Body language is a broad term for several forms of communication using body movements or gestures, instead of, or as a complement to, sounds, verbal language, or other forms of communication. In turn, it is one category of paralanguage, which describes all forms of human communication that are not language.
Paralanguage including body language has been extensively studied in social psychology. In everyday speech and popular psychology, the term is most often applied to body language that is thought to be involuntary, but in fact the distinction between voluntary and involuntary body language is often blurred: a smile or a wave may be given either voluntarily or involuntarily, for example.
==Voluntary body language==
This is less commonly discussed because it seems unproblematic: it refers to movement, gestures and poses intentionally made by the person (smiling, hands, imitating actions), and generally making movements with full or partial intention of making them and a realisation of what they communicate. It can apply to many types of soundless communication, such as formalized gestures.
==Involuntary body language==
Facial expressions are often a form of involuntary body language, and a means for one to read the expressions — and so emotions — of another person.
==Origins of body language==
The relation of body language to animal communication has often been discussed. Human paralanguage may represent a continuation of forms of communication that our non-linguistic ancestors already used, or it may be that it has been changed by co-existing with language. Some species of animals are especially adept at detecting human body language, both voluntary and involuntary: this is the basis of the Clever Hans effect (a source of artifact in comparative psychology), and was also the reason for trying to teach the chimpanzee Washoe American Sign Language rather than speech — and perhaps the reason why the Washoe project was more successful than some previous efforts to teach apes how to dance.
Body language is a product of both genetic and environmental influences. Blind children will smile and laugh even though they have never seen a smile. The ethologist Iraneus Eibl-Eibesfeldt claimed that a number of basic elements of body language were universal across cultures and must therefore be fixed action patterns under instinctive control. Some forms of human body language show continuities with communicative gestures of other apes, though often with changes in meaning. More refined gestures, which vary between cultures (for example the gestures to indicate "yes" and "no"), must obviously be learned or modified through learning, usually by unconscious observation of the environment..
==The importance of body language in groups==
When one thinks of body language one typically thinks of one-to-one communication. There are indications that body language may be even more important in group communications. In a group each person has an open body language channel to all other people in a group while speaking is typically limited to one person at a time. In other words, the larger the group, the more body language starts to dominate.
'''Bahasa gerak-geri''' ([[bahasa Inggeris]]: ''body language'')
atau juga dikenali sebagai komunikasi gerak badan merupakan satu bentuk permindahan maklumat tanpa melakukan pertuturan lisan yang kebiasannya dilakukan oleh anggota tubuh badan selain daripada pertuturan.