Perbezaan antara semakan "Kesan garam terhadap kesihatan"

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[[Fail:Single_grain_of_table_salt_(electron_micrograph).jpg|thumb| [[Mikroskop elektron pengimbas|SEM]] gambar seketul garam.]]
'''Kesan kesihatan garam''' adalahialah keadaan yang berkaitan dengan pengambilan [[Garam|garam yang]] terlalu banyak atau terlalu sedikit. Garam adalahialah [[Mineral|mineral yang]] terdiri terutamanya dari [[natrium klorida]] (NaCl) dan digunakan dalam makanan untuk [[Pengawetan makanan|pengawetan]] dan Ion [[natrium]] diperlukan dalam jumlah yang kecil oleh manusia seperti juga ion [[Klorida|klorida.]] Garam terlibat dalam mengatur kandungan [[air]] (keseimbangan bendalir ) badan. Ion natrium itu sendiri digunakan untuk memberi isyarat elektrik dalam sistem saraf. <ref>{{Cite journal|last=Caldwell|first=J. H.|last2=Schaller|first2=KL|last3=Lasher|first3=RS|last4=Peles|first4=E|last5=Levinson|first5=SR|year=2000|title=Sodium channel Nav1.6 is localized at nodes of Ranvier, dendrites, and synapses|journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences|volume=97|issue=10|pages=5616–5620|doi=10.1073/pnas.090034797|pmc=25877|pmid=10779552}}</ref>
 
Pada tahun 2020, [[Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia]] (WHO) mengesyorkan agar orang dewasa mengambil tidak lebih dari 5 gram (hanya di bawah satu [[Sudu|sudu teh]] ) garam sehari, jumlah kira-kira {{Convert|2|g|oz}} natrium sehari. <ref name="whofact">{{Cite web|url=https://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs393/en/|title=Salt reduction: fact sheet|date=29 April 2020|publisher=World Health Organization|access-date=20 November 2020}}</ref> <ref name="mayo">{{Cite web|url=https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/sodium/art-20045479|title=Sodium: How to tame your salt habit|date=29 June 2019|publisher=Mayo Clinic|access-date=20 November 2020}}</ref> WHO seterusnya mengesyorkan agar pengambilan garam disesuaikan untuk kanak-kanak berumur 2 hingga 15 tahun berdasarkan keperluan tenaga mereka berbanding dengan orang dewasa. Pengambilan natrium tinggi (5 g atau lebih garam setiap hari) dan [[Kalium|pengambilan kalium yang]] tidak mencukupi (kurang daripada 3.5 gram (0.12 oz/hari) telah dikaitkan dengan [[Darah tinggi|tekanan darah tinggi]] dan peningkatan risiko [[Penyakit kardiovaskular|penyakit jantung]], [[Angin ahmar|strok]], dan [[Buah pinggang|penyakit buah pinggang]] . <ref name="acc">{{Cite web|url=https://www.cardiosmart.org/news/2016/7/too-much-and-too-little-salt-is-associated-with-increased-heart-risks|title=Too much and too little salt is associated with increased heart risks|date=24 July 2016|publisher=CardioSmart, American College of Cardiology|access-date=20 November 2020}}</ref> <ref name="gc17">{{Cite web|url=https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/healthy-eating/sodium.html|title=Sodium in Canada|date=1 March 2017|publisher=Government of Canada|access-date=20 November 2020}}</ref>
Kira-kira 95% populasi dunia mempunyai pengambilan garam rata-rata antara 6 g dan 12 gram setiap hari. Sebenarnya, pengambilan kurang dari 5.8 g garam sehari biasanya mengakibatkan pengaktifan sistem [[Sistem renin-angiotensin|renin-angiotensin-aldosteron]], yang menyebabkan peningkatan lipid plasma dan peningkatan kematian. <ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Graudal|first=N|last2=Jürgens|first2=G|date=2 May 2018|title=Conflicting Evidence on Health Effects Associated with Salt Reduction Calls for a Redesign of the Salt Dietary Guidelines.|journal=Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases|volume=61|pages=20–26|doi=10.1016/j.pcad.2018.04.008|pmid=29727609|doi-access=free}} {{Open access}}</ref>
 
Walaupun banyak organisasi kesihatan dan tinjauan baru-baru ini menyatakan bahawa pengambilan garam yang tinggi meningkatkan risiko beberapa penyakit pada kanak-kanak dan orang dewasa, <ref name="CDC">{{Cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/salt/|title=Most Americans should consume less sodium|website=Salt|publisher=US [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]|access-date=9 June 2016}}</ref> <ref name="efsa">{{Cite web|url=http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/050622|title=EFSA provides advice on adverse effects of sodium|date=22 June 2005|publisher=European Food Safety Authority|access-date=9 June 2016}}</ref> <ref name="who2013">{{Cite web|url=https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/notes/2013/salt_potassium_20130131/en/|title=WHO issues new guidance on dietary salt and potassium|date=31 January 2013|publisher=World Health Organization}}</ref> <ref name="Effect of longer term modest salt r">{{Cite journal|last=He|first=F. J.|last2=Li|first2=J.|last3=MacGregor|first3=G. A.|date=4 April 2013|title=Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials|journal=BMJ|volume=346|issue=apr03 3|pages=f1325|doi=10.1136/bmj.f1325|pmid=23558162|doi-access=free}}</ref> kesan pengambilan garam yang tinggi terhadap kesihatan jangka panjang adalahialah kontroversi. <ref name="RN09">{{Cite journal|last=Dumler|first=Francis|date=January 2009|title=Dietary Sodium Intake and Arterial Blood Pressure|url=https://zenodo.org/record/891084|journal=Journal of Renal Nutrition|volume=19|issue=1|pages=57–60|doi=10.1053/j.jrn.2008.10.006|pmid=19121772}}</ref> Ada yang berpendapat bahawa kesan pengambilan garam yang tinggi tidak signifikan. <ref>{{Cite journal|last=Alderman|first=Michael H.|date=November 2014|title=The Science upon Which to Base Dietary Sodium Policy|journal=Advances in Nutrition|volume=5|issue=6|pages=764–769|doi=10.3945/an.114.006593|pmc=4224212|pmid=25398738}}</ref> <ref name="whorisky">{{Cite news|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2015/04/06/more-scientists-doubt-salt-is-as-bad-for-you-as-the-government-says/|title=More scientists doubt salt is as bad for you as the government says|last=Peter Whorisky|date=6 April 2015|access-date=June 3, 2016|work=[[The Washington Post]]}}</ref>
 
 
* [[Penyakit kardiovaskular|Penyakit]] [[Angin ahmar|strok]] dan kardiovaskular. <ref>{{Cite journal|year=2009|title=Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies|journal=BMJ|volume=339|pages=b4567|doi=10.1136/bmj.b4567|pmc=2782060|pmid=19934192}}</ref>
* [[Darah tinggi|Tekanan darah tinggi]] : Bukti menunjukkan hubungan antara pengambilan garam dan [[tekanan darah]] di antara pelbagai populasi dan lingkungan umur pada orang dewasa. <ref name="SACN page 3">Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) ''[http://www.sacn.gov.uk/pdfs/sacn_salt_final.pdf Salt and Health] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140211084303/http://www.sacn.gov.uk/pdfs/sacn_salt_final.pdf|date=2014-02-11}}'', page 3</ref> Pengambilan garam yang berkurang juga mengakibatkan penurunan tekanan darah yang kecil tetapi signifikan secara statistik. <ref name="RN09">{{Cite journal|last=Dumler|first=Francis|date=January 2009|title=Dietary Sodium Intake and Arterial Blood Pressure|url=https://zenodo.org/record/891084|journal=Journal of Renal Nutrition|volume=19|issue=1|pages=57–60|doi=10.1053/j.jrn.2008.10.006|pmid=19121772}}<cite class="citation journal cs1" data-ve-ignore="true" id="CITEREFDumler2009">Dumler, Francis (January 2009). [https://zenodo.org/record/891084 "Dietary Sodium Intake and Arterial Blood Pressure"]. ''Journal of Renal Nutrition''. '''19''' (1): 57–60. [[Pengecam objek digital|doi]]:[[doi:10.1053/j.jrn.2008.10.006|10.1053/j.jrn.2008.10.006]]. [[PubMed|PMID]]&nbsp;[//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19121772 19121772].</cite></ref> <ref name="Effect of longer term modest salt r">{{Cite journal|last=He|first=F. J.|last2=Li|first2=J.|last3=MacGregor|first3=G. A.|date=4 April 2013|title=Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials|journal=BMJ|volume=346|issue=apr03 3|pages=f1325|doi=10.1136/bmj.f1325|pmid=23558162|doi-access=free}}<cite class="citation journal cs1" data-ve-ignore="true" id="CITEREFHeLiMacGregor2013">He, F. J.; Li, J.; MacGregor, G. A. (4 April 2013). [[doi:10.1136/bmj.f1325|"Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials"]]. ''BMJ''. '''346''' (apr03 3): f1325. [[Pengecam objek digital|doi]]:<span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible">[[doi:10.1136/bmj.f1325|10.1136/bmj.f1325]]</span>. [[PubMed|PMID]]&nbsp;[//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23558162 23558162].</cite></ref> <ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hooper|first=Lee|last2=Bartlett|first2=Christopher|last3=Davey Smith|first3=George|last4=Ebrahim|first4=Shah|date=26 January 2004|title=Advice to reduce dietary salt for prevention of cardiovascular disease|url=http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/19764/1/19764.pdf|journal=Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews|doi=10.1002/14651858.CD003656.pub2}}</ref>
* Hipertrofi ventrikel kiri (pembesaran jantung): "Bukti menunjukkan bahawa pengambilan garam yang tinggi menyebabkan hipertrofi ventrikel kiri. Ini adalahInilah faktor risiko yang kuat untuk penyakit kardiovaskular, bebas dari kesan tekanan darah. " " ... ada bukti yang terkumpul bahawa pengambilan garam tinggi meramalkan hipertrofi ventrikel kiri. " <ref name="fsai">Food Safety Authority of Ireland [https://www.fsai.ie/uploadedFiles/Science_and_Health/salt_report-1.pdf Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland], p. 12</ref> Pengambilan garam (natrium) yang berlebihan, digabungkan dengan pengambilan air yang tidak mencukupi, boleh menyebabkan hipernatremia . Ia boleh memburukkan lagi [[buah pinggang]] <ref name="oz">Department of Health & Human Services, State Government of Victoria, Australia [https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/salt Better Health Channel: Salt] Last updated: May 2014</ref>
* [[Sembap|Edema]] (penahan cecair): Penurunan pengambilan garam telah disarankan untuk merawat edema. <ref>Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia, Victoria) [http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcArticles.nsf/pages/Fluid_retention?OpenDocument Fluid retention]</ref>
 
Analisis meta menyelidiki hubungan antara pengambilan natrium dan hasil kesihatan, termasuk [[Penyakit kardiovaskular|kejadian kematian dan penyakit kardiovaskular]] (CVD). <ref name="graudal_2014">{{Cite journal|last=Graudal|first=Niels|last2=Jürgens|first2=Gesche|last3=Baslund|first3=Bo|last4=Alderman|first4=Michael H.|date=1 September 2014|title=Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality: A Meta-Analysis|journal=American Journal of Hypertension|volume=27|issue=9|pages=1129–1137|doi=10.1093/ajh/hpu028|pmid=24651634|doi-access=free}}<cite class="citation journal cs1" data-ve-ignore="true" id="CITEREFGraudalJürgensBaslundAlderman2014">Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo; Alderman, Michael H. (1 September 2014). [[doi:10.1093/ajh/hpu028|"Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality: A Meta-Analysis"]]. ''American Journal of Hypertension''. '''27''' (9): 1129–1137. [[Pengecam objek digital|doi]]:<span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible">[[doi:10.1093/ajh/hpu028|10.1093/ajh/hpu028]]</span>. [[PubMed|PMID]]&nbsp;[//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24651634 24651634].</cite></ref> Tahap pengambilan natrium adalah [[Min|rata]] -rata <115&nbsp;mmol (2645&nbsp;mg), pengambilan natrium biasa adalah 115-215&nbsp;mmol (2645–4945&nbsp;mg), dan pengambilan natrium yang tinggi adalah> 215&nbsp;mmol (4945&nbsp;mg).
 
=== Kemungkinan kesan pencemaran mikroplastik ===
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