Perbezaan antara semakan "Pengguguran"

1 bait dibuang ,  1 bulan lalu
mifepristone -> migepristone
(kembang)
Teg: Suntingan sumber 2017
(mifepristone -> migepristone)
Teg: Suntingan sumber 2017
 
Apabila dilakukan dengan betul, pengguguran adalah salah [[Pengguguran#Keselamatan|satu prosedur paling selamat dalam perubatan]],{{ r | lancet-grimes | p=1 | q=Unsafe abortion is a persistent, preventable pandemic. ... By contrast, legal abortion in industrialised nations has emerged as one of the safest procedures in contemporary medical practice, with minimum morbidity and a negligible risk of death. }} {{ r | Ray2014 | p=1 | q=Results: The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7 deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. Conclusions: The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. }} tetapi pengguguran yang tidak selamat adalah penyebab utama [[kematian bersalin]], terutama di [[negara membangun]],<ref name="WHO-preventing-unsafe">{{Cite web |url=https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/preventing-unsafe-abortion |title=Preventing unsafe abortion |website=www.who.int |access-date=6 August 2019}}</ref> sambil menjadikan pengguguran yang selamat adalah sah dan diakses mengurangkan kematian bersalin.<ref>{{Cite journal |last1=Faúndes |first1=Anibal |last2=Shah |first2=Iqbal H. |date=1 October 2015 |title=Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion |url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020729215001575 |journal=International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics |series=World Report on Women's Health 2015: The unfinished agenda of women's reproductive health |volume=131 |pages=S56–S59 |doi=10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.03.018 |pmid=26433508 |issn=0020-7292|doi-access=free | quote=A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. ... criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. }}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last1=Latt |first1=Su Mon |last2=Milner |first2=Allison |last3=Kavanagh |first3=Anne |date=5 January 2019 |title=Abortion laws reform may reduce maternal mortality: an ecological study in 162 countries |journal=BMC Women's Health |volume=19 |issue=1 |pages=1 |doi=10.1186/s12905-018-0705-y |issn=1472-6874 |pmc=6321671 |pmid=30611257}}</ref> Ia lebih selamat daripada kelahiran anak, yang mempunyai risiko kematian 14 kali lebih tinggi di Amerika Syarikat.<ref name=Grimes2012>{{Cite journal|last1=Raymond|first1=E.G.|last2=Grimes|first2=D.A.|year=2012|title=The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States|journal=Obstetrics & Gynecology|volume=119|issue=2, Part 1|pages=215–19|doi=10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823fe923|pmid=22270271|s2cid=25534071|quote=Conclusion: Legal induced abortion is markedly safer than childbirth. The risk of death associated with childbirth is approximately 14 times higher than that with abortion. Similarly, the overall morbidity associated with childbirth exceeds that with abortion. }}</ref>
 
Kaedah moden menggunakan [[pengguguran perubatan|ubat]] atau [[Pengguguran#Pembedahan|pembedahan]] untuk pengguguran.<ref name="1st_Methods">{{cite journal |last1=Kulier |first1=R |last2=Kapp |first2=N |last3=Gülmezoglu |first3=AM |last4=Hofmeyr |first4=GJ |last5=Cheng |first5=L |last6=Campana |first6=A |s2cid=205167182 |title=Medical methods for first trimester abortion |journal=The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews |date=9 November 2011 |issue=11 |pages=CD002855 |pmid=22071804 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4|pmc=7144729 }}</ref> Dadah [[mifepristonemifepriston]] dalam kombinasi dengan [[prostaglandin]] nampaknya selamat dan berkesan seperti pembedahan pada [[Kehamilan#Garis masa bagi kehamilan biasa|trimester pertama]] dan [[Kehamilan#Garis masa bagi kehamilan biasa|kedua]] kehamilan.<ref name="1st_Methods" /><ref name="Kapp2013" /> Teknik pembedahan yang paling biasa melibatkan melebarkan serviks dan menggunakan [[sedutan vakum|alat penyedut]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Abortion – Women's Health Issues |url=https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/women-s-health-issues/family-planning/abortion |website=Merck Manuals Consumer Version |access-date=12 July 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180713183550/https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/women-s-health-issues/family-planning/abortion |archive-date=13 July 2018 |url-status=live }}</ref> Alat [[kawalan kelahiran]], seperti [[pil pencegah kehamilan|pil]] atau [[Alat kontraseptif dalam rahim|alat intrauterin]], dapat digunakan segera setelah pengguguran.<ref name="Kapp2013">{{cite journal|last1=Kapp |first1=N |last2=Whyte |first2=P |last3=Tang |first3=J |last4=Jackson |first4=E |last5=Brahmi |first5=D |title=A review of evidence for safe abortion care |journal=Contraception |date=September 2013 |volume=88 |issue=3 |pages=350–63 |pmid=23261233 |doi=10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027}}</ref> Apabila dilakukan secara sah dan selamat pada wanita yang menginginkannya, pengguguran cetusan tidak meningkatkan risiko masalah [[Kesihatan mental|mental]] atau fizikal jangka panjang.<ref name="BMJ2014" /> Sebaliknya, pengguguran yang tidak selamat (yang dilakukan oleh individu yang tidak mahir, dengan peralatan berbahaya, atau di kemudahan yang tidak bersih) menyebabkan 47,000 [[Kematian bersalin|kematian]] dan 5 juta kemasukan ke hospital setiap tahun.<ref name="BMJ2014">{{Cite journal |last1=Lohr |first1=PA |last2=Fjerstad |first2=M |last3=Desilva |first3=U |last4=Lyus |first4=R |title=Abortion |journal = BMJ | volume = 348 | page = f7553 | year = 2014 | doi = 10.1136/bmj.f7553|s2cid=220108457 }}</ref><ref name="OBGY09">{{Cite journal|last1=Shah |first1=I |last2=Ahman |first2=E |title=Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges |journal=Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada |volume=31 |issue=12 |pages=1149–58 |date=December 2009 |pmid=20085681 |url=http://www.sogc.org/jogc/abstracts/full/200912_WomensHealth_1.pdf |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110716212405/http://www.sogc.org/jogc/abstracts/full/200912_WomensHealth_1.pdf |archive-date=16 July 2011 |doi=10.1016/s1701-2163(16)34376-6}}</ref> [[Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia]] menyatakan bahawa "akses ke penjagaan pengguguran yang sah, selamat dan menyeluruh, termasuk penjagaan selepas pengguguran, sangat penting untuk mencapai tahap kesihatan seksual dan pembiakan setinggi mungkin."<ref>{{Cite web|title=Abortion|url=https://www.who.int/westernpacific/health-topics/abortion|access-date=2021-04-14|website=www.who.int|language=en}}</ref>
 
Sekitar 56 juta pengguguran dilakukan setiap tahun di dunia,<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Sedgh|first1=Gilda|last2=Bearak|first2=Jonathan|last3=Singh|first3=Susheela|last4=Bankole|first4=Akinrinola|last5=Popinchalk|first5=Anna|last6=Ganatra|first6=Bela|last7=Rossier|first7=Clémentine|last8=Gerdts|first8=Caitlin|last9=Tunçalp|first9=Özge|last10=Johnson|first10=Brooke Ronald|last11=Johnston|first11=Heidi Bart|last12=Alkema|first12=Leontine|title=Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends|journal=The Lancet|date=May 2016|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30380-4|pmid=27179755|volume=388|issue=10041|pages=258–67|pmc=5498988}}</ref> dengan sekitar 45% dilakukan secara tidak selamat.<ref>{{cite web|title=Worldwide, an estimated 25 million unsafe abortions occur each year|url=https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/unsafe-abortions-worldwide/en/|website=World Health Organization|access-date=29 September 2017|date=28 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170929131145/http://who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/unsafe-abortions-worldwide/en/|archive-date=29 September 2017|url-status=live}}</ref> Kadar pengguguran berubah sedikit antara tahun 2003 dan 2008,<ref name="Sedgh 2012">{{Cite journal |last1=Sedgh |first1=G. |last2=Singh |first2=S. |last3=Shah |first3=I.H. |last4=Åhman |first4=E. |last5=Henshaw |first5=S.K. |last6=Bankole |first6=A. |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8 |title=Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008 |journal=The Lancet |volume=379 |issue=9816 |pages=625–32 |year=2012 |pmid=22264435 |s2cid=27378192 |url=http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/Sedgh-Lancet-2012-01.pdf |quote=Because few of the abortion estimates were based on studies of random samples of women, and because we did not use a model-based approach to estimate abortion incidence, it was not possible to compute confidence intervals based on standard errors around the estimates. Drawing on the information available on the accuracy and precision of abortion estimates that were used to develop the subregional, regional, and worldwide rates, we computed intervals of certainty around these rates (webappendix). We computed wider intervals for unsafe abortion rates than for safe abortion rates. The basis for these intervals included published and unpublished assessments of abortion reporting in countries with liberal laws, recently published studies of national unsafe abortion, and high and low estimates of the numbers of unsafe abortion developed by WHO. |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120206043854/http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/Sedgh-Lancet-2012-01.pdf |archive-date=6 February 2012 }}</ref> sebelum ia menurun sekurang-kurangnya dua dekad ketika akses ke [[perancang keluarga]] dan kawalan kelahiran meningkat.<ref name="worldtrends2007">{{Cite journal |vauthors=Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J |title=Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends |journal=International Family Planning Perspectives |volume=33 |issue=3 |pages=106–16 |date=September 2007 |pmid=17938093 |doi= 10.1363/3310607|url=http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3310607.html |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090819122933/http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3310607.html |archive-date=19 August 2009 |doi-access=free }}</ref> {{as of|2018}}, 37% wanita di dunia mempunyai akses ke pengguguran undang-undang tanpa had yang menjadi punca penurunan.<ref name=Gutt_2018_fact >{{ cite web | url=https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-worldwide | title=Induced Abortion Worldwide | work=[[Guttmacher Institute]] | date=2018-03-01 | access-date=2020-02-21 | quote=Of the world's 1.64 billion women of reproductive age, 6% live where abortion is banned outright, and 37% live where it is allowed without restriction as to reason. Most women live in countries with laws that fall between these two extremes. }}</ref><ref name=IJGO10 /> Negara yang membenarkan pengguguran mempunyai had yang berbeza mengenai seberapa lewat kehamilan pengguguran dibenarkan.<ref name=IJGO10>{{Cite journal|vauthors=Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M |title=Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion |journal=International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics |volume=110 |pages=S13–16 |date=July 2010 |pmid=20451196 |doi=10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003|s2cid=40586023 }}</ref> Kadar pengguguran adalah serupa antara negara yang melarang pengguguran dan negara yang membenarkannya.<ref>{{Cite web|date=2020-05-28|title=Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion Worldwide|url=https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-worldwide|access-date=2021-03-09|website=Guttmacher Institute|language=en}}</ref>