Banjo: Perbezaan antara semakan

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{{Infobox Instrument|name=Banjo|names=|image=BluegrassBanjo.jpg|image_capt=A five-string banjo|background=string|hornbostel_sachs=321.322-5|hornbostel_sachs_desc=Composite [[chordophone]] sounded by plectrum, finger picks, or the [[Pizzicato|bare fingers]]|developed=18th century|origin={{flagicon|United States}} [[Colonial history of the United States|Colonial America]]|range=[[File:Range of 22-fret five string banjo.png|thumb|Open strings and highest note of a standard-tuned five-string bluegrass banjo.]]|related=|midi=105/106|articles=}}
'''Banjo''' ({{Small|disebut}} [bén-.jo]) ialah sebuah [[alat muzik bertali]] empat hingga enam dengan suatu lapisan kulit nipis yang menyalunkan petikan tali alat lalu menghasilkan bunyi yang tersendiri. Ia diperkenalkan [[Orang Amerika Afrika|masyarakat Afrika]] yang dibawa dan [[Perhambaan di Amerika Syarikat|diperhambakan]] di [[Amerika Syarikat]], di mana mereka menghasilkan alat ini hasil daripada alat bertali yang pernah digunakan masyarakat-masyarakat asal [[Afrika|benua tersebut]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ibma.org/about.bluegrass/history/index.asp|title=Bluegrass Music: The Roots|publisher=[[International Bluegrass Music Association|IBMA]]|accessdate=2006-08-25|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060822015618/http://www.ibma.org/about.bluegrass/history/index.asp|archivedate=22 August 2006<!-- disappears after 30 April 2011-->}}</ref><ref name="grove">{{cite web|last1=Odell|first1=Jay Scott|title=Banjo|url=http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/A2256043|website=Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online.|publisher=Oxford University Press|accessdate=23 February 2015}}{{subscription required}}</ref>
 
Alat ini sering dimainkan dan dikaitkan dengan muzik genre [[Folk music|folk]] dan [[country]]; malah ia juga diterapkan dalam genre moden seperti [[rock]] (sepertimana dipakai kugiran-kugiran seperti [[The Eagles]], [[Led Zeppelin]] dan [[The Allman Brothers Band|The Allman Brothers]]).
Perkataan "banjo" mula tercatat sejak abad ke-18 dan awal abad ke-19<ref name="grove" /> dengan banyak ejaan berbeza seperti ''bangie'', ''banza'', ''bonjaw'',<ref>{{cite book|url=https://archive.org/stream/hamelobeahman00hamegoog#page/n26/mode/2up|title=Hamel, the Obeah Man|last1=Williams|first1=Cynric R.|date=1827|publisher=Hunt and Clarke|edition=1st|location=London|page=17|accessdate=7 February 2016}}</ref> ''banjer''<ref>Entertainment at the [[Lyceum Theatre, London|Lyceum]] featuring stage character, 'The Negro and his Banjer':The Times (London), 5 October 1790, p.1</ref> and ''banjar;'' namun asal-usul kata ini banyak diperdebatkan - sama ada daripada perkataan [[bahasa Kimbundu]] ''mbanza'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thebanjoguru.com/music/276-how-did-banjos-get-their-name/|title=Archived copy|accessdate=2016-01-31|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101227071335/http://www.thebanjoguru.com/music/276-how-did-banjos-get-their-name/|archivedate=27 December 2010|df=dmy-all|dead-url=yes}}</ref> iaitu sejenis alat bertali lima, sebutan pelor ''[[Bandora (instrument)|bandore]]'' atau ''[[bandurria]]'' (menurut [[Oxford English Dictionary]])<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/15231?redirectedFrom=banjo&|title=Banjo|last=|first=|date=|website=Oxford English Dictionary|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|accessdate=October 12, 2017}}</ref> mahupun sebuah tarian tradisi kaum Afrika-Caribbean iaitu "banya".<ref>Gaddy, Kristina. "Legacy of Slavery and Indentured Labour." In ''Playing Banya: The Evidence and Legacy of Shared Cultural Practice Among Enslaved Africans throughout the Americas.'' Proceedings of Conference on Slavery, Indentured Labour, Migration, Diaspora and Identity Formation.</ref>
 
Alat banjo yang dikenali umum datang daripada rantau [[Caribbean|kepulauan Caribbean]] sejak abad ke-17 hasil kacukan unsur budaya banyak [[Perhambaan|hamba-hamba]] yang dibawa dari [[Afrika Barat]] melalui [[Perdagangan Hamba Atlantik]]. Banyak alat bertali yang wujud menampilkan bentuk sedikit sebanyak mirip banjo moden dari rantau ini seperti ''[[kora]]'' dimainkan orang Manding, ''[[akonting]]'' dimainkan [[orang Jola]] [[Senegambia]] serta ''ubaw-akwala'' dimainkan [[Orang Igbo|kaum Igbo]].<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vqpoxEl_0_4C&pg=PA180|title=Murder at Montpelier: Ibo Africans in Virginia|last=Chambers|first=Douglas B.|publisher=Univ. Press of Mississippi|year=2009|isbn=1-60473-246-6|page=180}}</ref> Model-model awal alat ini terbina dengan bentuk badan berbentuk [[labu]] dengan leher batang kayu serta bilangan tali yang pelbagai. Binaan sebegini lama-kelamaan membeza dengan munculnya ciri papan menjari (''fingerboard'') serta tombol penala hasil pengaruh Barat seawal kurun ke-17 di Caribbean.<ref name="myspace.com">Pestcoe, Shlomoe and Adams, Greg C., ''Banjo Roots Research: Exploring the Banjo's African American Origins & West African Heritage'', 2010</ref>
 
* ''[[kora]]'', feature a [[skin]] [[Drumhead|head]] and [[gourd]] (or similar shell) body.<ref name="myspace.com">Pestcoe, Shlomoe and Adams, Greg C., ''Banjo Roots Research: Exploring the Banjo's African American Origins & West African Heritage'', 2010</ref><ref>[https://archive.is/20121229072104/http://www.myspace.com/banjoroots/blog]</ref>
* ''[[akonting]]'', a spike folk lute played by the [[Jola people|Jola tribe]] of [[Senegambia]]
* ''ubaw-akwala'' dimainkan [[Orang Ibo|kaum Igbo]].<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vqpoxEl_0_4C&pg=PA180|title=Murder at Montpelier: Ibo Africans in Virginia|last=Chambers|first=Douglas B.|publisher=Univ. Press of Mississippi|year=2009|isbn=1-60473-246-6|page=180}}</ref> Similar instruments include the ''[[xalam]]'' of [[Senegal]]<ref name="FischerKelly2000">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=GFa7KVPWmKwC&pg=PA66|title=Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement|author1=David Hackett Fischer|author2=James C. Kelly|author3=Virginia Historical Society|publisher=University of Virginia Press|year=2000|isbn=978-0-8139-1774-0|pages=66–}}</ref> and the ''[[Ngoni (instrument)|ngoni]]'' of the [[Wassoulou]] region including parts of [[Mali]], [[Guinea]], and [[Ivory Coast]], as well as a larger variation of the ''ngoni'' developed in [[Morocco]] by sub-Saharan Africans known as the ''gimbri''.{{Citation needed|date=December 2007}}
 
Model-model awal alat ini terbina dengan bentuk badan berbentuk [[labu]] dengan leher batang kayu serta bilangan tali yang pelbagai. Binaan sebegini lama-kelamaan membeza dengan munculnya ciri papan menjari (''fingerboard'') serta tombol penala hasil pengaruh Barat seawal kurun ke-17 di Caribbean.<ref name="myspace.com" />
 
Alat muzik ini mula dikenali secara umumnya melepasi budaya masyarakat Afrika Amerika dan kulit putih luar bandar melalui [[pertunjukan minstrel]] yang muncul sepanjang abad ke-19.<ref>{{Cite book|title=Banjo Roots and Branches|last=Winans|first=Bob|last2=Gibson|first2=George|publisher=University of Illinois|year=2018|isbn=|location=Urbana|pages=226, 231, 242–246|chapter=Black Banjo, Fiddle and Dance in Kentucky and the Amalgamation of African American and Anglo American Folk Music}}</ref><ref>Winship, David.[http://www.birthplaceofcountrymusic.org/index.cgi?CONTEXT=cat&cat=10043 "The African American Music Tradition in Country Music] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070204113038/http://www.birthplaceofcountrymusic.org/index.cgi?CONTEXT=cat&cat=10043|date=4 February 2007}}." BCMA, Birthplace of Country Music Alliance. Retrieved 02-08-2007.