref>{{cite news |last1=The Financial Express |title=Tipu Sultan died a heroic death fighting the British: President Ram Nath Kovind |url=https://www.financialexpress.com/india-news/tipu-sultan-died-a-heroic-death-fighting-the-british-president-ram-nath-kovind/906220/ |accessdate=8 July 2019 |date=25 October 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Civil Society in the Muslim World: Contemporary Perspectives|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Vn2uneOVaKoC|first=Amyn|last=Sajoo|publisher=I.B.Tauris|year=2004|isbn=9781850435907}}</ref>. But he has been criticized for his repression of [[Hindus]] of [[Malabar District|Malabar]] and [[Christians]] of [[Mangalore]] for both religious and political reasons.<ref name="SocialScientist110">{{cite journal |last1=Panikkar |first1=K.N |title=Men of Valour and Vision |journal=Social Scientist |date=1991 |volume=19 |issue=8 |page=110 |doi=10.2307/3517708 |jstor=3517708 }}</ref><ref name="EDIX">{{cite book |title=Encyclopaedia Dictionary Islam Muslim World-10 |publisher=Brill |page=532 |url=https://archive.org/stream/EncyclopaediaDictionaryIslamMuslimWorldEtcGibbKramerScholars.13/10.EncycIslam.NewEdPrepNumLeadOrient.EdEdComCon.BearBianBosDonHein.etc.UndPatIUA.v10.T-U.Leid.EJBrill.2000.#page/n562/mode/1up/ |accessdate=8 September 2019}}</ref><ref name="alexander">{{cite book|title=India: History, Religion, Vision and Contribution to the World, Volume 1|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=y7GKwhuea9kC&pg=PA404&dq=tipu|first=Alexander|last=Varghese|publisher=Atlantic Publishers|year=2008|isbn=9788126909032}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=1 Dr. Gurusiddaiah C, 2 Dr. BP Mahesh Chandra Guru, 3 Abhilash MS, 4 Dr. Sreekantaiah|date=January 2018|title=Religious philosophy of Tipu Sultan |url=http://www.educationjournal.in/download/264/3-1-11-268.pdf |website=www.educationjournal.in |publisher=International Journal of Multidisciplinary Education and Research |volume=3 |pages=11–16 |issn=2455-4588}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=oNekDAAAQBAJ|page=188|first=Sanjeev|last=Sanyal|title=The Ocean of Churn: How the Indian Ocean Shaped Human History|year=2016|isbn=9789386057617}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Hassan|first=Mohibbul|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hkbJ6xA1_jEC&pg=PA417&dq=%22Captivity+of+Coorgs+at+Seringapatam%22#v=onepage|title=History of Tipu Sultan|date=1 December 2005|isbn=9788187879572|page=79|accessdate=12 February 2014}}</ref>
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