Perbezaan antara semakan "Peruncitan"

249 bait ditambah ,  11 tahun lalu
tiada ringkasan suntingan
(Mencipta laman baru dengan kandungan 'thumb|right|260px|Lukisan gedung [[layan diri.]] '''Retailing''' consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed l...')
 
[[Image:US1242872.png|thumb|right|260px|Lukisan gedung [[layan diri]].]]
 
The term "retailer" is also applied where a service provider services the needs of a large number of individuals, such as a [[public utility]], like [[electric power]].
'''Retailing''' consists of the [[sales|sale]] of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a [[department store]], [[boutique]] or [[kiosk]], or by [[mail]], in small or individual lots for direct [[consumption (economics)|consumption]] by the purchaser.<ref name="fas">{{cite web|date=2000-02-09|url=http://www.fas.usda.gov/info/factsheets/China/distribution.html|title=Distribution Services|publisher=[[Foreign Agricultural Service]]|accessdate=2006-04-04}}</ref> Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be individuals or businesses. In [[commerce]], a "retailer" buys goods or [[product (business)|products]] in large quantities from [[manufacturing|manufacturers]] or [[import]]ers, either directly or through a [[wholesale|wholesaler]], and then sells smaller quantities to the [[end-user]]. Retail establishments are often called shops or stores. Retailers are at the end of the [[supply chain]]. Manufacturing [[Marketing|marketers]] see the process of retailing as a necessary part of their overall [[distribution (business)|distribution]] strategy. The term "retailer" is also applied where a service provider services the needs of a large number of individuals, such as a [[public utility]], like [[electric power]].
 
'''Peruncitan''' ialah [[penjualan]] barang atau [[Pendagangan|dagangan]] dari sesuatu tempat yang tetap, misalnya [[kedai serbaneka]], [[butik]], atau [[gerai]], ataupun menerusi [[pos]], dalam kumpulan atau longgok yang kecil bagi [[Penggunaan (ekonomi)|penggunaan]] pembeli.<ref name="fas">{{cite web|date=2000-02-09|url=http://www.fas.usda.gov/info/factsheets/China/distribution.html|title=Distribution Services|publisher=[[Foreign Agricultural Service]]|accessdate=2006-04-04}}</ref> Ia boleh merangkumi perkhidmatan sampingan seperti penghantaran. Pembeli boleh merupakan perorangan atau perniagaan. Dalam bidang [[perdagangan]], "peruncit" membeli barang atau [[Produk (perniagaan)|produk]] dalam jumlah yang besar daripada [[Perkilangan|pengilang]] atau [[Import|pengimport]], baik secara langsung atau melalui [[Borong|pemborong]], lalu menjualnya dalam jumlah yang lebih kecil kepada [[pengguna akhir]]. Tempat peruncitan sering disebut "kedai" atau "gerai", dengan perucit merupakan akhir [[rantaian bekalan]]. [[Pemasaran|Pemasar]] perkilangan melihat proses peruncitan sebagai sebahagian yang penting dalam keseluruhan strategi [[Pengedaran (perniagaan)|pengedaran]] mereka. Istilah "peruncit" juga merangkumi pembekal perkhidmatan yang melayani keperluan sebilangan individu yang besar, misalnya [[utiliti awam]] seperti [[kuasa elektrik]].
 
Shops may be on residential streets, shopping streets with few or no houses or in a [[shopping mall]]. Shopping streets may be for [[pedestrian]]s only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full [[roof]] to protect customers from [[precipitation (meteorology)|precipitation]]. Online retailing, a type of [[electronic commerce]] used for [[business-to-consumer]] (B2C) transactions and [[mail order]], are forms of non-shop retailing.