Perbezaan antara semakan "Muhammad"

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{{short description|Pengasas dan nabi utama Islam}}
#LENCONG [[Nabi Muhammad SAW]]
{{about|Nabi Islam|orang lain bernama Muhammad|Muhammad (nama)|penggunaan lain|Muhammad (nyahkekaburan)|pandangan dan perspektif Islam|Nabi Muhammad SAW}}
{{Infobox person
| honorific_prefix = [[Nabi]]
| native_name = {{lang|ar|مُحَمَّد}}
| image = Dark vignette Al-Masjid AL-Nabawi Door800x600x300.jpg
| caption = "Muhammad Rasulullah"<br />tertulis di pintu gerbang [[Masjid Nabawi|Masjid Nabi]] di [[Madinah]]
| alt = Prasasti yang menyatakan Muhammad sebagai rasul Tuhan
| birth_date = {{circa|570|df=y}}
| birth_place = {{longitem|[[Makkah]], [[Hijjaz]], [[Semenanjung Arab]]}}
| death_date = {{death date and age|632|6|8|570|df=y}}
| death_place = {{longitem|Madinah, Hijjaz, Semenanjung Arab}}
| resting_place = {{longitem|style=white-space; |[[Kubah Hijau]] di [[Masjid Nabawi]], Madinah, Semenanjung Arab}}
| resting_place_coordinates = {{coord|24|28|03|N|39|36|41|E|type:landmark_scale:5000_region:SA|display=inline|name=Kubah Hijau}}
| other_names = {{unbulleted list|style=line-height:1.3em; |''Abu al-Qasim'' ([[Kunyah (bahasa Arab)|nama timangan]]) |''Rasūl Allāh'' (Utusan Tuhan) |''(lihat [[Nama dan gelaran Muhammad]])''}}
| years_active = {{longitem | style = white-space:nowrap; |583–609&nbsp;M sebagai saudagar<br />610–632&nbsp;M sebagai pemimpin agama}}
| notable_works = [[Piagam Madinah]]
| successor = ''Lihat'' [[Pewaris kepada Nabi Muhammad]]
| opponents = [[Quraisy]]
| spouse = ''Lihat'' [[Isteri Muhammad]]
| children = ''Lihat'' [[Anak-anak Muhammad]]
| parents = [[Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib]] (bapa)<br />[[Aminah binti Wahb]] (ibu)
| relatives = [[Salasilah keturunan Nabi Muhammad]], [[Ahlul Bait]]{{nbsp|2}}("Salasilah Keluarga")
| module = {{Infobox Arabic name|embed=yes
| ism = Muhammad
| nasab = Muḥammad bin [[Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib|Abdullah]] bin [[Abdul Muttalib]] bin [[Hashim bin Abdul Manaf|Hashim]] bin [[Abdul Manaf bin Qusai|Abd Manaf]] bin [[Qusai bin Kilab|Qusai]] bin [[Kilab bin Murrah|Kilab]]
| kunya = Abu [[Qasim bin Muhammad|al-Qasim]]
| laqab = [[Khatam an-Nabiyyin|Khātam an-Nâbîyīn]] (Penutup segala Nabi)
}}
| signature = [[File:Muhammad Seal.svg|40px]] <br />[[Mohor Muhammad]]
}}
 
'''Muhammad bin Abdullah'''<ref group="n">Baginda disebut dengan banyak sebutan, termasuk '''Pesuruh Allah''', '''Nabi Muhammad''', '''Rasul Allah, dan lain-lain; terdapat juga banyak versi ejaan Muhammad, seperti '''Mohamet''', '''Mohammed''', '''Mahamad''', '''Muhamad''', dan banyak lagi.</ref> ({{lang-ar|مُحَمَّد بنِ عَبْد ٱللَّٰه|Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh}} {{small|Sebutan bahasa Arab klasik:}} {{IPA-ar|muˈħammad|}}; c.&nbsp;570 M – 8 Jun 632 M)<ref name=Goldman>Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Banyak tradisi terdahulu (terutama non-Islam) menyebutnya masih hidup pada masa [[Penaklukan Levant oleh Muslim#Penaklukan Palestin|penaklukan Palestin]]. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,''The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam,'' page 248, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.</ref> ialah pemimpin agama, sosial, dan politik [[Arab]] serta pengasas [[agama Islam]].<ref name="OEIW">{{cite encyclopedia |author1=Alford T. Welch |author2=Ahmad S. Moussalli |author3=Gordon D. Newby |title=Muḥammad |encyclopedia=The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World |editor=John L. Esposito |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=Oxford |year=2009 |url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0550 |quote=The Prophet of Islam was a religious, political, and social reformer who gave rise to one of the great civilizations of the world. From a modern, historical perspective, Muḥammad was the founder of Islam. From the perspective of the Islamic faith, he was God's Messenger (''rasūl Allāh''), called to be a "warner," first to the Arabs and then to all humankind. |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170211050118/http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0550 |archive-date=11 February 2017 }}</ref> Muhammad dianggap oleh umat Islam sebagai pemulih keimanan [[monoteisme|monoteistik]] ajaran nabi-nabi terdahulu yang dibawa oleh [[Nabi Adam]], [[Nabi Nuh|Nuh]], [[Nabi Ibrahim|Ibrahim]], [[Nabi Musa|Musa]], [[Nabi Isa|Isa]] dan nabi-nabi yang lain.<ref name=OEIW/><ref>Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Peters |first=F.E. |title=Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians |year=2003 |publisher=Princeton University Press |isbn=978-0-691-11553-5 |page=[https://archive.org/details/islamguideforjew00fepe/page/9 9] |url=https://archive.org/details/islamguideforjew00fepe/page/9 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Esposito |first=John |title=Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.) |year=1998 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-511234-4 |pages=9, 12}}</ref> Baginda diyakini sebagai [[Penutup segala Nabi|Nabi terakhir]] [[Tuhan dalam Islam|Tuhan]]<ref>{{Cite quran|33|40|style=ns}}</ref> bagi semua [[Cabang dan mazhab Islam|cabang utama Islam]], walaupun beberapa denominasi moden menyimpang dari kepercayaan ini.<ref group="n">[[Ahmadiyyah|Komuniti Muslim Ahmadiyah]] menganggap Muhammad sebagai "Penutup segala Nabi" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) dan Nabi terakhir yang taat hukum, tetapi bukan Rasul terakhir. Lihat:
 
* {{cite book|author=Simon Ross Valentine|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MdRth02Q6nAC&pg=PA134|title=Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice|publisher=Columbia University Press|year=2008|isbn=978-1-85065-916-7|page=134}}
* {{cite web|title=Finality of Prophethood {{!}} Hadhrat Muhammad (PUBH) the Last Prophet|url=http://www.alislam.org/books/truth/finality.html|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110724234544/http://www.alislam.org/books/truth/finality.html|archive-date=24 July 2011|publisher=[[Ahmadiyya Muslim Community]]}}
Terdapat juga mazhab-mazhab yang lebih kecil yang percaya bahawa Muhammad bukan Rasul terakhir:
 
* [[Nation of Islam]] menganggap [[Elijah Muhammad]] sebagai rasul (Sumber: African American Religious Leaders&nbsp;– m/s. 76, Jim Haskins, Kathleen Benson&nbsp;– 2008).
* United Submitters International percaya bahawa Muhammad adalah nabi terakhir, tetapi mereka juga menganggap [[Rashad Khalifa]] ialah seorang rasul. (Sumber: Daniel Pipes, ''Miniatures: Views of Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics'', m/s. 98 (2004))</ref> Baginda juga menyatukan [[Semenanjung Arab]] kepada satu [[tatanegara]], dengan al-Quran serta ajaran dan amalannya yang menjadi asas kepercayaan agama Islam.<ref>{{Buku Google|WgMerGqwcJMC|The Leadership of Muhammad}} oleh John Adair</ref>
 
Muhammad dilahirkan sekitar tahun 570 M ([[Tahun Gajah]]) di [[Makkah]], [[Semenanjung Arab]]<ref name="abraha">
*{{cite journal | doi = 10.1017/S0041977X00049016 | last1 = Conrad | first1 = Lawrence I. | year = 1987 | title = Abraha and Muhammad: some observations apropos of chronology and literary topoi in the early Arabic historical tradition1 | url = http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=3863868&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0041977X00049016 | journal = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies | volume = 50 | issue = 2 | pages = 225–240}}
*{{Cite book| publisher = G. Bell| last = Sherrard Beaumont Burnaby| title = Elements of the Jewish and Muhammadan calendars : with rules and tables and explanatory notes on the Julian and Gregorian calendars| date = 1901| url = http://archive.org/details/elementsofjewish00burnuoft | page=465}}
*{{Cite journal| pages = 6-12| last = Hamidullah| first = Muhammad| authorlink=Muhammad Hamidullah|title = The Nasi', the Hijrah Calendar and the Need of Preparing a New Concordance for the Hijrah and Gregorian Eras: Why the Existing Western Concordances are Not to be Relied Upon| journal = The Islamic Review & Arab Affairs| date = 1969-02|url=http://aaiil.org/text/articles/islamicreview/1969/02feb/islamicreview_196902.pdf}}</ref><ref name="EncWorldHistory">''Encyclopedia of World History'' (1998), p. 452</ref>. Baginda adalah anak lelaki [[Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib|Abdullah bin Abd al-Muttalib]] dan [[Aminah binti Wahb]]. Ayahnya adalah anak pemimpin suku Quraisy, [[Abdul Muttalib|Abdul al-Muttalib bin Hashim]], dan Abdullah meninggal beberapa bulan sebelum kelahiran Muhammad. Ibunya Aminah meninggal ketika berusia enam tahun, meninggalkan Muhammad sebagai anak yatim piatu.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.al-islam.org/life-muhammad-prophet-sayyid-saeed-akhtar-rizvi/early-years|title=Early Years|website=Al-Islam.org|date=18 October 2012|language=en|access-date=18 October 2018}}</ref> Baginda dibesarkan di bawah jagaan datuknya, Abd al-Muttalib, dan bapa saudara ayahnya, [[Abu Talib|Abu Talib]].<ref name="Watt7"/>
 
Beberapa tahun kemudian, baginda secara berkala mengasingkan diri di gua gunung bernama [[Jabal al-Nour|Hira]] selama beberapa malam untuk bertafakur. Ketika berusia 40 tahun, Muhammad dilaporkan dikunjungi [[Jibrail]] di gua<ref name="abraha">
* {{cite journal |doi=10.1017/S0041977X00049016 |last1=Conrad |first1=Lawrence I. |year=1987 |title=Abraha and Muhammad: some observations apropos of chronology and literary topoi in the early Arabic historical tradition1 |journal=Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies |volume=50 |issue=2 |pages=225–40 }}
* {{Cite book |publisher=G. Bell |last=Sherrard Beaumont Burnaby |title=Elements of the Jewish and Muhammadan calendars: with rules and tables and explanatory notes on the Julian and Gregorian calendars |year=1901 |url=https://archive.org/details/elementsofjewish00burnuoft |page=[https://archive.org/details/elementsofjewish00burnuoft/page/465 465] }}
* {{Cite journal |pages=6–12 |last=Hamidullah |first=Muhammad |author-link=Muhammad Hamidullah |title=The Nasi', the Hijrah Calendar and the Need of Preparing a New Concordance for the Hijrah and Gregorian Eras: Why the Existing Western Concordances are Not to be Relied Upon |journal=The Islamic Review & Arab Affairs |date=February 1969 |url=http://aaiil.org/text/articles/islamicreview/1969/02feb/islamicreview_196902.pdf |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121105021544/http://aaiil.org/text/articles/islamicreview/1969/02feb/islamicreview_196902.pdf |archive-date=5 November 2012 }}</ref><ref name="EncWorldHistory">''Encyclopedia of World History'' (1998), p. 452</ref> dan menerima [[Nuzul Quran|wahyu pertamanya]] dari Tuhan. Pada tahun 613,<ref>Howarth, Stephen. ''Knights Templar.'' 1985. {{ISBN|978-0-8264-8034-7}} p. 199</ref> Muhammad mula [[dakwah|menyampaikan wahyu]] ini secara terbuka,<ref name="Al-A'zami2">[[Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami]] (2003), ''The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments'', pp. 26–27. UK Islamic Academy. {{ISBN|978-1-872531-65-6}}.</ref> menyatakan bahawa "[[Tauhid|Tuhan itu Satu]]", "penyerahan" (''[[Islam#Etimologi dan maksud|islām]]'') diri sepenuhnya kepada Tuhan,<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1087|title=Islam: An Overview – Oxford Islamic Studies Online|website=www.oxfordislamicstudies.com|language=en|access-date=25 July 2018}}</ref> adalah cara hidup yang betul (''[[dīn]]''),<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |author=Anis Ahmad |title=Dīn |encyclopedia=The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World |editor=John L. Esposito |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=Oxford |year=2009 |url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e1102 |url-access=subscription |quote=Aspek penting kedua dari makna istilah muncul dalam wahyu Makkah mengenai amalan Nabi Ibrahim. Di sini ia bermaksud jalan lurus (al-dīn al-ḥanīf) yang mana Nabi Ibrahim dan utusan lain mengajak orang lain untuk beriman [...] Al-Qur'an menegaskan bahawa ini adalah jalan atau amalan yang diikuti oleh Nabi Ibrahim [...] analisis, dnn merangkumi sosial dan kerohanian, serta perilaku undang-undang dan politik penganut sebagai cara hidup yang komprehensif, konotasi yang lebih luas daripada kata "agama."|url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171205093241/http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e1102 |archive-date=5 Disember 2017 }}</ref> dan bahawa baginda adalah seorang nabi dan rasul Tuhan, mirip dengan nabi-nabi lain dalam Islam.<ref name = "Peters 2003 9">F.E. Peters (2003), p. 9.</ref><ref name="EspositoI">Esposito (1998), p. 12; (1999) p. 25; (2002) pp. 4–5</ref><ref name="EoI-Muhammad">{{Cite encyclopedia |edition=2nd |publisher=Brill |volume=7 |pages=360–376 |last2=Welch |first2=A.T. |last1=Buhl |first1=F. |title=Muḥammad |encyclopedia=[[Encyclopaedia of Islam]] |isbn=978-90-04-09419-2 |year=1993}}</ref>
 
[[Sahabat nabi|Pengikut Muhammad]] pada awalnya jumlahnya sedikit, dan mengalami [[Penganiayaan terhadap orang Islam oleh orang Mekah|penganiyaan oleh musyrik Mekah]] selama 13 tahun. Untuk melepaskan diri dari penganiayaan yang berterusan, baginda [[Penghijrahan ke Abyssinia|menghantar beberapa pengikutnya]] ke [[Kerajaan Aksum|Abyssinia]] pada tahun 615, sebelum baginda dan pengikutnya berhijrah dari Makkah ke [[Madinah]] (kemudian dikenali sebagai Yathrib) kemudian pada tahun 622. Peristiwa [[Hijrah]] ini menandakan permulaan [[Takwim Hijrah|kalendar Islam]], juga dikenali sebagai Takwim Hijrah. Di Madinah, Muhammad menyatukan suku di bawah [[Piagam Madinah]]. Pada bulan Disember 629, setelah lapan tahun bertengkar dengan suku Makkah, Muhammad mengumpulkan tentera 10,000 orang mualaf dan [[Pembukaan kota Makkah|berarak ke kota Makkah]]. Penaklukan itu sebahagian besarnya tidak dapat ditandingi dan Muhammad merampas kota itu dengan sedikit pertumpahan darah. Pada tahun 632, beberapa bulan setelah pulang dari [[Haji Wida]], baginda jatuh sakit dan meninggal. Pada masa kematiannya, sebahagian besar [[Semenanjung Arab]] telah [[Penukaran agama#Islam|memeluk Islam]].<ref>"Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world
</ref><ref name="Lapidus 2002 pp 0">
See:
* Holt (1977a), p. 57
* Lapidus (2002), pp. 31–32
</ref>
 
Wahyu (masing-masing dikenali sebagai ''[[Ayat al-Quran|ayat]]'' - secara harfiah, "Petunjuk [oleh Tuhan]") yang dilaporkan oleh Muhammad hingga kematiannya membentuk ayat-ayat Al-Quran, yang dianggap oleh orang Islam sebagai kata demi kata sebagai "Firman Tuhan" yang mendasari agama itu. Selain Al-Quran, ajaran dan amalan Muhammad (''[[sunnah]]''), yang terdapat dalam sastera [[Hadis]] dan ''[[Sirah Rasulullah|sirah]]'' (biografi), juga ditegakkan dan digunakan sebagai [[Sumber syariah|sumber]] hukum Islam (lihat [[Syariat dalam Islam]]).
 
==Catatan==
{{reflist|30em|group="n"}}
 
==Rujukan==
{{reflist|<!--too narrow: 20em-->30em}}
 
==Bibliografi==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book|last1=A.C. Brown |first1=Jonathan |author-link=Jonathan A.C. Brown |title=Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction |date=2011 |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |isbn=978-0-19-955928-2 |url=https://archive.org/details/muhammadveryshor00brow }}
* {{cite book|last1=A.C. Brown |first1=Jonathan |author-link=Jonathan A.C. Brown |title=Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy |date=2014 |publisher=[[Oneworld Publications]] |isbn=978-1-78074-420-9 |url=https://archive.org/details/misquotingmuhamm0000brow }}
* {{cite journal |journal=[[signs (journal)|Signs]] |author=Ahmed, Leila |title=Women and the Advent of Islam |volume=11 |date=Summer 1986 |pages=665–91 |doi=10.1086/494271 |issue=4|s2cid=144943406 }}
* {{cite book |author=Ali, Kecia |title=The Lives of Muhammad |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-oWYBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA1 |date=2014 |publisher=Harvard University Press |isbn=978-0-674-74448-6}}
* {{cite book | author-link = Muhammad Mohar Ali |author=Ali, Muhammad Mohar |year=1997 |title=The Biography of the Prophet and the Orientalists |publisher=King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qur'an |isbn=978-9960-770-68-0 |url=http://www.islamhouse.com/p/51772}}
* {{cite journal |journal=[[Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art]] |author=Wijdan, Ali |title=From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th century Ottoman Art |date=28 August 1999 |pages=1–24 |issue=7}}
* {{cite book |last=Armstrong |first=Karen |author-link=Karen Armstrong |year=1992 |title=Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet |publisher=Harpercollins |isbn=978-0-06-250886-7 |title-link=Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet }}
* {{cite book |last=Awde |first=Nicholas |title=Women in Islam: An Anthology from the Quran and Hadith |publisher=Routledge |year=2000 |isbn=978-0-7007-1012-6}}
* {{cite book |last=Ballard |first=Harold Wayne |author2=Donald N. Penny |author3=W. Glenn Jonas |title=A Journey of Faith: An Introduction to Christianity |publisher=Mercer University Press |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-86554-746-9}}
* {{cite book |last=Barlas |first=Asma |author-link=Asma Barlas |title=Believing Women in Islam |publisher=University of Texas Press |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-292-70904-1}}
* {{cite book |last=Bogle |first=Emory C. |author-link=Emory C. Bogle |title=Islam: Origin and Belief |publisher=Texas University Press |year=1998 |isbn=978-0-292-70862-4 |url-access=registration |url=https://archive.org/details/islam00emor }}
* {{cite book |last=Brown |first=Daniel |title=A New Introduction to Islam |publisher=Blackwell Publishing Professional |year=2003 |isbn=978-0-631-21604-9}}
* {{cite book |last=Bullough |first=Vern L |author-link=Vern L. Bullough |author2=Brenda Shelton |author3=Sarah Slavin |title=The Subordinated Sex: A History of Attitudes Toward Women |publisher=University of Georgia Press |year=1998 |isbn=978-0-8203-2369-5}}
* {{cite book |last=Cohen |first=Mark R. |author-link=Mark R. Cohen |title=Under Crescent and Cross |publisher=Princeton University Press |edition=Reissue |year=1995 |isbn=978-0-691-01082-3}}
* {{cite book |last=Dakake |first=Maria Massi |title=The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam |publisher=SUNY Press |year=2008 |isbn=978-0-7914-7033-6}}
* {{cite book |last=Donner |first=Fred |author-link=Fred M. Donner |title=Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing |publisher=Darwin Press |year=1998 |isbn=978-0-87850-127-4}}
* {{cite book |last=Ernst |first=Carl |author-link=Carl Ernst |year=2004 |title=Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World |publisher=University of North Carolina Press |isbn=978-0-8078-5577-5}}
* {{cite book|last=Esposito |first=John |author-link=John Esposito |year=1998 |title=Islam: The Straight Path |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |isbn=978-0-19-511233-7 |url=https://archive.org/details/islamstraightpat00espo_0 }}
* {{cite book|last=Esposito |first=John |year=1999 |title=The Islamic Threat: Myth Or Reality? |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |isbn=978-0-19-513076-8 |url=https://archive.org/details/islamicthreatmyt00espo }}
* {{cite book |last=Esposito |first=John |year=2002 |title=What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam |url=https://archive.org/details/whateveryoneneed0000espo |url-access=registration |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |isbn=978-0-19-515713-0}}
* {{cite book |last=Farah |first=Caesar |author-link=Caesar E. Farah |title=Islam: Beliefs and Observances |publisher=Barron's Educational Series |year=1994 |edition=5th |isbn=978-0-8120-1853-0|title-link=Islam: Beliefs and Observances }}
* {{cite book |last=Glubb |first=John Bagot |author-link=John Bagot Glubb |title=The Life and Times of Muhammad |publisher=Hodder and Stoughton |orig-year=1970 |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-8154-1176-5}}
* {{cite book|last=Goldman |first=Elizabeth |author-link=Elizabeth Goldman |title=Believers: spiritual leaders of the world |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1995 |isbn=978-0-19-508240-1 |url=https://archive.org/details/believersspiritu00gold }}
* {{cite book |last=Goldman |first=Ann |author2=Richard Hain |author3=Stephen Liben |title=Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=2006 |isbn=978-0-19-852653-7}}
* {{cite book|last=Haaren |first=John Henry |author2=Addison B. Poland |title=Famous Men of the Middle Ages |publisher=University Publishing Company |year=1904 |isbn=978-1-882514-05-2 |url=https://archive.org/details/famousmenofmiddl00robs }}
* Al-Hibri, Azizah Y. (2003). "An Islamic Perspective on Domestic Violence". ''27 Fordham International Law Journal'' 195.
* {{cite book |last=Holt |first=P. M. |author-link=P. M. Holt |author2=Ann K. S. Lambton |author3=Bernard Lewis| author3-link=Bernard Lewis |title=The Cambridge History of Islam (paperback) |year=1977 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-521-29135-4}}
* {{cite book |last=Hourani |first=Albert |author-link=Albert Hourani |author2=Ruthven, Malise |author-link2=Malise Ruthven |title=A History of the Arab Peoples |year=2003 |publisher=Belknap Press; Revised edition |isbn=978-0-674-01017-8}}
* {{cite book |last=ibn Isa |first=Muhammad (Imam Tirmidhi) |author-link=Imam Tirmidhi |title=Syama'il Muhammadiyah: KeanggunanMu Ya Rasulullah |year=2011 |publisher=PTS Islamika Sdn. Bhd. |location=Malaysia |isbn=978-967-366-064-3 |page=388 |language=ar, ms |type=Hardcover}}
* {{cite book |last=Ishaq |first=Ibn |author-link=Ibn Ishaq |editor=[[Alfred Guillaume|Guillaume, Alfred]] |title=The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-19-636033-1}}
* {{cite book |last=Jacobs |first=Louis |author-link=Louis Jacobs |title=The Jewish Religion: A Companion |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1995 |isbn=978-0-19-826463-7}}
* {{cite book |last=Kelsay |first=John |author-link=John Kelsay |title=Islam and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics |publisher=Westminster John Knox Press |year=1993 |isbn=978-0-664-25302-8}}
* {{cite book |last=Khan |first=Majid Ali |author-link=Majid Ali Khan |title=Muhammad The Final Messenger |publisher=Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 110002 (India) |year=1998 |isbn=978-81-85738-25-3}}
* {{cite book |last=Kochler |first=Hans |author-link=Hans Köchler |title=Concept of Monotheism in Islam & Christianity |publisher=I.P.O. |year=1982 |isbn=978-3-7003-0339-8}}
* {{cite book |last=Lapidus |first=Ira |title=A History of Islamic Societies |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2002 |edition=2nd |isbn=978-0-521-77933-3}}
* {{cite book |last=Larsson |first=Göran |title=Ibn Garcia's Shu'Ubiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval Al-Andalus |publisher=Brill Academic Publishers |year=2003 |isbn=978-90-04-12740-1}}
* {{cite book |last=Lewis |first=Bernard |author-link=Bernard Lewis |orig-year=1993 |year=2002 |title=The Arabs in History |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-280310-8|title-link=The Arabs in History }}
* {{cite book |last=Lewis |first=Bernard |author-link=Bernard Lewis |title=Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry |publisher=Oxford University Press, US |edition=Reprint |year=1992 |isbn=978-0-19-505326-5|title-link=Race and Slavery in the Middle East }}
* {{cite magazine |last=Lewis |first=Bernard |title=Islamic Revolution |date=21 January 1998 |magazine=The New York Review of Books |url=http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1988/jan/21/islamic-revolution/}}
* {{cite book |last=Lings |first=Martin |author-link=Martin Lings |title=Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources |publisher=Islamic Texts Society. |year=1983 |isbn=978-0-946621-33-0|title-link=Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources }} US edn. by Inner Traditions International, Ltd.
* {{cite book |last=Madelung |first=Wilferd |author-link=Wilferd Madelung |title=The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=1997 |isbn=978-0-521-64696-3|title-link=The Succession to Muhammad }}
* {{cite book |last=Momen |first=Moojan |author-link=Moojan Momen |title=An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism |publisher=Yale University Press |year=1985 |isbn=978-0-300-03531-5}}
* {{cite book |last=Neusner |first=Jacob |title=God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions |publisher=Georgetown University Press |year=2003 |isbn=978-0-87840-910-5}}
* {{cite book |last=Nigosian |first=S. A. |author-link=S. A. Nigosian |title=Islam:Its History, Teaching, and Practices |publisher=Indiana University Press |year=2004 |isbn=978-0-253-21627-4 |url-access=registration |url=https://archive.org/details/islamitshistoryt0000nigo }}
* {{cite book |last=Ordoni |first=Abu Muhammad |author2=Muhammad Kazim Qazwini |title=Fatima the Gracious |publisher=Ansariyan Publications |year=1992 |asin=B000BWQ7N6|title-link=Fatima the Gracious }}
* {{cite book|last=Peters |first=Francis Edward |author-link=F.E. Peters |year=2003 |title=Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians |publisher=Princeton University Press |isbn=978-0-691-11553-5 |url=https://archive.org/details/islamguideforjew00fepe }}
* {{cite book |last=Peters |first=Francis Edward |year=2003 |title=The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition |url=https://archive.org/details/monotheistsjewsc00pete_0 |url-access=registration |publisher=Princeton University Press |id=ASIN: B0012385Z6 |isbn=978-0-691-11461-3}}
* {{cite book |last=Peters |first=Francis Edward |author-link=F.E. Peters |year=1994 |title=Muhammad and the Origins of Islam |publisher=SUNY Press |isbn=978-0-7914-1876-5 |url-access=registration |url=https://archive.org/details/muhammadorigins00pete }}
* {{cite journal |journal=[[International Journal of Middle East Studies]] |author=Peters, F.E. |title=The Quest of the Historical Muhammad |volume=23 |year=1991 |pages=291–315 |doi=10.1017/S0020743800056312 |issue=3|title-link=The Quest of the Historical Muhammad (Peters) }}
* {{cite book |last=Peterson |first=Daniel |author-link=Daniel C. Peterson |year=2007 |title=Muhammad, Prophet of God |publisher=Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company |isbn=978-0-8028-0754-0}}
* {{cite book |last=Rahman |first=Fazlur |author-link=Fazlur Rahman |year=1979 |title=Islam |publisher=University of Chicago Press |isbn=978-0-226-70281-0}}
* {{cite book|last=Ramadan |first=Tariq |author-link=Tariq Ramadan |year=2007 |title=In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-530880-8 |url=https://archive.org/details/infootstepsofpro00rama }}
* {{cite book |last=Reeves |first=Minou |author-link=Minou Reeves |title=Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making |year=2003 |publisher=NYU Press |isbn=978-0-8147-7564-6}}
* {{cite book |last=Robinson |first=David |title=Muslim Societies in African History |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2004 |isbn=978-0-521-82627-3}}
* {{cite book | author-link=Maxime Rodinson |author=Rodinson, Maxime |title=Muhammad: Prophet of Islam |publisher=Tauris Parke Paperbacks |year=2002 |isbn=978-1-86064-827-4}}
* {{cite book |last=Rue |first=Loyal |author-link=Loyal Rue |title=Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological |url=https://archive.org/details/religionisnotabo00loya |url-access=registration |publisher=Rutgers |year=2005 |isbn=978-0-8135-3955-3}}
* {{cite book |last=Serin |first=Muhittin |title=Hattat Aziz Efendi |publisher=Istanbul |year=1998 |isbn=978-975-7663-03-4 |oclc=51718704}}
* {{cite book |last=Sikand |first=Yoginder |title=Muslims in India since 1947: Islamic perspectives on inter-faith relations |publisher=RoutledgeCurzon |location=London |year=2004 |isbn=978-0-415-31486-2}}
* {{cite book |last=Tabatabae |first=Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn |author-link=Allameh Tabatabaei |title=AL-MIZAN:AN EXEGESIS OF THE QUR'AN, translation by S. Saeed Rizvi |publisher=WOFIS |isbn=978-964-6521-14-8|title-link=Tafsir al-Mizan }}
* {{cite book|last=Teed |first=Peter |title=A Dictionary of Twentieth Century History |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1992 |isbn=978-0-19-211676-5 |url=https://archive.org/details/dictionaryoftwen00teed }}
* {{cite book |last=Turner |first=Colin |title=Islam: The Basics |publisher=Routledge |year=2005 |isbn=978-0-415-34106-6}}
* {{cite book|last=Watt |first=W. Montgomery |author-link=William Montgomery Watt |title=Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1961 |isbn=978-0-19-881078-0 |url=https://archive.org/details/muhammadprophets00watt }} (New edition 1974)
* {{cite book |last=Watt |first=W. Montgomery |title=Muhammad at Medina |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1956 |isbn=978-0-19-577307-1|title-link=Muhammad at Medina (book) }}
* {{cite book |last=Watt |first=W. Montgomery |title=Muhammad at Mecca |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1953 |id=ASIN: B000IUA52A |isbn=978-0-19-577277-7|title-link=Muhammad at Mecca (book) }}
{{refend}}
 
===Ensiklopedia===
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite encyclopedia |editor1=William H. McNeill |editor2=Jerry H. Bentley |editor3=David Christian |encyclopedia=Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History |publisher=Berkshire Publishing Group |year=2005 |isbn=978-0-9743091-0-1 |url-access=registration |url=https://archive.org/details/berkshireencyclo0004unse_k2y1 }}
* {{cite encyclopedia |editor=Richard C. Martin |editor2=Said Amir Arjomand |editor3=Marcia Hermansen |editor4=Abdulkader Tayob |editor5=Rochelle Davis |editor6=John Obert Voll |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World |publisher=MacMillan Reference Books |year=2003 |isbn=978-0-02-865603-8|title=Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World: M-Z, Index. Volume 2 }}
* {{cite encyclopedia |title=Encyclopaedia of Islam |editor=P.J. Bearman |editor2=Th. Bianquis |editor3=[[Clifford Edmund Bosworth|C.E. Bosworth]] |editor4=E. van Donzel |editor5=[[Wolfhart Heinrichs|W.P. Heinrichs]] |encyclopedia=[[Encyclopaedia of Islam]] Online |publisher=Brill Academic Publishers |issn=1573-3912}}
* {{cite encyclopedia|editor=Lindsay Jones |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Religion |publisher=MacMillan Reference Books |edition=2nd |year=2005 |isbn=978-0-02-865733-2 |url=https://archive.org/details/encyclopediaofre0000unse_v8f2 }}
* {{cite encyclopedia |editor=Jane Dammen McAuliffe |encyclopedia=[[Encyclopedia of the Qur'an]] |publisher=Brill Academic Publishers |year=2005 |isbn=978-90-04-12356-4|title=Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān }}
* {{cite encyclopedia|encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of World History |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1998 |isbn=978-0-19-860223-1 |url=https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780198602231 }}
* {{cite encyclopedia |encyclopedia=The New Encyclopædia Britannica |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated |edition=Rev |year=2005 |isbn=978-1-59339-236-9}}
* {{cite EB1911 |wstitle=Mahomet |volume=17 |pages=399–410 |first=David Samuel |last=Margoliouth |short=1}}
{{refend}}
 
===Buku===
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book|editor-last=Berg|editor-first=Herbert|editor-link=Herbert Berg (religion)|title=Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins|publisher=E. J. Brill|year=2003|isbn=978-90-04-12602-2}}
* {{cite book|last=Cook|first=Michael|author-link=Michael Cook (historian)|title=Muhammad|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1983|isbn=978-0-19-287605-8}}
* {{cite book|last=Guillaume|first=Alfred|author-link=Alfred Guillaume|url=https://archive.org/details/TheLifeOfMohammed|title=The Life of Muhammad: A translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah|publisher=Oxford University Press|date=1955|isbn=0-19-636033-1}}
* {{cite book|last=Hamidullah|first=Muhammad|author-link=Muhammad Hamidullah|title=The Life and Work of the Prophet of Islam|publisher=Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute|year=1998|isbn=978-969-8413-00-2}}
* {{cite book|editor-last=Motzki|editor-first=Harald|editor-link=Harald Motzki|title=The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources – Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol. 32|publisher=Brill|year=2000|isbn=978-90-04-11513-2}}
* Musa, A.Y. ''Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam'', New York: Palgrave, 2008
* {{cite book|last=Rubin|first=Uri|author-link=Uri Rubin|title=The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as Viewed by the Early Muslims (A Textual Analysis)|publisher=Darwin Press|year=1995|isbn=978-0-87850-110-6}}
* {{cite book|last=Schimmel|first=Annemarie|author-link=Annemarie Schimmel|title=And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety|publisher=The University of North Carolina Press|year=1985|isbn=978-0-8078-4128-0|url=https://archive.org/details/andmuhammadishis00schi}}
{{refend}}
 
===Rencana===
* [[Tariq Ali|Ali, Tariq]], "Winged Words" (review of [[Maxime Rodinson]], ''Muhammad'', translated by Anne Carter, NYRB, March 2021, 373 pp., {{ISBN|978 1 68137 492 5}}), ''[[London Review of Books]]'', vol. 43, no. 12 (17 June 2021), pp. 11–14.
 
===Dalam talian===
{{refbegin|30em}}
* [http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0550 Muḥammad], in ''The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World'', by Ahmad S. Moussalli, Gordon D. Newby, Ahmad Moussalli
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105853/Muhammad Muhammad: Prophet of Islam], in ''Encyclopædia Britannica Online'', by Nicolai Sinai and W. Montgomery Watt
{{refend}}