Pengguna:Anne4321/Kotak pasir: Perbezaan antara semakan

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==Presidency of Indonesia==
{{See also|First inauguration of Joko Widodo|Second inauguration of Joko Widodo}}
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{{multiple image|align=right|direction=horizontal|caption_align=center|image1=Joko Widodo 2014 official portrait.jpg|width1=131|footer=Jokowi's official presidential portraits during his first term; released in 2014 (L) and 2016 (R)|image2=Joko Widodo presidential portrait (2016).jpg|width2=131}}
===Government and cabinets===
{{see also|Working Cabinet (2014–2019)|Onward Indonesia Cabinet}}
{{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|caption_align=center|image1=Kabinet Kerja Jokowi-JK 2014.jpg|width1=180|footer=Jokowi's initial cabinet lines-up in 2014 (up) and 2019 (down)|image2=Kabinet Indonesia Maju 1.jpg|width2=180}}
Despite vowing not to give government positions simply to political allies during the 2014 campaign, many members of political parties received ministerial positions in Jokowi's first cabinet.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi: Tidak ada namanya bagi-bagi kursi menteri|publisher=Merdeka|language=id|author=Faqih, Fikri|date=31 March 2014|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=2 April 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title="Jokowi Tak Seberani Janjinya, 16 Kursi untuk Parpol Jelas Bagi-bagi Kekuasaan!"|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Ihsanuddin|date=16 September 2014|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=20 September 2014}}</ref> The first year of Jokowi's administration saw him controlling a [[minority government]] until [[Golkar]], the second-largest party in the [[People's Representative Council]] (DPR), switched from opposition to the government. Jokowi denied accusations of interfering with Golkar's internal affairs, although he admitted that Luhut might have influenced the change.<ref name="ReformWinds">{{cite web|url=|title=Widodo gets second wind for reforms|publisher=Nikkei Asia|author=Suzuki, Jun|date=9 June 2016|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=12 October 2018}}</ref> His cabinet's [[Ministry of Industry (Indonesia)|Minister of Industry]] [[Airlangga Hartarto]] was elected chairman of Golkar in 2018.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Can this man save Indonesia's Golkar?|publisher=Asia Times|author=McBeth, John|date=18 January 2018|access-date=12 October 2018}}</ref> The [[National Mandate Party]] (PAN) had also switched sides beforehand but later returned to being the opposition in 2018.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=PAN joins the ruling collation|publisher=The Jakarta Post|date=2 September 2015|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=13 October 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=PAN Oposisi, Menteri PAN-RB Bakal Mundur?|publisher=detik|language=id|author=Putri, Parastiti Kharisma; Ramdhani, Jabbar|date=10 August 2018|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=13 October 2018}}</ref>
Jokowi announced the 34 names in his cabinet on 26 October 2014.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Announces Names of Cabinet Members|publisher=Tempo|author=Anam, Khairul|date=26 October 2014|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=14 May 2019}}</ref> While it was praised for the inclusiveness of women, with [[Retno Marsudi]] becoming Indonesia's first female foreign minister, it received criticism for several perceived political inclusions, such as [[Puan Maharani]] (daughter of [[Megawati Sukarnoputri]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi praised for record number of women in Cabinet|publisher=The Straits Times|author=Nazeer, Zubaidah|date=31 October 2014|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=19 August 2015}}</ref> The Jokowi administration also saw the formation of two new ministries (Ministry of Public Works and Housing and [[Ministry of Environment and Forestry (Indonesia)|Ministry of Environment and Forestry]]) from a merger of old ministries, in addition to renaming and reorganisation of other ministries.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Ini Nama Kementerian yang Berubah dalam Kabinet Jokowi-JK|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Akuntono, Indra|date=23 October 2014|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=23 October 2014}}</ref> He conducted a total of three cabinet reshuffles until 2018, removing ministers such as [[Rizal Ramli]] and [[Bambang Brodjonegoro]] while including ministers such as Luhut and [[World Bank]] Director [[Sri Mulyani Indrawati]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=What Does Indonesia's New Cabinet Reshuffle Mean for Jokowi's Future?|publisher=The Diplomat|author=Cook, Erin|date=27 January 2018|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=26 January 2018}}</ref> Another reshuffle occurred in December 2020, replacing six ministers including two apprehended by the KPK.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Reshuffle Kabinet yang Akhirnya Terjadi...|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Hakim, Rakhmat Nur|date=23 December 2020|access-date=15 February 2021|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=23 December 2020}}</ref>
He was criticised by PDI-P over perceived policy weaknesses, and PDI-P legislator [[Effendi Simbolon]] called for his impeachment.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=PDI-P lawmaker slams Jokowi's policies|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Aritonang, Margareth S.|date=28 January 2015|access-date=6 June 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=28 January 2015}}</ref> On 9 April 2015, during a PDI-P Congress, party leader [[Megawati Sukarnoputri]] referred to Jokowi as a functionary. She noted that presidential candidates are nominated by political parties, hinting that Jokowi owed his position to the party and should carry out its policy line.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Megawati tegaskan posisi PDIP atas Pemerintah Jokowi|publisher=BBC News|language=id|author=Ginanjar, Ging|date=9 April 2015|access-date=6 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=13 July 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesian President Widodo under corrupt thumb of Megawati|publisher=The Sydney Morning Herald|author=Hartcher, Peter|date=28 April 2015|access-date=14 April 2017|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=9 August 2018}}</ref> Several months prior, Megawati and Jokowi had disputed over the appointment of a new police chief, with Megawati supporting her former adjutant Budi Gunawan while Jokowi supported [[Badrodin Haiti]].<ref name="ReformWinds"/><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Cerita Syafii Soal Kenapa Megawati Kukuh Sokong Budi Gunawan|publisher=Tempo|language=id|date=4 March 2015|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=12 October 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Budi Gunawan Batal Dilantik, Ternyata Ini Reaksi Megawati|publisher=Tempo|language=id|date=22 February 2015|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=13 October 2018}}</ref>
Following his re-election, Jokowi announced his second cabinet on 23 October 2019. He retained several ministers such as Sri Mulyani and Luhut but also included [[Gojek]] founder [[Nadiem Makarim]] and two-time presidential rival [[Prabowo Subianto]] as education and defence ministers, respectively.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi's Cabinet Is a Blend of Politicians, Tycoons, and Technocrats|publisher=Bloomberg|author=Arys Aditya and Viriya Singgih|date=23 October 2019|access-date=3 November 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=23 October 2019}}</ref>
In the first year of his second presidential term, his approval rating fell to 45.2%, and the disapproval rating was 52%.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Survei Litbang Kompas Setahun Jokowi-Ma'ruf: 52,5 Persen Tak Puas, 45,2 Persen Puas|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Halim, Devina|date=20 October 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=22 October 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Survei IPO: Kepuasan Publik Terhadap Pemerintah Menurun|publisher=Republika|language=id|author=Akbar, Nawir Arsyad|date=28 October 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=31 October 2020}}</ref> His deputy, Ma'ruf Amin, had a 67% disapproval rating. The low ratings were attributed to unpopular policies.
Before taking office, Jokowi sought for outgoing [[Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono|President SBY]] to take responsibility for the decision to further increase fuel prices<ref name="">{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia fuel prices rocket by 44% sparking protests|publisher=BBC|date=22 June 2013|access-date=23 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=21 March 2014}}</ref> by further removing subsidies.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi fails to persuade SBY on fuel subsidy|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Jong, Hans Nicholas; Erviani, Ni Komang|date=28 August 2014|access-date=23 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=30 August 2014}}</ref> Previous attempts by SBY to do so had resulted in civil unrest.<ref name=""/> On 1 January 2015, Jokowi took measures that, on the surface, appeared to reduce fuel subsidies.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=IMF Survey: Indonesia—Moving in a New Direction|publisher=International Monetary Fund|date=19 March 2015|access-date=23 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=19 August 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Widodo Makes Biggest Change to Indonesia Fuel Subsidies: Economy|publisher=Bloomberg|author=Fitri Wulandari; Eko Listiyorini; Sharon Chen|date=31 December 2014|access-date=18 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=28 February 2015}}</ref> The policy stirred up some demonstrations, with Jokowi citing it as necessary to increase funding for the infrastructure, education and health sectors.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Eyes Infrastructure Focus With Fuel Subsidy Cut|publisher=Jakarta Globe|author=Bisara, Dion; Azhari, Muhamad Al|date=18 November 2014|access-date=18 November 2014|url-status=dead|archive-url=|archive-date=20 November 2014}}</ref> However, since March 2015, the government has set the price of Premium-branded gasoline far below the market price, causing the fuel subsidy to be incurred by state-owned oil company [[Pertamina]] instead of the direct government account.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi worries 'big forces' hampering govt projects, policies|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Cahyafitri, Raras|date=3 August 2015|access-date=3 August 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=23 August 2015}}</ref> Additionally, the government also implemented a single-price program, aiming to sell fuel through official channels at the same price nationally, including in isolated parts of [[Kalimantan]] and [[Indonesian Papua|Papua]]. The government claimed that this was achieved in 2017.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Government achieves 2017 single-fuel price target: Minister|publisher=Antara News|author=Syafril, Afut|date=8 January 2018|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=8 January 2018}}</ref>
In the first quarter of 2015, year-on-year GDP grew 4.92%, and in the second quarter, it grew 4.6%, the lowest figure since 2009.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's Slowing GDP a Wakeup Call for President Widodo|publisher=Bloomberg|author=Brummitt, Chris|date=4 May 2015|access-date=25 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=10 May 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesian economic growth continues decline as Q2 figures show drop to 2009 levels|publisher=ABC News Australia|author=Brown, Helen|date=7 August 2015|access-date=7 August 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=14 August 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's Jokowi presidency is becoming a desperate mess|publisher=The Australian|author=Sheridan, Greg|date=25 June 2015|access-date=25 July 2015}}</ref> Since then, growth has remained above the 5% mark, which is still below what is considered a healthy economic growth mark of 6%.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Heads to 2018 With Backing of Stronger Indonesian Economy|publisher=Bloomberg|author=Salna, Karlis|date=28 December 2017|access-date=4 April 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=28 December 2017}}</ref> The [[Indonesian rupiah]] (IDR) has also weakened throughout Jokowi's administration, with its exchange rate per [[United States dollar|US dollar]] briefly passing IDR 15,000 in 2018, the lowest level since the [[1997 Asian financial crisis]], and sank lower to 16,700 in 2020.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Rupiah Melemah ke Posisi Rp16.700 per Dolar AS, Ini Kata Gubernur BI|publisher=VIVA|language=id|author=Halim, Fikri; Rachman, Arrijal|date=2 April 2020|access-date=20 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesian rupiah breaches 15,000 per U.S. dollar then eases off|publisher=Seeking Alpha|author=Kiesche, Liz|date=5 September 2018|access-date=18 September 2018}}</ref> The year-on-year inflation in June 2015 was 7.26%, higher than in May (7.15%) and June the year before (6.7%).<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=News Summary 27 June – 17 July 2015|publisher=ANU Indonesia Project Blog|author=Asamosir|date=21 July 2015|access-date=25 July 2015|url-status=dead|archive-url=|archive-date=25 July 2015}}</ref>
Jokowi's administration continued the [[resource nationalism]] policy of its predecessor, nationalising some assets controlled by multinational companies such as [[Freeport McMoRan]], [[Total SA]] and [[Chevron Corporation|Chevron]]. In 2018, in a move aimed to cut imports, oil companies operating in Indonesia were ordered to sell their crude oil to state-owned [[Pertamina]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Economic nationalism is back in Indonesia as election approaches|publisher=The Straits Times|date=17 September 2018|access-date=18 September 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=18 September 2018}}</ref> A ban was also enforced on the exports of raw nickel ore, intended to help promote the development of local nickel-related industries such as smelters and battery factories.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's Nickel Ban Shows Resource Nationalism on the March|publisher=Bloomberg|author=Listiyorini, Eko|date=2 September 2019|access-date=15 February 2021|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=21 August 2020}}</ref>
Infrastructure development has been a significant feature of the Jokowi administration, focusing on road and railway expansion, seaports and airports development, and irrigation. In 2016, the state budget allocated Rp 290 trillion (US$22 billion) for infrastructure, the biggest in Indonesian history.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi policy attracts infrastructure-based mutual funds|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Amindoni, Ayomi|date=23 March 2016|access-date=18 April 2016|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=10 April 2016}}</ref> In total, his administration planned 265 infrastructure projects starting in 2016.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia Needs $157 Billion for Infrastructure Plan|publisher=Bloomberg|author=Salna, Kalris|date=26 January 2018|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=26 January 2018}}</ref> In September 2015, Indonesia awarded a $5.5 billion high-speed rail project to China,<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia to award fast train contract to China – Japanese embassy official|publisher=Reuters|author=Kapoor, Kanupriya|date=29 September 2015|access-date=1 October 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=2 October 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia awards multi-billion-dollar railway project to China over Japan|publisher=ABC News Australia|date=30 September 2015|access-date=1 October 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 October 2015}}</ref> to Japan's disappointment, which is also vying for the project.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Japan cries foul after Indonesia awards rail contract to China|publisher=Financial Times|date=1 October 2015|access-date=1 October 2015}}</ref> Indonesia's transportation ministry laid out a litany of shortcomings in plans for the project, casting doubt on the project and spotlighting Jokowi's limits in turning mega-projects into reality as he tries to draw foreign investors.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's High-Speed Rail Plan Goes Off the Tracks|publisher=The Wall Street Journal|author=Otto, Ben; Anita Rachman|date=3 February 2016|access-date=13 June 2016|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=4 February 2016}}</ref> Other significant projects include the completion of the 4,325-kilometer [[Trans Papua]] road and the [[Trans-Java Toll Road]],<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Rough road ahead for powder keg Papua|publisher=Asia Times|author=McBeth, John|date=2 October 2017|access-date=18 July 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi optimistic Trans Java toll road fully completed in 2019|publisher=Antara|date=23 June 2018|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=23 June 2018}}</ref> initial construction of the [[Trans-Sulawesi Railway]]<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Kereta Api Trans Sulawesi Beroperasi April 2018|publisher=Okezone|language=id|date=7 March 2017|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=7 March 2017}}</ref> and the [[Trans-Sumatra Toll Road]],<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Groundbreaking Trans-Sumatra Toll Road; Infrastructure Projects Indonesia|publisher=Indonesia Investments|date=30 April 2015|access-date=27 September 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=21 July 2015}}</ref> a US$50 billion plan to develop the maritime sector including 24 "strategic ports",<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia sneaks up on Singapore with flurry of port projects|publisher=Nikkei Asia|author=Maulia, Erwida|date=14 June 2018|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=14 June 2018}}</ref> and expansion of airport capacity in remote areas.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Seeks Investors for Indonesia's Airports to Curb Deficit|publisher=Bloomberg|author=Dahrul, Fathiya; Rahadiana, Rieka|date=10 November 2016|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=14 November 2016}}</ref> The ports' development and modernisation program, dubbed the "Sea Toll Road" program, was aimed to reduce price inequality between the better developed western parts of the country and the less populated eastern parts.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=New Chief Maritime Minister to Speed up Sea Toll Road Program|publisher=Jakarta Globe|author=Almanar, Alin|date=28 July 2016|access-date=3 January 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=18 June 2017}}</ref>
In addition to the major projects, the Jokowi administration also implemented a village fund program in which villages across the country received funding to allocate on basic infrastructures such as roads and water supply, tourism development and village enterprises to improve rural economies.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia Tries Rural Development|publisher=Asia Sentinel|author=Rakhmat, Muhammad Zulfikar; Tarahita, Dikanaya|date=21 March 2018|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=24 September 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=New village scheme risks quality|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Aisyah, Rachmadea|date=15 December 2017|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=18 July 2018}}</ref> The initial campaign promise was that IDR 1.4 billion (around US$100,000) would be allocated for every village annually,<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=PILPRES 2014 : 9 Program Nyata, Jokowi Janji Naikkan Kesejahteraan PNS|publisher=Solo Pos|language=id|author=Anwar, Akhirul|date=3 July 2014|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=18 December 2019}}</ref> though as of 2019, less than a billion was allocated.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Dana Desa Meningkat, Tiap Desa Rata-Rata Dapat Rp960 Juta Tahun Ini||language=id|author=Miftahul Jannah, Selfie|date=15 January 2020|access-date=18 May 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=2 August 2020}}</ref> Between 2015 and 2018, IDR 187 trillion (US$14 billion) had been reallocated through the program.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Kucurkan Rp 187 Triliun untuk Program Dana Desa|publisher=detik|language=id|author=Kusuma, Hendra|date=14 May 2018|access-date=18 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=18 July 2018}}</ref> The administration has targeted to streamline land certification across the country, aiming to distribute certificates of land ownership across the country completely. It involved increasing the issuing rate of certificates from around 500,000 to several million annually.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesian president hands over land certificates in Papua|publisher=Radio New Zealand|date=12 April 2018|access-date=31 July 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Government to complete land certificate distribution by 2025: Jokowi|publisher=Antara News|date=29 December 2017|access-date=31 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=28 December 2017}}</ref> In 2016, the administration signed into law a [[tax amnesty]] bill following a lengthy public debate and push back, giving wealthy Indonesians a chance to declare their unreported assets before the government would strengthen rules and oversight around imports and exports. It became the most successful program of its kind in history, with over IDR 4,865 trillion (approximately US$366 billion) of previously unreported assets declared to the tax office.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Late rush to join Indonesia tax amnesty after $360 billion declared|publisher=Reuters|author=Setiaji, Hidayat|date=31 March 2017|access-date=9 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=9 October 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Tax Amnesty Program Indonesia Ended, What Are the Results?|publisher=Indonesia Investments|date=3 April 2017|access-date=22 April 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 April 2017}}</ref>
The opposition criticised the aggressive spending on infrastructure as it increased Indonesia's national debt by 48% between 2014 and March 2018 to US$181 billion. They also pointed out that most of the debt was allocated for remunerations rather than infrastructure development.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Faisal Basri: RI Utang Banyak Bukan untuk Infrastruktur|publisher=Kumparan|language=id|date=3 April 2018|access-date=20 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 March 2021}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Gerindra: Ternyata Utang Lebih Banyak Untuk Gaji Pegawai, Bukan Infrastruktur|publisher=RMOL.ID|language=id|date=7 February 2019|access-date=14 October 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 March 2021}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's government debt ahead of 2019 presidential election: a real economic concern?|publisher=The Conversation|author=Soesmanto, Tommy; Tjoe, Yenny|date=28 June 2018|access-date=3 January 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=28 June 2018}}</ref> In April 2018, Jokowi also issued a new policy that allows foreign workers in Indonesia without Indonesian language skills requirement,<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Minta Syarat Bisa Bahasa Indonesia untuk Pekerja Asing Dihapus|publisher=detik|language=id|author=Ratya, Mega Putra|date=21 August 2015|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 March 2021}}</ref> reasoning that it would increase investments.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=New regulation on foreign workers part of administrative reform: Jokowi|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Hermansyah, Anton|date=25 April 2018|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=27 April 2018}}</ref> The policy faced significant opposition from local labour unions, who claimed that the policy would increase unemployment rates.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Opposition questions Jokowi's policy on foreign workers|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Ompusunggu, Moses|date=20 April 2018|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=20 April 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Aturan Pekerja Asing Dilonggarkan, Jumlah TKA Tahun Ini Ditaksir Naik 20%|publisher=Bisnis|author=Petriella, Yanita|date=12 September 2019|access-date=18 May 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=13 September 2019}}</ref>
In 2020, the DPR passed the [[Omnibus Law on Job Creation]]. Though intended to boost investment and reduce [[red tape]], it is also perceived as weakening labour and environmental protections, causing a [[Indonesia omnibus law protests|series of protests]] in major cities. Jokowi defended the law by saying that it would be needed to create jobs and called for protesters to lodge a challenge instead to the [[Constitutional Court of Indonesia]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia protests against new jobs law enter second week|publisher=Reuters|author=Beo Da Costa, Agustinus|date=12 October 2020|access-date=14 October 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=12 October 2020}}</ref> The law, which revised over 70 previous laws and contained some 1,200 clauses, had been put forward by Jokowi following his 2019 re-election. Several groups had criticised the opaqueness of the government during the deliberation of the law.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's new omnibus law could make or break Jokowi's legacy|publisher=The Straits Times|author=Arshad, Arlina|date=8 October 2020|access-date=14 October 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=8 October 2020}}</ref> In the same year, Indonesia hit the lowest inflation level in history<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Inflasi Inti Terendah dalam Sejarah, Tanda Daya Beli Hancur!|publisher=CNBC Indonesia|language=id|author=Setiaji, Hidayat|date=1 December 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=1 December 2020}}</ref> and faced the first economic recession since the 1997 Asian Financial crisis.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Pandemic likely tipped Indonesia into first recession since 1998: Reuters poll|publisher=Reuters|date=3 November 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 November 2020}}</ref>
Early in his first term, the opposition coalition within the DPR attempted to revoke a regulation (''Perppu'', Government Regulation in Lieu of Acts) issued by Jokowi's predecessor, which had guaranteed the holding of direct regional elections in Indonesia (and overrode a legislator-issued bill which arranged for indirect elections).<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Batalkan Pilkada Tak Langsung, Presiden SBY Terbitkan 2 Perppu!|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Asril, Sabrina|date=2 October 2014|access-date=3 November 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 October 2014}}</ref> Jokowi supported the direct regional elections and opposed attempts to revoke the regulation, stating that "direct regional elections was, in principle, non-negotiable".<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi: Pilkada Langsung Tidak Bisa Ditawar|publisher=Berita Satu|language=id|author=Lumanauw, Novy|date=5 December 2014|access-date=3 November 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 November 2019}}</ref> Within the first three years of his administration, Jokowi issued four such ''Perppu''.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Tiga Tahun Jadi Presiden, Ini Empat Perppu yang Diteken Jokowi|publisher=Akurat|language=id|author=Ainurrahman|date=15 July 2017|access-date=3 November 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=2 August 2020}}</ref>
===Law and human rights===
{{See also|Bali Nine|Capital punishment in Indonesia}}
Judicial executions in Indonesia are carried out under a Presidential Decree following a death sentence imposed by a trial court.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Penetapan Presiden Nomor 2 Tahun 1964|journal=Pidana|date=17 April 1964|url=|access-date=23 July 2015}}</ref> Jokowi in 2015 said he would not grant [[clemency]] for drug offenders sentenced to death, arguing Indonesia was in a [[state of emergency]] over [[drug-related crime]]s, citing statistics the ''[[Jakarta Globe]]'' reported to be faulty.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi refuses to budge on clemency issue|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Ina Parlina; Margareth S. Aritonang; Severianus Endi|date=21 January 2015|access-date=6 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=23 January 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Commentary: Indonesia's Executions of Drug Convicts Based on Faulty Stats|publisher=Jakarta Globe|author=Stoicescu, Claudia|date=6 February 2015|access-date=16 July 2015|url-status=dead|archive-url=|archive-date=4 August 2015}}</ref> His stance drew criticism as it could harm relations with the native countries of the condemned convicts,<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Diplomacy doomed to fail Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran|publisher=The Australian|author=Peter Alford; Brendan Nicholson|date=5 March 2015|access-date=23 July 2015}}</ref> and also imperil Indonesians facing the death penalty abroad.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Capital punishment 'Jokowi's twin policy positions|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Gill, Sarah|date=5 March 2015|access-date=8 August 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=9 March 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's Death Penalty Hypocrisy|publisher=The Diplomat|author=Coca, Nithin|date=3 March 2015|access-date=2 April 2016|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=18 March 2015}}</ref> Australia, Brazil and the Netherlands recalled their ambassadors from Indonesia following multiple executions in 2015.<ref name="balinine">{{cite web|url=|title=Bali nine executions: Indonesia responds to Australia withdrawing ambassador|publisher=The Sydney Morning Herald|author=Topsfield, Jewel|date=29 April 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=30 April 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Brazil and the Netherlands recall ambassadors after Indonesian executions|publisher=The Sydney Morning Herald|author=Arshad, Arlina|date=19 January 2015|access-date=6 June 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=31 August 2018}}</ref> Australia reduced its foreign aid to Indonesia by nearly half,<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Federal budget 2015: Foreign aid to Indonesia cut by nearly half, Africa aid down 70 per cent|publisher=The Sydney Morning Herald|author=Whyte, Sarah|date=13 May 2015|access-date=23 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=31 August 2018}}</ref> and [[Amnesty International]] issued a condemnation saying they showed a "complete disregard for due process and human rights safeguards".<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia executes drug smugglers by firing squad|publisher=Al Jazeera|date=29 April 2015|access-date=16 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=24 November 2020}}</ref> Former [[Constitutional Court of Indonesia|Indonesian Constitutional Court]] chief justice [[Jimly Asshiddiqie]], who was a key player in the anti-death penalty lobby in Jakarta, said the push for the execution of Australians [[Myuran Sukumaran]] and [[Andrew Chan]] had come from Jokowi personally.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Schapelle Corby made it harder to save Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran|publisher=The Sydney Morning Herald|author=Bachelar, Michael|date=12 August 2015|access-date=12 August 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=12 August 2015}}</ref> ''[[The Sydney Morning Herald]]'' reported that Jokowi did not have or read related documents when he refused their clemency requests.<ref name="documents">{{cite web|url=|title=Bali nine executions: Indonesia's President did not have all the documents when he refused clemency|publisher=The Sydney Morning Herald|author=Allard, Tom; Topsfield, Jewel|date=19 February 2015|access-date=16 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=20 February 2015}}</ref> In the same year, Jokowi granted Frenchman Serge Atlaoui and [[Filipinos|Filipino]] [[Mary Jane Veloso]] temporary reprieves due to pending legal appeals.<ref name="documents"/> As of 2017, around 260 people remain on death row in Indonesia.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Republic of Indonesia (Indonesia)|publisher=Cornell Law School|author=|date=1 October 2013|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=25 February 2021}}</ref>
Regarding terrorism, Jokowi's administration in early 2016 proposed replacing the 2003 anti-terrorism law. Following the 2018 [[Surabaya bombings]], the worst terrorist attack on Indonesian soil since the [[2002 Bali bombings]], the controversial bill passed, allowing the [[Indonesian National Armed Forces]] to participate in [[counter-terrorism]] activities upon police request and presidential approval.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia toughens up anti-terror laws days after worst attack in years|publisher=Reuters|author=Diela, Tabita|date=25 May 2018|access-date=31 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=25 May 2018}}</ref> It also allowed extended detention of terror suspects and permitted wiretapping without initial court approval.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's anti-terror Bill to extend detention|publisher=The Straits Times|author=Soeriaatmadja, Wahyudi|date=25 May 2018|access-date=12 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=27 May 2018}}</ref> Jokowi had threatened to issue a presidential regulation in lieu of law (''perppu'') if the bill did not pass the parliament by June that year.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jika pada Juni RUU Antiterorisme Belum Selesai, Jokowi Terbitkan Perppu|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Ihsanuddin|date=14 May 2018|access-date=31 July 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=31 July 2018}}</ref>
During Jokowi's administration, there have been numerous instances where people were arrested or reported to police for activities deemed insulting to the president.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=9 Kasus Penghinaan Presiden Jokowi Berujung Bui|publisher=Liputan6|language=id|author=Aridha, Apriana Nurul|date=21 August 2017|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=30 March 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=11 Orang ini Ditahan karena Hina/Fitnah Jokowi?|publisher=Kompasiana|language=id|date=24 March 2019|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=dead|archive-url=|archive-date=5 November 2019}}</ref> Rights activists deem such arrests as a violation of the [[Constitution of Indonesia|Constitution]]'s guarantee of freedom of speech.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Pasal Penghinaan Presiden pada RKUHP Dianggap Bersifat Kolonial dan Tak Demokratis|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Erdianto, Kristian|date=28 August 2019|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=28 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Pasal Penghinaan Presiden Warisan Kolonial, Dibatalkan MK dan Langgar UUD|publisher=detik|language=id|author=Kami, Indah Mutiara|date=7 August 2015|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 August 2020}}</ref> A group claiming to be Jokowi's supporters reported [[Tempo (Indonesian magazine)|''Tempo'']] magazine to police over a caricature of Jokowi as [[Pinocchio]],<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Kontroversi Cover Tempo: Saat Kritik Lewat Karya Dinilai Menghina||language=id|author=Prabowo, Haris|date=18 September 2019|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=25 December 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=PDIP Tak Terima Sampul Majalah Tempo Sandingkan Jokowi dan Pinokio||language=id|author=Septianto, Bayu|date=16 September 2019|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=2 August 2020}}</ref> after which the Presidential Palace issued a statement saying "the President respected freedom of press and speech".<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Cover Majalah Tempo, Istana: Presiden Hormati Kebebasan Pers|publisher=Tempo|language=id|author=Sani, Ahmad Faiz Ibnu|date=26 September 2019|access-date=18 May 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=27 September 2019}}</ref> A book about Jokowi titled ''Jokowi Undercover'' was banned upon release and its author sentenced to three years in prison<ref>{{cite web|url=|title='Jokowi Undercover' author sentenced to three years in prison|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Suherdjoko|date=29 May 2017|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=29 May 2017}}</ref> and buyers of the book being advised to surrender their copies to the authorities.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Buyers urged to hand over copies of 'Jokowi Undercover' to authorities|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Aritonang, Margareth S.|date=6 January 2017|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=7 January 2017}}</ref> ''Tempo'' magazine described the 436-page book as "trashy and tasteless, a compilation of hoax reports on President Joko Widodo, scattered across the internet and cyber chatrooms".<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Much Ado over a Nothing Book|publisher=Tempo|date=13 January 2017|access-date=3 March 2021}}</ref> The government's plans to resurrect a Dutch colonial law that would permit imprisonment for insulting the president [[2019 Indonesian protests and riots|resulted in widespread protests]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Thousands protest against new criminal code in Indonesia|work=The Guardian|author=Lamb, Kate|date=24 September 2019|access-date=17 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=24 September 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Perjalanan Kasus Remaja yang Ancam Tembak Jokowi, Tak Ditahan dan Dikembalikan ke Orangtuanya|publisher=Tribunnews|language=id|date=15 May 2019|access-date=9 October 2019}}</ref> A Law Firm and Public Interest Law Office (AMAR) institution later reported following the protests that they received many complaints of students regarding threats and sanctions of expulsion or suspension from their schools and universities.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Pembungkaman ala Forum Rektor dan Jokowi: Larang Mahasiswa Demo||language=id|author=Briantika, Adi|date=5 October 2019|access-date=18 May 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=2 August 2020}}</ref> In addition, a remission granted to a journalist's murderer was revoked following media criticism.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=AJI Denpasar lambasts Jokowi for granting remission to journalist's murderer|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Erviani, Ni Komang|date=22 January 2019|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=20 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Presiden Jokowi Batalkan Remisi untuk Pembunuh Wartawan|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Kuwado, Fabian Januarius|date=9 February 2019|access-date=9 October 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=9 February 2019}}</ref>
[[File:Tolak Omnibus Law.jpg|thumb|Since 2019, [[Indonesia omnibus law protests#See also|a series of mass protests and civil unrests]] were held across the country against some controversial policies.]]
In response to major protests, Jokowi's administration has generated some controversies. On 22 May 2019, amid post-election riots by supporters of losing presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto, the government limited the speed at which photos and videos could be shared on social media to stop people from being incited by fake news and calls for violence.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jakarta riot: Government temporarily limits access to social media, messaging apps|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Tehusijarana, Karina M.; Valentina, Jessicha|date=22 May 2019|access-date=3 March 2021|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=24 May 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia curbs social media, blaming hoaxes for inflaming unrest|publisher=Reuters|author=Potkin, Fanny|date=22 May 2019|access-date=3 March 2021}}</ref> In the aftermath, [[Amnesty International]]'s Indonesian office denounced repressive measures against the demonstrators, condemned them as a grave human rights abuse and demanded the government investigate the extrajudicial executions in the clashes.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia: Open letter on torture or other ill-treatment by the police in the mass protest following the election result announcement of 21–23 May 2019 |publisher=Amnesty International|date=25 June 2019|access-date=9 October 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Is Indonesia Losing Its War on Corruption Under Jokowi?|publisher=The Diplomat|author=Cook, Erin|date=20 September 2019|access-date=20 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=20 September 2019}}</ref> In August and September 2019, the government blocked internet access in Papua and West Papua provinces amid [[2019 Papua protests|violent protests]] against racism. Jakarta State Administrative Court in 2020 ruled the internet blocks in Papua illegal.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Internet ban during Papua antiracist unrest ruled unlawful|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Fiqih Prawira Adjie, Moch.|date=3 June 2020|access-date=3 March 2021|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 June 2020}}</ref>
In 2017, Jokowi supported a controversial bill on mass organisations, which upon passing resulted in the disbandment of the Indonesian branch of [[Hizb ut-Tahrir]]. He argued the law was necessary to defend the national ideology, [[Pancasila (politics)|Pancasila]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Tegaskan UU Ormas untuk Lindungi Pancasila|publisher=CNN Indonesia|language=id|author=Stefanie, Christie|date=26 October 2017|access-date=27 September 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=26 October 2017}}</ref> The 2020 banning of the [[Islamic Defenders Front]] (FPI) was also based on that law.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=FPI Dilarang, Pakar Hukum Kritik UU Ormas yang Khas Orde Baru|publisher=Tempo|language=id|author=Nurita, Dewi|date=30 December 2020|access-date=5 March 2021|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=31 December 2020}}</ref> Twenty-three days' earlier, police had shot dead six FPI members during a confrontation.<ref name="6supporter">{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia police kill six suspected supporters of hardline leader|publisher=Al Jazeera|date=7 December 2020|access-date=10 January 2021|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=7 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Tewasnya Enam Orang Pendukung FPI Diminta Diusut Tanpa Menimbulkan Lebih Banyak Konflik|publisher=ABC News Australia|language=id|author=Renaldi, Erwin|date=10 December 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=4 March 2021}}</ref> The president's subsequent [[Qualified immunity|defence of the police]] during their duty and his statement that no citizens should break the law or harm the country<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Buka Suara soal Tewasnya Laskar FPI: Hukum Harus Ditegakkan||language=id|author=Syambudi, Irwan|date=13 December 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=13 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Soal Tewasnya 6 Laskar FPI, Ini Tanggapan Jokowi|publisher=Republika|language=id|author=Candra, Sapto Andika|date=13 December 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=15 December 2020}}</ref> was criticised by FPI Secretary-General Munarman as a justification of human rights abuse and [[structural violence]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=FPI Kecam Pernyataan Jokowi Soal Tewasnya 6 Pengawal Habib Rizieq|publisher=Suara Merdeka|language=id|date=15 December 2020|access-date=24 December 2020}}</ref> A police chief involved in the car chase and subsequent murder claimed that the members were armed.<ref name="6supporter"/> After the passing of several controversial bills and repressive crackdowns from security officers on major protests since 2019,<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Expert Deems Law Revisions as a Return of the New Order|publisher=Tempo|author=Putri, Budiarti Utami|date=19 September 2019|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=20 September 2019}}</ref> his presidency has been criticised for "Neo-Authoritarianism".<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi in Indonesia's 'Neo-New Order'|publisher=East Asia Forum|author=Lindsey, Tim|date=7 November 2017|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=7 November 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Akademisi Unair: Era Jokowi Menunjukan Neo Otoritarianisme||language=id|date=10 December 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=10 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=LP3ES Sebut Indonesia Penuhi Empat Kriteria Negara Otoriter|publisher=CNN Indonesia|language=id|date=14 June 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=9 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=How not to reform Indonesia|newspaper=The Economist|author=Banyan|date=15 October 2020|access-date=20 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=18 October 2020}}</ref> ''South China Morning Post'' even named him a 'Little [[Suharto]]'<ref name="little">{{cite web|url=|title='Little Suharto'? Indonesian leader Widodo's places Twitter personalities, allies in key posts, sparking backlash |publisher=South China Morning Post|author=Yuniar, Resty Woro|date=10 November 2020|access-date=10 November 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=10 November 2020}}</ref>
A premium price hike of public health care [[BPJS Kesehatan]] through Executive Order (''Perpres'') 64/2020 was criticised as a flagrant breach of permanent [[Supreme Court of Indonesia|Supreme Court]] (''Mahkamah Agung'') decision<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Putusan MA Batalkan Kenaikan Iuran BPJS Tidak Bisa Diganggu Gugat|publisher=Merdeka|language=id|date=9 March 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=10 March 2020}}</ref> that nullified the Perpres 82/2018 about the price hike. The ''Perpres'' 64/2020 itself was signed amid the COVID-19 pandemic that had caused hardship among the population.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=BPJS Kesehatan Naik di Tengah Pandemi|publisher=Merdeka|language=id|date=15 May 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=15 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Iuran BPJS Kesehatan Naik, Demokrat Sebut Jokowi Permainkan Putusan MA|publisher=Merdeka|language=id|date=14 May 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=19 May 2020}}</ref> His former Deputy Mayor of Surakarta, [[F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo]], also voiced similar concerns.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=BPJS Naik, Walkot Solo Anggap Jokowi Sengsarakan Rakyat|publisher=CNN Indonesia|language=id|date=14 May 2020|access-date=24 December 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=15 May 2020}}</ref>
Jokowi's presidency coincided with the 50th anniversary of the [[Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66]] in 2015. A government-supported symposium to resolve human rights violations surrounding the event was held in 2016, but Jokowi said his government would not apologise to the victims of the mass purge.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Rules Out Apology to Defunct Communist Party for 1965 |publisher=Jakarta Globe|author=Wardi, Robertus; Prasetyo, Eko|date=28 June 2016|access-date=3 January 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=3 January 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=There Were No Apologies at Indonesia's First Hearing Into the Savage Killings of 1965|publisher=Time|author=Kwok, Yenny|date=19 April 2016|access-date=3 January 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=20 April 2016}}</ref> On [[LGBT rights]], Jokowi stated that "there should be no discrimination against anyone", but added that "in terms of our beliefs, [the LGBT lifestyle] isn't allowed, Islam does not allow it."<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's President Finally Speaks Out Against Worsening Anti-LGBT Discrimination|publisher=Time|author=Parmar, Tekendra|date=20 October 2016|access-date=3 January 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=12 November 2016}}</ref> Under his presidency, the controversial [[transmigration program]] was cut once more, when in 2015, it was decided to end the migration program to the Papuan provinces.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi Hentikan Transmigrasi ke Papua|publisher=Kompas|language=id|author=Asril, Sabrina|date=4 June 2015|access-date=20 August 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=7 June 2015}}</ref>
===Foreign policy===
{{See also|List of international presidential trips made by Joko Widodo}}
[[File:С Президентом Республики Индонезии Джоко Видодо.jpg|thumb|Joko Widodo and Russian President [[Vladimir Putin]], 20 May 2016]]
[[File:Jokowi Salman 2017 crop.jpg|thumb|Joko Widodo and [[Salman of Saudi Arabia]], 1 March 2017]]
[[File:Joko Widodo and Muhyiddin Yassin.jpg|thumb|Joko Widodo and [[Prime Minister of Malaysia]] [[Muhyiddin Yassin]] in [[Istana Merdeka]], 5 February 2021]]
Before Jokowi's election, Indonesia's foreign policy under former President SBY was moulded by the mission statement, "A thousand friends and zero enemies".<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's New Foreign Policy – 'Thousand friends- zero enemy'|publisher=Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis|author=Puspitasari, Irfa|date=23 August 2010|access-date=25 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=26 August 2010}}</ref> Jokowi has mandated a three-pronged policy of maintaining Indonesia's sovereignty, enhancing the protection of Indonesian citizens, and intensifying economic diplomacy.<ref name="sovereignty">{{cite web|url=|title=The Trouble With Indonesia's Foreign Policy Priorities Under Jokowi|publisher=The Diplomat|author=Parameswaran, Prashanth|date=9 January 2015|access-date=25 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=14 February 2015}}</ref>
Jokowi aspires Indonesia to become a global maritime power ({{lang-id|poros maritim dunia}} or global maritime axis). He sees the sea as having an increasingly important role in Indonesia's future and that as a maritime country, Indonesia must assert itself as a force between the two oceans: the [[Indian Ocean]] and the [[Pacific Ocean]]. The five pillars of this maritime-axis doctrine are rebuilding Indonesia's maritime culture, maintaining and managing marine resources, developing maritime infrastructure and connectivity as well as developing the shipping industry and maritime tourism, inviting other nations to cooperate in the marine field and eliminate the source of conflicts at sea, and developing maritime defence forces.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi launches maritime doctrine to the world|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Witular, Rendi A.|date=13 November 2014|access-date=14 April 2016|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=17 November 2014}}</ref> As part of this vision, Jokowi has adopted a tougher stance on illegal fishing.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia blows up and sinks another 81 fishing boats for poaching|publisher=The Straits Times|author=Chan, Francis|date=2 April 2017|access-date=10 October 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=2 April 2017}}</ref> He stated that Jakarta could no longer tolerate a situation where over 5,000 ships are operating illegally in its waters every day, making a mockery out of Indonesian sovereignty and resulting in annual losses of over $20 billion.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Explaining Indonesia's 'Sink The Vessels' Policy Under Jokowi|publisher=The Diplomat|author=Parameswaran, Prashanth|date=13 January 2015|access-date=18 July 2015|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=25 January 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Terapi Kejut Jokowi Bagi Pencuri Ikan Asing|publisher=Okezone|language=id|date=10 December 2014|access-date=15 April 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=13 July 2015}}</ref>
On the [[territorial disputes in the South China Sea]], particularly in the [[Natuna Islands]] where China's [[nine-dash line]] intercepts Indonesian [[Exclusive economic zone|EEZ]] claims, Jokowi stated that "there will be no compromise on sovereignty",<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=No compromise on sovereignty over Natuna Islands despite China claims: Indonesia's Jokowi|publisher=The Straits Times|date=5 November 2016|access-date=21 August 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=6 November 2016}}</ref> and renamed Indonesia's section of the waters in the [[South China Sea]] as "North Natuna Sea".<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Asserting sovereignty, Indonesia renames part of South China Sea|publisher=Reuters|author=Allard, Tom; Munthe, Bernadette Christina|date=14 July 2017|access-date=21 August 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=16 January 2021}}</ref> In June 2016, he held a cabinet meeting off the islands aboard the [[Indonesian Navy]] corvette [[KRI Imam Bonjol (383)|KRI ''Imam Bonjol'']], calling to step up maritime patrols in the area.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia president visits islands on warship, makes point to China|publisher=Reuters|author=Kapoor, Kanupriya; Jensen, Fergus|date=23 June 2016|access-date=21 August 2018|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=21 August 2018}}</ref> Under his administration, Indonesia has released an "Indo-Pacific Vision" for [[Association of Southeast Asian Nations|ASEAN]] countries, which calls for regional architecture and considers the [[Indian Ocean|Indian]] and [[Pacific Ocean]]s as a single interconnected geostrategic area.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia's Indo-Pacific vision is a call for Asean to stick together instead of picking sides|publisher=South China Morning Post|author=Laksamana, Evan A.|date=20 November 2018|access-date=3 January 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=20 November 2018}}</ref> Indonesia also entered a trilateral cooperation agreement with Malaysia and the Philippines, allowing coordinated patrols in the pirate-infested [[Sulu Sea]].<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Weatherbee |first1=Donald E. |title=Indonesia's Foreign Policy in 2016: Garuda Hovering |journal=Southeast Asian Affairs |date=2017|pages=172 |issn=0377-5437|jstor=26492600 }}</ref>
In the Muslim world, Jokowi released a statement calling for the [[Muslim world|Muslim]] leaders at the [[Organisation of Islamic Cooperation]] summit meeting in [[Jakarta]] to unite in reconciliation and push for [[State of Palestine|Palestinian]] independence.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi calls for unity for reconciliation in Palestine|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author=Yosephine, Liza|date=7 March 2016|access-date=7 March 2016|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=8 March 2016}}</ref> Under Jokowi, Indonesia's Foreign Minister has visited Palestine but refused entreaties to establish bilateral diplomatic relations with Israel.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia rejects Israel's latest call for bilateral relations|publisher=The Jakarta Post|date=31 March 2016|access-date=18 April 2016|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=2 April 2016}}</ref> An [[honorary consul]] was established in [[Ramallah]] in the [[West Bank]] though it had to be inaugurated in [[Amman]], [[Jordan]].{{sfn|Weatherbee|2017|p=173}} Jokowi also condemned the [[Rohingya persecution in Myanmar (2016–present)|persecution of Rohingya Muslims]] in [[Myanmar]] and oversaw the departure of four [[Indonesian Air Force]] transport planes with 34 tons of relief supplies for [[Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=The Latest: Indonesia sends 34 tons of aid for Rohingya|publisher=ABC News|date=12 September 2017|access-date=14 September 2017|url-status=dead|archive-url=|archive-date=22 September 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesian President Jokowi deplores violence against Rohingya|publisher=Channel News Asia|date=4 September 2017|access-date=14 September 2017|url-status=dead|archive-url=|archive-date=4 September 2017}}</ref>
===Capital relocation===
By April 2019, it was made public that Jokowi had decided in a meeting with cabinet ministers to move the [[capital of Indonesia]] away from Jakarta to a location outside [[Java]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Jokowi wants to move capital out of Java|publisher=The Jakarta Post|author= Marguerite Afra, Sapiie|date=29 April 2019|access-date=25 September 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=30 April 2019}}</ref> On 25 August 2019, it was further announced that the new capital would be located in [[Kalimantan]], between the regencies of [[North Penajam Paser]] and [[Kutai Kartanegara]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Indonesia Picks Borneo for New Capital Amid Jakarta Gridlock|publisher=Bloomberg|author=Aditya, Arys; Sipahutar, Tassia; Rahadiana, Rieka|date=26 August 2019|access-date=25 September 2019|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=27 August 2019}}</ref>
==Multilateral meetings==
Multilateral meetings of the following [[intergovernmental organization]]s are scheduled to take place during Biden's term in office.