Perbezaan antara semakan "Perang China-Jepun Kedua"

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== Latar belakang ==
Perang China-Jepun Kedua bermula dengan [[Perang China-Jepun I]] pada tahun [[1894]]-[[1895|95]], dengan China di bawah [[Dinasti Qing]] dikalahkan oleh Jepun dan dipaksa menyerahkan [[Taiwan]] serta juga mengiktiraf '[[kemerdekaan]]' [[Korea]] melalui [[Perjanjian Shimonoseki]]. Dinasti Qing berada dalam zaman kejatuhannya, akibat [[imperialisme]] barat serta [[pemberontakan]] dalaman, manakala Jepun menjadi [[kuasa besar]] melalui proses [[pemodenan]] yang berkesan.
 
[[Republik China]] ditubuhkan pada tahun [[1912]] selepas [[Revolusi Xinhai]] yang menggulingkan Dinasti Qing. Walau bagaimanpun, Republik tersebut adalah lemah, akibat penguasaan para [[Zaman Kehulubangan|hulubalang]]. Prospek menyatukan negara dan menghalau kuasa imperialis adalah tipis, dengan sesetengah hulubalang memihak kepada berbagai-bagai kuasa asing dalam usaha-usaha untuk menghapuskan satu sama lain. Umpamanya, hulubalang [[Zhang Zuolin]] dari [[Manchuria]] secara terbuka bekerjasama dengan Jepun supaya ingin menerima bantuan ketenteraan dan [[ekonomi]].
 
Adalah semasa tempoh awal Republik China bahawa Jepun menjadi ancaman asing yang terbesar kepadanya. Pada tahun [[1915]], Jepun mengisytiharkan [[Dua Puluh Dua Tuntutan]] untuk melanjutkan kepentingan [[politik]] dan [[perdagangan]] di China. Selepas [[Perang Dunia I]], Jepun mengambil alih [[lingkungan pengaruh]] [[Jerman]] di [[Shandong]]. China di bawah kerajaan [[Beiyang]] masih berpecah belah dan tidak berupaya menentang sebarang serangan asing sehingga pelancaran [[Ekspedisi Utara]] pada tahun [[1926]]-[[1928|28]] oleh [[Kuomintang]] (KMT, atau Parti Nasionalis Cina), kerajaan pesaingnya yang berpusat di [[Guangzhou]].
 
Ekspedisi Utara merentasi China dengan mudah sehingga disekat di [[Shandong]] apabila [[Zhang Zongchang]], hulubalang [[Beiyang]] yang disokong oleh Jepun, cuba menghentikan [[Tentera Revolusi Nasional|Tentera Kuomintang]] daripada menyatukan China. Keadaan ini memuncak dengan [[Peristiwa Jinan]] pada tahun [[1928]] yang mengakibatkan pertempuran singkat antara tentera Kuomintang dengan tentera Jepun. Pada tahun yang sama, Zhang Zuolin, hulubalang [[Manchuria]], dibunuh oleh Jepun apabila beliau enggan bekerjasama dengannya. Menyusul peristiwa-peristiwa ini, kerajaan Kuomintang di bawah [[Chiang Kai-shek]] akhirnya berjaya menyatukan China pada tahun [[1928]].
[[Fail:Mukden 1931 japan shenyang.jpg|thumb|right|320px|Tentera Jepun memasuki [[Shenyang]] semasa [[Peristiwa Mukden]].]]
 
Walaupun demikian, banyak pertempuran antara China dan Jepun masih berlarutan dengan kebangkitan [[nasionalisme China]] yang memiliki salah satu maklumat [[Tiga Prinsip Rakyat]] yang bertujuan untuk menghapuskan imperialisme asing sama sekali dari China. Bagaimanapun, [[Ekspedisi Utara]] hanya dapat menyatukan China pada nama sahaja, dengan perang-[[perang saudara]] tercetus antara bekas hulubalang-hulubalang dan puak-puak Kuomintang. Tambahan pula, para [[Parti Komunis China|komunis Cina]] memberontak terhadap kerajaan pusat. Kerana keadaan-kedadaan ini, kerajaan pusat China banyak mengalihkan perhatian mereka kepada perang-perang saudara dan mengikut dasar "pendamaian dalaman dahulu sebelum penentangan kuasa asing". Keadaan ini memberikan peluang yang mudah kepada Jepun untuk melanjutkan keganasannya.
 
Pada tahun [[1931]], tentera Jepun [[Serangan Manchuria|menyerang]] [[Manchuria]] sejurus selepas [[Peristiwa Mukden]]. Selepas lima bulan bertempur pada tahun [[1932]], [[negara boneka]] [[Manchukuo]] diasaskan dengan [[Puyi]], [[maharaja]] terakhir China, dilantik sebagai ketua negara. Tidak berupaya mencabar Jepun secara langsung, China merayu kepada [[Liga Bangsa]] untuk bantuan. Penyiasatan Liga menerbitkan [[Laporan Lytton]] yang mengutuk Jepun untuk serangan Manchurianya, dan mengakibatkan Jepun menarik diri daripada pertubuhan antarabangsa tersebut. Sejak dari akhir dekad [[1920-an]] dan pada sepanjang dekad [[1930-an]], [[dasar beralah]] merupakan dasar komuniti antarabangsa, dengan tiadanya sebarang negara yang rela mengambil pendirian yang aktif selain daripada celaan lemah. Jepun melihatkan Manchuria sebagai suatu bekalan bahan-[[bahan mentah]] yang tidak terhad serta juga sebagai sebuah [[negara penampan]] terhadap [[Kesatuan Soviet]].
 
Pertempuran-pertempuran tidak henti-henti menyusul Peristiwa Mukden. Pada tahun [[1932]], askar-askar Cina dan Jepun bertempur dalam pertempuran singkat dalam [[Peristiwa 28 Januari]]. Perang itu menyebabkan [[penyahtenteraan]] [[Shanghai]] yang melarang China menempatkan sebarang askar di dalam bandar raya sendiri. Di Manchukuo, sebuah [[Pendamaian Manchukuo|kempen berterusan]] dijalankan untuk menewaskan [[Tentera Sukarelawan Anti-Jepun|tentera sukarelawan]] yang muncul, akibat kekecewaan umum terhadap dasar ketaktentangan Jepun. Pada tahun [[1933]], Jepun [[Pertahanan Tembok Besar|menyerang wilayah Tembok Besar]] dan ekoran daripada pertempuran itu, [[Kedamaian Sementara Tanggu]] dimeterai yang memberikan Jepun penguasaan ke atas provinsi [[Rehe]] serta sebuah kawasan bebas tentera antara [[Tembok Besar China|Tembok Besar]] dan wilayah [[Beiping]]-[[Tianjin]]. Jepun juga bertujuan untuk mencipta lagi sebuah wilayah penampan, kini antara Manchukuo dan [[Nanjing]], [[ibu negara]] kerajaan Nasionalis Cina.
 
Selain itu, Jepun semakin mempergunakan pertikaian-pertikaian dalaman antara puak-puak Cina untuk mengurangkan kekuatan mereka satu demi satu. Oleh itu, walaupun beberapa tahun telah berlalu selepas Ekspedisi Utara, kuasa politik kerajaan Nasionalis masih hanya berkisar di sekitar wilayah [[Delta Sungai Yangtze]], dengan wilayah-wilayah China yang lain pada dasarnya dipegang oleh kuasa-kuasa tempatan.
 
Jepun sering membayar atau mencipta hubungan khas dengan kuasa-kuasa wilayah supaya dapat menjejaskan usaha-usaha kerajaan pusat Nasionalis untuk menyatukan China. Untuk berbuat demikian, Jepun mencari-cari berbagai-bagai [[Hanjian|pengkhianat Cina]] untuk bekerjasama dan membantu mereka mengetuai sebilangan kerajaan "autonomi" yang menyokong Jepun. Dasar ini dipanggil "Pengkhususan" [[China Utara]] ({{zh-cp|c=華北特殊化|p=húaběitèshūhùa}}), atau lebih dikenali sebagai "Gerakan Autonomi China Utara". Provinsi-provinsi utara yang terjejas oleh dasar ini ialah [[Provinsi Chahar|Chahar]], [[Suiyuan]], [[Hebei]], [[Shanxi]], dan [[Shandong]].
 
Di bawah tekanan Jepun pada tahun [[1935]], China memeterai [[Perjanjian He-Umezu]] yang melarang [[Kuomintang]] (KMT) daripada menjalankan operasi partinya di [[Hebei]] dan secara berkesan, menamatkan penguasaan Cina terhadap China Utara. Pada tahun yang sama, [[Perjanjian China-Doihara]] dimeterai dan mengakibatkan KMT disingkirkan dari [[Provinsi Chahar]]. Dengan itu, kerajaan pusat Cina disingkirkan sama sekali daripada China Utara menjelang akhir tahun [[1935]]. Sebagai ganti, [[Majlis Autonomi Hebei Timur]] (disokong oleh Jepun), dan [[Majlis Politik Hebei-Chahar]] diasaskan.
 
Untuk memahami kerumitan penglibatan [[Rusia]], [[United Kingdom]], dan [[Amerika Syarikat]] yang kemudian dalam Perang China-Jepun Kedua, alasan-alasan dan niat-niat yang mendasari penglibatan masing-masing dalam perang ini harus diperhatikan:
 
[[Jepun]]: Niat-niat Jepun adalah jelas: untuk mencipta kemakmuran Jepun melalui memperoleh sumber-sumber China untuk tujuan tersebut. Jepun tidak bertujuan untuk memerintah China secara langsung, tetapi ingin mengasaskan kerajaan-[[kerajaan boneka]] yang menyokong kepentingannya. Untuk mendukung matlamat-matlamatnya, Jepun harus menguasai banyak [[sumber semula jadi]], seperti yang terdapat di [[Malaysia]], [[Indonesia]], dan [[Filipina]] yang ketika itu masing-masing dikuasai oleh [[Britain]], [[Belanda]], dan [[Amerika Syarikat]].
 
[[China]] ([[Nasionalisme|Nationalis]]): China Nationalis mempunyai banyak matlamat: untuk menentang keganasan Jepun, menyatukan China di bawah sebuah kerajaan pusat, menghapuskan pengaruh asing dari China, menewaskan [[komunisme]], serta juga untuk muncul semula sebagai sebuah negara yang kuat.
 
China ([[Komunisme|Komunis]]): Pihak komunis membiarkan tentera Nasionalis melakukan kebanyakan pertempuran dengan Jepun, sementara menjalankan perang [[gerila]] terhadap tentera Jepun. [[Parti Komunis Cina]] cuba mengelakkan sebarang pertempuran langsung dengan tentera Jepun kerana berharap dapat muncul daripada peperangan lebih kuat daripada tentera Nasionalis. Dengan itu, pihak komunis akan menjadi pemenang dalam pertempuran yang tidak dapat dielakkan dengan pihak Nasionalis untuk penguasaan China.
 
[[Kesatuan Soviet]]: Kesatuan Soviet membiarkan Jepun melampaui keupayaannya di China supaya ia dapat bertempur dengan tentera Jerman di Barat tanpa menurunkan banyak askar di Timur terhadap serangan Jepun yang mungkin. Tambahan pula, sebuah China yang dilemahkan akan membenarkan [[Parti Komunis Cina|pihak komunis China]] berkembang dan akhirnya mengambil alih negara itu, dan memberikannya suatu [[sekutu]] yang berpotensi serta sebuah zon penampan terhadap [[dasar peluasan kuasa]] Barat dan Jepun.
 
[[United Kingdom]]: United Kingdom terpaksa bertempur dengan [[Jerman]] di [[Eropah]] sementara membenarkan [[China]] bertempur dengan [[Jepun]] sehingga menemui jalan buntu, kerana hendak mendapatkan lebih banyak masa untuk memperoleh semula tanah-tanah jajahan [[Pasifik]]nya di [[Malaysia]] kini, [[Myanmar|Burma]], dan [[Singapura]]. Kebanyakan askar British dipergunakan untuk bertempur di Eropah dan oleh itu, tidak banyak yang dapat diturunkan dalam perang di Pasifik.
 
[[Amerika Syarikat]]: Amerika Syarikat umumnya mengamalkan dasar [[pemencilan]] sebelum serangan [[Pelabuhan Mutiara]] dan tidak ingin memprovokasi Jepun secara langsung. Menyusul kemasukan Amerika ke dalam [[Perang Dunia II]], Amerika Syarikat harus menewaskan tentera Jepun di Pasifik sementara bertempur juga dengan tentera [[Jerman]] di Kancah Eropah. Keutamaannya adalah untuk menewaskan tentera Jerman terlebih dahulu. Amerika Syarikat memulakan kempen pelompatan dari pulau ke pulau untuk mencapai pangkalan-[[Pangkalan tentera|pangkalan]] yang cukup dekat dengan Jepun untuk menyokong serangan-serangan [[pengeboman]] dan akhirnya serangan langsung. Apabila tentera Jerman menyerah, perang di Timur harus ditamatkan dengan secepat mungkin tanpa banyak pengorbanan tentera Amerika Syarikat.
 
Adalah jelas ketika itu bahawa [[Republik China|China Nasionalis]] menghadapi tugas yang amat sukar kerana sekutu-sekutunya memiliki kepentingan yang tidak semestinya sepadan dengan kepentingan China. Jika fakta-fakta ini diingati, sesetengah keputusan Pihak Berikat akan lebih mudah difahami.
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==Invasion of China==
[[Image:Jiangjieshi-declare.jpg|frame|left|[[Chiang Kai-shek]] announced the [[KMT]]'s policy of resistance against Japan at [[Lushan]] on [[July 10]], [[1937]], three days after the [[Marco Polo Bridge Incident|Battle of Lugou Bridge]].]]
Most historians place the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War at the
[[Marco Polo Bridge Incident|Battle of Lugou Bridge]] ([[Marco Polo Bridge Incident]]) on [[July 7]], [[1937]]. Some Chinese historians, however place the starting point at the [[Mukden Incident]] of [[September 18]], [[1931]]. Following the Mukden Incident, the Japanese [[Kwantung Army]] occupied [[Manchuria]] and established the [[Puppet government|puppet state]] of [[Manchukuo]] on [[February 18]] [[1932]]. Japan pressured China into recognising the independence of Manchukuo.
 
Following the Battle of Lugou Bridge in 1937, the Japanese occupied [[Battle of Shanghai (1937)|Shanghai]], [[Battle of Nanjing|Nanjing]] and Southern [[Battle of Taiyuan|Shanxi]] in campaigns involving approximately 350,000 Japanese soldiers, and considerably more Chinese soldiers. Historians estimate up to 300,000 people perished in the [[Nanjing Massacre]], after the [[Battle of Nanjing|fall of Nanjing]] on [[December 13]] [[1937]], while some Japanese historians [[Historical revisionism (negationism)#Japanese war crimes|denied]] the existence of a massacre at all.
 
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident not only marked the beginning of an open, [[Declaration of war|undeclared]], war between China and Japan, but also hastened the formation of the [[Kuomintang]]-[[Communist Party of China]] (CPC) [[Second United Front (China)|Second United Front]]. The cooperation took place with salutary effects for the beleaguered CPC. The distrust between the two [[antagonist]]s was scarcely veiled. Their [[Military alliance|alliance]] was forged literally at gun point when [[Chiang Kai-shek]] was kidnapped in the [[Xi'an incident]] and forced to ally with the CPC. The uneasy alliance began to break down by late [[1938]], despite Japan's steady territorial gains in northern China, the coastal regions, and the rich [[Yangtze River]] Valley in central China. After 1940, open conflict between the [[Nationalist]]s and [[Communist]]s became more frequent in the areas outside Japanese control, culminating in the [[New Fourth Army Incident]]. The Communists expanded their influence wherever opportunities were presented, through mass organizations, administrative reforms, [[Land ownership|land]] and [[Taxation|tax]] reform measures favoring [[peasant]]s, while the Nationalists attempted to neutralize the spread of Communist influence and fight the Japanese at the same time.
 
The Japanese had neither the intention nor the capability to directly administer China. Their goal was to create friendly puppet governments favorable to Japanese interests. However, the atrocities committed by the Japanese army made the governments that were set up very unpopular. In addition, the Japanese refused to negotiate with the [[Kuomintang]] or the [[Communist Party of China]], which fueled further anti-Japanese sentiments. The Japanese also forced the Chinese people living under their control to change their money into military banknotes, which the current Japanese government still refuses to exchange even today.{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
 
==Chinese strategy==
[[Image:Chinese soldiers 1939.jpg|thumb|300px|Chinese soldiers march to the [[Military front|front]] in 1939]]
 
Unlike Japan, China was unprepared for [[total war]] and had little military-industrial strength, no [[Mechanized force|mechanized divisions]], and few [[Armored vehicle|armored forces]]. Up until the mid-[[1930s]] China had hoped that the [[League of Nations]] would provide countermeasures to Japan's aggression. In addition, the Kuomintang government was mired in a [[civil war]] against the [[Communist Party of China|Communists]]. Chiang famously was quoted: "''the Japanese are a disease of skin, the Communists are a disease of the heart''". Though the communists formed the [[New Fourth Army]] and the [[8th Route Army]] which were nominally under the command of the [[National Revolutionary Army]], the [[United Front]] was never truly unified, as each side was preparing for a showdown with the other once the Japanese were driven out. All these disadvantages forced China to adopt a strategy whose first goal was to preserve its military strength, whereas a full frontal assault on the enemy would often prove to be suicidal. Also, pockets of resistance were to be continued in occupied areas to pester the enemy and make their administration over the vast lands of China difficult. As a result the Japanese really only controlled the cities and railroads, while the countrysides were almost always hotbeds of [[Partisan (military)|partisan]] activity.
 
However, Chiang realized that in order to win the support from the [[United States]] or other foreign nations, China must prove that it was indeed capable of fighting. A fast [[Withdrawal (military)|retreat]] would discourage foreign aid so Chiang decided to make a stand in the [[Battle of Shanghai]]. Chiang sent his [[Germany|German]]-trained divisions, the best of his troops, to defend China's largest and most [[Industrialization|industrialized]] city from the Japanese. The battle saw heavy casualties on both sides and ended with a Chinese retreat towards Nanjing. While the battle was a military defeat for the Chinese, it proved that China would not be defeated easily and showed China's determination to the world. The battle lasted over three months and proved to be an enormous [[Morale|morale booster]] for the Chinese people as it ended the Japanese taunt of conquering Shanghai in three days and China in three months.
 
[[Image:Taierzhuang.jpg|250px|thumb|left|Chinese soldiers in [[Urban warfare|house-to-house]] fighting in [[Battle of Tai'erzhuang]]]]
While this direct army to army fighting lasted during the early phases of the war, large numbers of Chinese defeats compared to few victories eventually led to the strategy of stalling the war. Large areas of China were conquered during the early stages of the war but the Japanese advancements began to stall in mid-[[1938]]. The Chinese strategy at this point was to prolong the war until it had sufficient strength to defeat the Japanese. Chinese troops sometimes engaged in a practice of [[scorched earth]] in an attempt to slow down the Japanese. [[Dam]]s and [[levee]]s were sabotaged which led to the [[1938 Huang He flood]]. In addition, industry was transported from coastal industrialized areas to inland cities such as [[Chongqing]]. By [[1940]], the war had reached a stalemate with both sides making minimal gains. The Chinese had successfully defended their land from oncoming Japanese on several occasions while strong resistance in areas occupied by the Japanese made a victory seem impossible to the Japanese. This frustrated the Japanese and led them to employ the "[[Three Alls Policy]]" (kill all, loot all, burn all) ({{lang|mul-Hani|三光政策}}, [[Hanyu Pinyin]]: ''Sānguāng Zhèngcè'', [[Japanese language|Japanese]] [[On reading|On]]: ''Sankō Seisaku''). It was during this time period that a bulk of Japanese [[Atrocity|atrocities]] were committed.
 
On [[December 7]], [[1941]], the Japanese [[Attack on Pearl Harbor|attacked Pearl Harbor]], which brought the United States into the war. China officially declared war on Japan on [[8 December]] [[1941]]. It refused to declare war earlier because receiving military aid while officially at war would break the [[Neutral country|neutrality]] of the donor nation. At this point, the priority changed from survival to victory. Enriched with foreign aid, China's army, now better trained and equipped, began taking the fight to the enemy. Chinese forces took part in the [[Burma Campaign]] to liberate [[Burma]] from the Japanese. By 1945 China was making significant progress, liberating large areas conquered by Japan during [[Operation Ichigo]]. Operations BETA and CARBONADO, were joint Chinese-American plans to liberate the entire Chinese mainland, starting with a push into Guandong and then north to Shanghai. But the dropping of the [[atomic bomb]]s and the Soviet entry into the war, [[Operation August Storm]], ended the war faster than anyone had expected.
 
The basis of Chinese strategy during the war, which can be divided into three periods:
#First Period: [[7 July]] [[1937]] (Battle of Lugou Bridge) – [[25 October]] [[1938]] (Fall of [[Hankou]]). In this period, one key concept is the trading of "space for time" ([[Chinese language|Chinese]]: {{lang|zh-Hant|以空間換取時間}}). The Chinese army would put up fights to delay Japanese advance to northeastern cities, to allow the [[home front]], along with its professionals and key industries, to retreat west into [[Chongqing]] to build up military strength.
#Second Period: [[25 October]] [[1938]] (Fall of Hankou) - July, 1944. During the second period, the Chinese army adopted the concept of "magnetic warfare" to attract advancing Japanese troops to definite points where they were subjected to [[ambush]], [[Flanking maneuver|flanking attack]]s, and [[encirclement]]s in major engagements. The most prominent example of this tactic is the successful defense of [[Battle of Changsha|Changsha]] numerous times.
#Third Period: July 1944 - [[15 August]] [[1945]]. This period employs general full frontal counter-offensives.
 
==Number of troops involved==
===National Revolutionary Army===
:''Main article: [[National Revolutionary Army]]''
[[Image:Republic of China Army Flag.svg|thumb|Flag of the National Revolutionary Army]]
 
The [[National Revolutionary Army]] (NRA) throughout its lifespan employed approximately 4,300,000 regulars, in 370 [[Division (military)|Standard Divisions]] ({{lang|zh-Hant|正式師}}), 46 New Divisions ({{lang|zh-Hant|新編師}}), 12 [[Cavalry|Cavalry Divisions]] ({{lang|zh-Hant|騎兵師}}), 8 New Cavalry Divisions ({{lang|zh-Hant|新編騎兵師}}), 66 Temporary Divisions ({{lang|zh-Hant|暫編師}}), and 13 [[Military reserves|Reserve Divisions]] ({{lang|zh-Hant|預備師}}), for a grand total of 515 divisions. However, many divisions were formed from 2 or more other divisions, and many were not active at the same time. Therefore the number of divisions in active service at any given time is much smaller than this. At the start of the war in 1937, there were about 170 NRA divisions. The average [[National Revolutionary Army|NRA]] division had 4,000–5,000 troops. A Chinese army is roughly the equivalent to a Japanese division in terms of manpower. In addition, the Chinese army was severely understrength due to a general lack of artillery, heavy weapons, and motorized transport. The shortage of military hardware meant that three to four Chinese divisions had the firepower of only one Japanese division. Because of these material constraints, available artillery and heavy weapons were usually assigned to specialist brigades rather than to the general division, which caused more problems as the Chinese command structure lacked precise coordination. The fighting strength of a Chinese division was further reduced with other aspects of warfare, such as [[military intelligence|intelligence]], [[logistics]], communications, and medical services, taken into account.
 
The National Revolutionary Army can be divided roughly into two groups. The first one is the so-called ''dixi'' ({{lang|zh-Hant|嫡系}}, "direct descent") group, which was comprised of divisions trained by the [[Whampoa Military Academy]] and loyal to Chiang Kai-shek, and can be considered the Central Army ({{lang|zh-Hant|中央軍}}) of the NRA. The second group is known as the ''zapai'' ({{lang|zh-Hant|雜牌}}, "miscellaneous units"), and was comprised of all divisions led by non-Whampoa commanders, and is more often known as the Regional Army or the Provincial Army ({{lang|zh-Hant|省軍}}). Even though both military groups were part of the National Revolutionary Army, their distinction lies much in their allegiance to the central government of Chiang Kai-shek. Many former warlords and regional militarists were incorporated into the NRA under the flag of the [[Kuomintang]], but in reality they retained much independence from the central government. They also controlled much of the military strength of China, the most notable of them being the Guangxi, Shanxi, Yunnan and Ma Cliques.
 
:''Main article: [[Chinese Red Army]]''
Although during the war the Chinese Communist forces fought as a nominal part of the [[National Revolutionary Army|NRA]], the number of those on the CPC side, due to their [[guerrilla warfare|guerrilla]] status, is difficult to determine, though estimates place the total number of the [[Eighth Route Army]], [[New Fourth Army]], and irregulars in the Communist armies at 1,300,000.
 
For more information of combat effectiveness of communist armies and other units of Chinese forces see [[Chinese armies in the Second Sino-Japanese War]].
 
===Imperial Japanese Army===
:''Main article: [[Imperial Japanese Army]]''
[[Image:Flag of Japan.svg|thumb|Flag of the Imperial Japanese Army]]
 
*The IJA had approximately 2,000,000 regulars. More Japanese troops were quartered in China than deployed elsewhere in the [[Pacific Theater]] during the war. Japanese divisions ranged from 20,000 men in its divisions numbered less than 100, to 10,000 men in divisions numbered greater than 100. At the time of the [[Pearl Harbor attack]], the IJA had 51 divisions of which 35 were in China, and 39 independent brigades of which all but one were in China. This represented roughly 80% of the IJA's manpower.
*The [[Collaborationist Chinese Army]] in 1938 had 78,000 people, and grew to 145,000 in 1940. Their growth was explosive around 1942-43, and according to KMT estimates 1,186,000 people were involved in the collaborationist army by the war's end. However, 2 million is also a figure often-quoted, which would make China the only country in [[World War II]] with a collaborationist army which outnumbered the invading army. At their height they fielded a maximum of 900,000 troops. Almost all of them belonged to the regional [[puppet government]]s such as [[Manchukuo]], [[Provisional Government of the Republic of China]] (Beijing), [[Reformed Government of the Republic of China]] (Nanjing) and the later [[collaborationist]] Nanjing Nationalist Government or [[Wang Jingwei Government|Wang Jingwei regime]]. The puppet and collaborationist troops were mainly assigned to garrison and logistics duties in areas held by the puppet governments and in occupied territories. They were rarely fielded in combat because of low morale and distrust by the Japanese, and fared poorly in skirmishes against real Chinese forces, whether the KMT or the CPC.
 
==Chinese and Japanese equipment==
===The National Revolutionary Army===
 
The Central Army possessed 80 Army infantry divisions with approximately 8,000 men each, nine independent [[brigade]]s, nine cavalry divisions, two [[Artillery|artillery brigades]], 16 artillery [[regiment]]s and three armored battalions. The [[Chinese Navy]] displaced only 59,000 tonnes and the [[Chinese Air Force]] comprised only 600 aircraft.
 
Chinese weapons were mainly produced in the [[Hanyang Arsenal|Hanyang]] and [[Guangdong]] arsenals. However, for most of the [[German-trained division]]s, the standard firearms were German-made [[8 mm Mauser|7.92 mm]] [[Gewehr 98]] and [[Karabiner 98k]]. The 98 style rifles were often called the "Chiang Kai-shek" rifles. The standard [[light machine gun]] was a local copy of the [[Czechoslovakia|Czech]] [[8 mm Mauser|7.92 mm]] [[Brno ZB26]]. There were also [[Belgium|Belgian]] and [[France|French]] LMGs. Surprisingly, the NRA did not purchase any of the infamous ''[[Maschinengewehr 34]]''s from [[Germany]], but did produce their own copies of them. On average in these divisions, there was one machine gun set for each [[platoon]]. [[Heavy machine gun]]s were mainly locally-made [[1924]] [[water-cooled]] [[Maxim gun]]s, from German [[blueprint]]s. On average every [[battalion]] would get one HMG. The standard sidearm was the [[7 mm caliber|7.63 mm]] [[Mauser C96|Mauser M1932]] [[semi-automatic pistol]].
 
Some divisions were equipped with 37mm [[PaK 35/36]] [[anti-tank gun]]s, and/or [[mortar (weapon)|mortar]]s from [[Oerlikon]], [[Madsen]], and [[Solothurn]]. Each infantry division had 6 French [[Brandt]] 81 mm [[Field gun|mortars]] and 6 [[Solothurn]] 20mm [[autocannon]]s. Some independent brigades and artillery regiments were equipped with [[Bofors]] [[72mm L/14]], or [[Krupp]] 72mm [[L/29]] [[mountain guns]]. They were 24 ''[[Rheinmetall]]'' 150mm [[L/32 sFH 18]] [[howitzer]]s (bought in [[1934]]) and 24 Rheinmetall 150mm [[L/30 sFH 18]] howitzers (bought in [[1936]]).
 
Infantry uniforms were basically redesigned [[Zhongshan suit]]s. Leg wrappings are standard for soldiers and officers alike since the primary mode of movement for NRA troops was by foot. The helmets were the most distinguishing characteristic of these divisions. From the moment German [[M35]] helmets (standard issue for the ''[[Wehrmacht]]'' until late in the [[European Theatre of World War II|European theatre]]) rolled off the production lines in [[1935]], and until [[1936]], the NRA imported 315,000 of these helmets, each with the 12-ray sun emblem of the ROC on the sides. Other equipment included cloth shoes for soldiers, leather shoes for officers and leather boots for high-ranking officers. Every soldier was issued ammunition, ammunition pouch/harness, a water flask, combat knives, food bag, and a [[gas mask]].
 
On the other hand, warlord forces varied greatly in terms of equipment and training. Some warlord troops were notoriously under-equipped, such as Shanxi's ''[[Dadao]] Teams'' and the [[Yunnan]]ese army.
Some however were highly professional forces with their own air force and navies. The quality of [[Guangxi]]'s army was almost on par with the Central Army's, as the [[Guangzhou]] region was wealthy and the local army could afford foreign instructors and arms. The Muslim Ma Clique to the Northwest was famed for its well-trained cavalry divisions.
 
===The Imperial Japanese Army===
Although Imperial Japan possessed significant mobile operational capacity, it did not possess capability for maintaining a long sustained war. At the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War the Japanese Army comprised 17 divisions, each composed of approximately 22,000 men, 5,800 horses, 9,500 rifles and [[submachine gun]]s, 600 heavy machine guns of assorted types, 108 artillery pieces, and 24 tanks. [[Special forces]] were also available. [[Imperial Japanese Navy|The Japanese Navy]] displaced a total of 1,900,000 tonnes, ranking third in the world, and possessed 2,700 aircraft at the time. Each Japanese division was the equivalent in fighting strength of four Chinese regular divisions (at the beginning of [[Battle of Shanghai (1937)]]).
 
See Also:
*''[[List of Japanese infantry weapons used in the Second-Sino Japanese War]]''
*''[[List of armour used by the Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War]]''
*''[[List of Japanese aircraft in use during the Second Sino-Japanese War]]''
 
==Stalemate and foreign aid==
By 1940, the fighting had reached a stalemate. While Japan held most of the eastern coastal areas of China, [[guerrilla warfare|guerrilla]] fighting continued in the conquered areas. The Nationalist government of [[Chiang Kai-shek]] struggled on from a provisional capital at the city of [[Chongqing]]; however, realizing that he also faced a threat from [[communist]] forces of [[Mao Zedong]], he mostly tried to preserve the remaining strength of his army and avoid heavy battle with the Japanese in the hopes of defeating the Communists once the Japanese left. China, with its low industrial capacities and limited experience in [[modern warfare]], could not launch any decisive counter-offensive against Japan. Chiang could not risk an all-out campaign given the poorly-trained, under-equipped, and disorganized state of his armies and opposition to his leadership both within [[Kuomintang]] and in China at large. He had lost a substantial portion of his best trained and equipped army [[Battle of Shanghai (1937)|defending Shanghai]] and the remaining troops were used to preserve his army. On the other hand, Japan had suffered tremendous casualties from unexpectedly stubborn resistance from China and already developed problems in administering and garrisoning fallen territories. Neither side could make any swift progress in a manner resembling the [[Battle of France|fall of France]] and Western Europe to [[Nazi Germany]].
 
Most military analysts predicted that the Kuomintang could not continue fighting with most of the war factories located in the prosperous areas under or near Japanese control. Other global powers were reluctant to provide any support — unless supporting an ulterior motive — because in their opinion the Chinese would eventually lose the war, and did not wish to antagonize the Japanese who might, in turn, eye their colonial possessions in the region. They expected any support given to Kuomintang might worsen their own relationship with the Japanese, who taunted the [[Kuomintang]] with the prospect of conquest within 3 months.
 
[[Germany]] and the [[Soviet Union]] did provide support to the Chinese before the war escalated to the Asian theatre of World War II. The Soviet Union was helping the Kuomintang government to hinder the Japanese from invading [[Siberia]], thus saving itself from a [[Two Front War|two front war]]. In September [[1937]] the Soviet leadership signed [[Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact]] and approved [[Operation Zet]]. As part of the secret operation Soviet technicians upgraded and handled some of the Chinese war-supply transport. [[Bomber]]s, [[Fighter aircraft|fighters]], military supplies and advisors arrived, including future Soviet [[war hero]] [[Georgy Zhukov]], who won the [[Battle of Halhin Gol]]. It also supported the Communists, at least until war with Germany forced her into conserving everything for her own forces.
 
Because of Chiang Kai-shek's anti-communist nationalist policies and hopes of defeating the CPC, Germany provided the largest proportion of Kuomintang arms imports. German military advisors modernized and trained the Kuomintang armies; Kuomintang officers (including Chiang's second son, [[Chiang Wei-kuo]]) were educated in and served in the German army prior to World War II. More than half of the German arms exports during its rearmament period were to China. Nevertheless the proposed 30 new divisions equipped with all German arms did not materialize as the Germans sided with the Japanese later in World War II.
 
Other prominent [[power (international)|power]]s, including the [[United States|United States of America]], the [[United Kingdom]], and [[France]], only officially assisted in war supply contracts up to the [[attack on Pearl Harbor]] in late 1941, when a significant influx of trained military personnel and supplies boosted the Kuomintang chance of maintaining the fight.
 
Public opinion in the west was becoming favorable to the Kuomintang. At the start of the 1930s, [[public opinion]] had tended to support the Japanese. However, from December 1937, events such as the Japanese [[Panay incident|attack on the USS ''Panay '']] and the Nanking Massacre, swung public opinion sharply against Japan, and increased fear of Japanese expansionism. In 1938, [[Australia]] prevented a Japanese Government-owned company from taking over an iron mine in Australia, and banned [[iron ore]] exports.<ref>[http://www.info.dfat.gov.au/info/historical/HistDocs.nsf/(LookupVolNoNumber)/3~221 "Memorandum by Mr J. McEwen, Minister for External Affairs 10 May 1940" ] </ref>
 
By mid-[[1941]], the United States organized the [[American Volunteer Group]], or Flying Tigers. Their early combat success of 300 kills against a loss of 12 of their shark painted P-40 fighters earned them wide recognition while Allies were suffering heavy losses. Entering soon after the U.S. and Japan were at war, their dogfighting tactics would be adopted by US forces. They would also transmit the appreciative Chinese [[thumbs-up]] gesture for number one into military culture.
 
In addition, the United States, Britain and the [[Netherlands East Indies]] began oil and/or steel [[embargo]]s. The loss of oil imports made it impossible for Japan to continue operations in China. This set the stage for Japan to launch a series of military attacks on the western Allies on [[December 8]] [[1941]] ([[December 7]] in U.S. time zones), such as the [[attack on Pearl Harbor|raid on Pearl Harbor]].
 
==Entrance of Western Allies==
Within a few days of the attack on Pearl Harbor, both the United States and China officially declared war against Japan. Chiang Kai-shek continued to receive supplies from the [[United States]], as the Chinese conflict was merged into the [[Pacific War|Asian theatre of World War II]]. However, in contrast to the arctic supply route to the Soviet Union that stayed open most of the war, sea routes to China had long been closed, so between the closing of the [[Burma Road]] in 1942 and its re-opening as the [[Ledo Road]] in 1945, foreign aid was largely limited to what could be flown in over [[The Hump]]. Most of China's own industry had already been captured or destroyed by Japan, and the Soviet Union could spare little from the Eastern Front. Because of these reasons, the Chinese government never had the supplies and equipment needed to mount a major offensive.
 
Chiang was appointed [[Allied]] Commander-in-Chief in the China theater in [[1942]]. General [[Joseph Stilwell]] served for a time as Chiang's Chief of Staff, while commanding US forces in the [[China Burma India Theater]]. However, relations between Stilwell and Chiang soon broke down, due to a number of factors. Some historians suggested it is largely due to the [[Political corruption|corruption]] and inefficiency of the Chinese government. However, some historians believed it was a more complicated situation. Stilwell had a strong desire to assume control of Chinese troops, which Chiang vehemently opposed. Stilwell did not appreciate the complexity of the situation, including the buildup of the Chinese Communist during the war (essentially Chiang had to fight a multi-front war - the Japanese on one side, the Communists on the other) Stilwell criticized the Chinese government's conduct of the war in the American [[mass media|media]], and to President [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt|Franklin Roosevelt]]. Chiang was hesitant to deploy more Chinese troops away from the main front because China already suffered tens of millions of war casualties, and believed that Japan would eventually capitulate to America's overwhelming industrial output and manpower. The Allies began to lose confidence in the Chinese ability to conduct offensive operations from the Asian mainland, and instead concentrated their efforts against the Japanese in the [[Pacific Ocean Areas]] and [[South West Pacific Area]], employing an [[island hopping]] strategy. Three months after the cessation of hostilities in the [[European Theatre of World War II|western front]], as per the agreement made in the [[Yalta Conference]], the USSR launched an overwhelming [[Operation August Storm|attack]] in Manchuria against the Japanese. Following the surrender of the Japanese to the Allied powers, the USSR proceeded to dismantle nearly all of the industrial equipment in Manchuria for transport back to the USSR. During this time, the CCP took refuge in the area, and looted what the Soviets had left, including most of the arms retreating Japanese forces left behind.
 
Conflicts among China, the United States, and the United Kingdom also emerged in the Pacific war. [[Winston Churchill]] was reluctant to devote British troops, the majority of whom were defeated by the Japanese in earlier campaigns, to reopen the [[Burma Road]]. On the other hand, Stilwell believed that the reopening of the Burma Road was vital to China as all the ports on mainland China were under Japanese control. Churchill's "[[Europe first|Europe First]]" policy obviously did not sit well with Chiang. Furthermore, the later British insistence that China send in more and more troops into [[Indochina]] in the [[Burma Campaign]], was regarded as an attempt by Great Britain to use Chinese manpower to secure Britain's colonial holdings in Southeast Asia and prevent the gate to [[India]] from falling to Japan. Chiang also believed that China should divert its troops to eastern China to defend the airbases of the American bombers, a strategy that [[Claire Chennault]] supported. In addition, Chiang voiced his support of [[Indian Independence Movement|Indian Independence]] in a meeting with [[Mahatma Gandhi]] in [[1942]], which further soured the relationship between China and the United Kingdom.
[[Image:Cairo conference.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Generalissimo [[Chiang Kai-shek]], [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]], and [[Winston Churchill]] met at the [[Cairo Conference]] in 1943 during World War II.]]
The United States saw the Chinese theater as a means to tie up a large number of Japanese troops, as well as being a location for American airbases from which to strike the Japanese home islands. In [[1944]], as the Japanese position in the Pacific was deteriorating fast, the [[Imperial Japanese Army|IJA]] launched [[Operation Ichigo]] to attack the airbases which had begun to operate. This brought the [[Hunan]], [[Henan]], and [[Guangxi]] provinces under Japanese administration. The failure of the Chinese forces to defend these areas led to the replacement of Stilwell by Major General [[Albert Wedemeyer]]. However, Chinese troops under the command of [[Sun Li-jen]] drove out the Japanese in North Burma to secure the [[Ledo Road]], a supply route to China. In Spring 1945 the Chinese launched offensives and retook Guangxi and other southwestern regions. With the Chinese army well in the progress training and equipping, Albert Wedemeyer planned to launch Operation Carbonado in summer 1945 to retake Guandong, obtaining a coastal port, and from there drive northwards toward Shanghai. However, the dropping of the atomic bombs hastened Japanese surrender and these plans were not put into action.
 
==Casualties assessment==
[[Image:Nanjing1937 BabyOnTracks.jpeg|thumb|250px|right|[[Shanghai]] 1937: One of the earlier images of the war to come out from China, this [[icon]]ic photo appeared in [[Life (magazine)|LIFE magazine]]]]
The conflict lasted for 97 months and 3 days (measured from 1937 to 1945).
===Chinese casualties===
*The Kuomintang fought in 22 major engagements, most of which involved more than 100,000 troops on both sides, 1,171 minor engagements most of which involved more than 50,000 troops on both sides, and 38,931 skirmishes.
*The Chinese lost approximately 3.22 million soldiers. 9.13 million [[civilian]]s died in the crossfire, and another 8.4 million as non-military casualties. According to historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta, at least 2.7 million civilians died during the "kill all, steal all, burn all" operation ([[sanko sakusen]]) implemented in May 1942 in North China by general [[Yasuji Okamura]] and authorized on 3 December 1941 by Imperial Headquarter Order number 575. <ref>Himeta, ''Sankô sakusen towa nan dataka-Chûgokujin no mita Nihon no sensô'', Iwanami Bukuretto 1996, p.43.</ref>
Some Chinese historians claimed the total military and non-military deaths of the Chinese were at most 35 million. Most Western historians believed that the casualties were at least 20 million.
Property loss of the Chinese valued up to 383,301.3 million US&nbsp;dollars according to the currency exchange rate in July 1937, roughly 50 times of the [[Gross Domestic Product|GDP]] of Japan at that time (7,700 million US dollars). {{Fact|date=February 2007}}
*In addition, the war created 95 million [[refugee]]s.
 
===Japanese casualties===
The Japanese recorded around 1.1 million military casualties, killed, wounded and missing, although this number is disputed. The official death-toll according to the Japan defense ministry was only about 200,000, but this is believed to be extremely low when considering the length of the conflict. The combined Chinese forces claimed to have killed at most 1.77 million Japanese soldiers during the 8-year-war. Most academics put Japanese casualities suffered during the Second Sino-Japanese War at 1.1 million.{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
 
==Aftermath==
[[Image:1945 chiang-mao.jpg|thumb|220px|left|[[Chiang Kai-shek]] and [[Mao Zedong]] met in the wartime capital of [[Chongqing]], to toast to the [[Japanese Instrument of Surrender|Chinese victory over Empire of Japan]].]]
As of mid 1945, all sides expected the war to continue for at least another year. On August 6th, an American [[B-29 Superfortress|B-29]] bomber dropped the first atomic bomb used in combat on [[Hiroshima]], in an attempt to force Japan to surrender, which it did not. Two days later, on [[8 August]] the Soviets launched [[Operation August Storm]]. The Soviet Union, having renounced its non-aggression pact with Japan, attacked the Japanese in Manchuria, fulfilling its Yalta pledge to attack the Japanese within three months after the [[Victory in Europe Day|end of the war in Europe]]. The attack was made by three Soviet army groups. In less than two weeks the [[Kwantung Army]] in Manchuria consisting of over a million men had been destroyed by the Soviets. Three days later, another atomic bomb was dropped on [[Nagasaki]]. Japan capitulated to the [[Allies of World War II|Allies]] on [[August 15]], [[1945]]. The Japanese troops in China formally surrendered on [[September 9]], [[1945]] and by the provisions of the [[Cairo Conference]] of 1943 the lands of [[Manchuria]], [[Taiwan]] and the [[Pescadores Islands]] reverted to China. However, the [[Ryukyu Islands]] were maintained as Japanese territory.
[[Image:Liuchow 1945.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The Chinese return to [[Liuzhou|Liuchow]] in July 1945]]
 
In 1945 China emerged from the war nominally a great military power but was actually a nation economically prostrate and on the verge of all-out [[Chinese Civil War|civil war]]. The economy deteriorated, sapped by the military demands of a long, costly war and internal strife, by spiraling [[inflation]], and by Nationalist profiteering, [[speculation]], and hoarding. Starvation came in the wake of the war, as large swathes of the prime farming areas were ravaged by the fighting. Millions were rendered homeless by floods and the destruction of towns and cities in many parts of the country. The situation was further complicated by an Allied agreement at the [[Yalta Conference]] in February 1945 that brought Soviet troops into Manchuria to hasten the termination of war against Japan. Although the Chinese had not been present at Yalta, they had been consulted; they had agreed to have the Soviets enter the war in the belief that the Soviet Union would deal only with the Nationalist government. After the war, the Soviet Union, as part of the Yalta agreement's allowing a Soviet [[sphere of influence]] in Manchuria, dismantled and removed more than half the industrial equipment left there by the Japanese. The Soviet presence in northeast China enabled the Communists to move in long enough to arm themselves with the equipment surrendered by the withdrawing Japanese army. The problems of rehabilitating the formerly Japanese-occupied areas and of reconstructing the nation from the ravages of a protracted war were staggering, to say the least.
[[Image:Japansurrenderpapers.jpg|left|thumb|200px|[[Japanese Instrument of Surrender]]]]
The war left the Nationalists severely weakened and their policies left them unpopular. Meanwhile the war strengthened the Communists, both in popularity and as a viable fighting force. At [[Yan'an]] and elsewhere in the "liberated areas," [[Mao Zedong|Mao]] was able to adapt [[Leninism|Marxism-Leninism]] to Chinese conditions. He taught party cadres to lead the masses by living and working with them, eating their food, and thinking their thoughts. When this failed, however, more repressive forms of coercion, indoctrination and ostracization were also employed. The [[People's Liberation Army|Red Army]] fostered an image of conducting guerrilla warfare in defense of the people. In addition, the CPC was effectively split into "Red" (cadres working in the "liberated" areas) and "White" (cadres working underground in enemy-occupied territory) spheres, a split that would later sow future factionalism within the CPC. Communist troops adapted to changing wartime conditions and became a seasoned fighting force. Mao also began preparing for the establishment of a new China, well away from the front at his base in Yan'an. In 1940 he outlined the program of the Chinese Communists for an eventual seizure of power and began his final push for consolidation of CPC power under his authority. His teachings became the central tenets of the CPC doctrine that came to be formalized as "[[Mao Zedong Thought]]". With skillful organizational and [[propaganda]] work, the Communists increased party membership from 100,000 in 1937 to 1.2 million by 1945. Soon, [[Chinese Civil War|all out war broke out]] between the KMT and CPC, a war that would leave the Nationalists banished to [[Taiwan]] and the Communists victorious on the [[mainland China|mainland]].
 
==Legacy==
[[Image:AntijapaneseWarMemorialMuseum.jpg|right|thumb|250px|China War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial Museum on the site where [[Marco Polo Bridge Incident]] took place.]]
To this day the war is a major point of contention between China and Japan. The war remains a major roadblock for [[Sino-Japanese relations]] today, and many people, particularly in China, harbour grudges over the war and related issues. A small but vocal group of Japanese nationalists and/or right-wingers deny a variety of crimes attributed to Japan. The Japanese invasion of its neighbours is often glorified or whitewashed, and wartime atrocities, most notably the [[Nanjing Massacre]], [[comfort women]], and [[Unit 731]], are frequently denied by such individuals. The Japanese government has also been accused of [[historical revisionism]] by allowing the approval of school textbooks omitting or glossing over Japan's militant past. In response to criticism of Japanese textbook revisionism, the PRC government has been accused of using the war to stir up already growing anti-Japanese feelings in order to whip up nationalistic sentiments and divert its citizens' minds from internal matters.
 
The PRC government has also been accused of greatly exaggerating the CPC's role in fighting the Japanese. The PRC has traditionally emphasized the role of communist guerrilla warfare behind enemy lines and claimed that the KMT refused to fight the Japanese. Such viewpoint is often challenged by contemporary generals and historians. One such notable critic is General [[Hau Pei-tsun]], who refused to attend a joint celebration in China marking the sixtieth anniversary of the end of war in [[2005]], claiming that the PRC continues to distort history. In reality, the KMT army, including Chiang Kai-shek's central army and other non-Whampoa provincial armies, carried the brunt of combat during the war. The KMT army suffered some 3.2 million casualties while the CPC increased its military strength from practically nothing to 1.7 million men. In addition, many surviving KMT officers and soldiers, who were not able to evacuate to [[Taiwan]] following the [[Chinese Civil War]], were also persecuted by the communist government and sent to [[laogai|labor camps]] for having served under Chiang Kai-shek's command. Their descendants and relatives also faced hardships as they were categorized as "counter-revolutionaries" during the [[Cultural Revolution]].
 
The legacy of the war is more complicated in the [[Republic of China]] on [[Taiwan]]. Traditionally, the government has held celebrations marking the [[Victory Day]] on [[September 9]] (now known as [[Armed Forces Day]]), and Taiwan's [[Retrocession]] Day on [[October 25]]. However, with the power transfer from KMT to the more pro-[[Taiwan independence]] [[pan-green coalition]] and the rise of [[desinicization]], events commemorating the war have become less commonplace. Many supporters of Taiwan independence see no relevance in preserving the memory of the war of resistance that happened primarily on mainland China. Still, commemorations are held in regions where politics is dominated by the [[pan-blue coalition]]. Many pan-blue supporters, particularly veterans who retreated with the government in 1949, still have an emotional interest in the war. For example, in celebrating the sixtieth anniversary of the end of war in 2005, the cultural bureau of pan-blue stronghold [[Taipei]] held a series of talks in the [[Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall]] regarding the war and post-war developments, while the KMT held its own exhibit in the KMT headquarters.
 
==Who fought the War of Resistance?==
The question as to which political group directed the Chinese war effort and exerted most of the effort to resist the Japanese still remains a controversial issue.
 
In the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial near the [[Marco Polo Bridge]] and in mainland Chinese textbooks, the People's Republic of China claims that it was the Communist Party that directed Chinese efforts in the war and did everything to resist the Japanese invasion. Recently, however, with a change in the political climate, the CPC has admitted that certain Nationalist generals made important contributions in resisting the Japanese. The official history in mainland China is that the KMT fought a bloody, yet indecisive, frontal war against Japan, while it was the CPC that engaged the Japanese forces in far greater numbers behind enemy lines. This emphasis on the CPC's central role is partially reflected by the PRC's labeling of the war as the Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War of Resistance rather than merely the War of Resistance. According to the PRC official point of view, the Nationalists mostly avoided fighting the Japanese in order to preserve its strength for a final showdown with the Communists. However, for the sake of [[Chinese reunification]] and appeasing the ROC on Taiwan, the PRC has now "acknowledged" that the Nationalists and the Communists were "equal" contributors because the victory over Japan belonged to the Chinese people, rather than to any political party.
 
Leaving aside Nationalists sources, scholars researching third party Japanese and Soviet sources have documented quite a different view. Such studies claim that the Communists actually played a miniscule involvement in the war against the Japanese compared to the Nationalists and used guerilla warfare as well as opium sales to preserve its strength for a final showdown with the Kuomintang.<ref>Chang and Ming, [[July 12]] [[2005]], pg.&nbsp;8; and Chang and Halliday, pg.&nbsp;233, 246, 286–287</ref> This is congruent with the Nationalist viewpoint, as demonstrated by history textbooks published in Taiwan, which gives the KMT credit for the brunt of the fighting. According to these third-party scholars, the Communists were not the main participants in any of the 22 major battles, most involving more than 100,000 troops on both sides, between China and Japan. Soviet liaison to the Chinese Communists [[Peter Vladimirov]] documented that he never once found the Chinese Communists and Japanese engaged in battle during the period from 1942 to 1945. He also expressed frustration at not being allowed by the Chinese Communists to visit the frontline,<ref>Chang and Ming, [[July 12]] [[2005]]</ref> although as a foreign diplomat Vladimirov may have been overly optimistic to expect to be allowed to join Chinese guerrilla sorties. The Communists usually avoided open warfare (the [[Hundred Regiments Campaign]] and the [[Battle of Pingxingguan]] are notable exceptions), preferring to fight in small squads to harass the Japanese supply lines. In comparison, right from the beginning of the war the Nationalists committed their best troops (including the 36th, 83rd, 88th divisions, the crack divisions of Chiang's Central Army) to [[Battle of Shanghai|defend Shanghai]] from the Japanese, a third of whom were killed or wounded. The Japanese considered the Kuomintang rather than the Communists as their main enemy<ref>Chang and Halliday, pg.&nbsp;231</ref> and [[Bombing of Chongqing|bombed the Nationalist wartime capital]] of Chongqing to the point that it was the most heavily bombed city in the world to date.<ref>Chang and Halliday, pg.&nbsp;232</ref> Also, the main bulk of Japanese forces were fighting mainly in Central and Southern China, away from major Communist strongholds such as those in [[Shaanxi]].
 
A third perspective advocated by some historians is that the former warlords actually did most of the fighting with the Japanese, considering that a large part the [[National Revolutionary Army]] was actually composed of troops from different factions. Chiang Kai-shek's Central Army sustained heavy casualties in the beginning of the war in Shanghai-Nanjing campaigns and his military strength was never to recover to pre-war levels. This situation forced Chiang to rely on other divisions of the National Revolutionary Army. These non-[[Whampoa]] divisions, also known as the "provincial army," were nominally part of the National Revolutionary Army but in reality had their own command structures. Some major engagements after the initial 1937 campaigns, such as [[Battle of Xuzhou]] and the [[Battle of Changsha]] were fought by former warlords under the banner of the Kuomintang.
--->
== Tokoh utama ==
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